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Colloids
(Dr.) Mirza Salman Baig
Assistant Professor (Pharmaceutics)
AIKTC, School of Pharmacy,New Panvel
Affiliated to University of Mumbai (INDIA)
Dispersed Systems:
• Dispersed systems consist of particulate matter (dispersed
phase), distributed throughout a continuous phase
(dispersion medium).
• They are classified according to the particle diameter of the
dispersed material:
1- Molecular dispersions (less than 1 nm)
- Particles invisible in electron microscope
- Pass through semipermeable membranes and filter paper
- Particles do not settle down on standing
- Undergo rapid diffusion
- E.g. ordinary ions, glucose
Dispersed Systems:
2- Colloidal dispersions (1 nm - o.5 um)
- Particles not resolved by ordinary microscope, can be
detected by electron microscope.
- Pass through filter paper but not pass through
semipermeable membrane.
- Particles made to settle by centrifugation
- Diffuse very slowly
- E.g. colloidal silver sols, naural and synthetic polymers
3- Coarse dispersions (> 0.5 um)
- Particles are visible under ordinary microscope
- Do not pass through filter paper or semipermeable
membrane.
- Particles settle down under gravity
- Do not diffuse
- E.g. emulsions, suspensions, red blood cells
Classification based on size
Class Size Example
Molecular dispersion <1nm glucose solution
Colloidal dispersion 1nm to 500nm
gold sol, acacia
mucilage, milk
Coarse dispersion >500nm
pharmaceutical
suspension
Size and shape of colloids:
• Particles lying in the colloidal size have large
surface area when compared with the surface area
of an equal volume of larger particles.
• Specific surface: the surface area per unit weight or
volume of material.
• The possession of large specific surface results in:
1- platinium is effective as catalyst only when found in colloidal
form due to large surface area which adsorb reactant on their
surface.
2- The colour of colloidal dispersion is related to the size of the
paticles
e.g. red gold sol takes a blue colour when the particles increase
in size
Size and shape of colloids:
- The shape of colloidal particles in dispersion is
important:
- The more extended the particle the greater its
specific surface the greater the attractive force
between the particles of the dispersed phase and the
dispersion medium.
• Flow, sedimentation and osmotic pressure of the
colloidal system affected by the shape of colloidal
particles.
• Particle shape may also influence the pharmacologic
action.
Different shapes of
colloids
Purification of colloidal
solutions:
• When a colloidal solution is prepared is often
contains certain electrolytes which tend to
destabilize it. The following methods are used for
purification:
1- Dialysis:
- Semipermeable cellophane
membrane prevent the
passage of colloidal particles,
yet allow the passage of
small molecules or electrolytes.
Purification of colloidal
solutions:
2- Electrodialysis:
- In the dialysis unit, the movement of ions across
the membrane can be speeded up by applying an
electric current through the electrodes induced in
the solution.
- The most important use of dialysis is the
purification of blood in artificial kidney machines.
- The dialysis membrane allows small particles
(ions) to pass through but the colloidal size
particles (haemoglobin) do not pass through the
membrane.
Electrodialysis:
Applications of colloidal
solutions:
1- Therapy--- Colloidal system are used as
therapeutic agents in different areas.
e.g- Silver colloid-germicidal
Copper colloid-anticancer
Mercury colloid-Antisyphilis
2- Stability---e.g. lyophobic colloids prevent
flocculation in suspensions.
e.g- Colloidal dispersion of gelatin is used in
coating over tablets and granules which upon
drying leaves a uniform dry film over them and
protect them from adverse conditions of the
atmosphere.
Applications of colloidal
solutions:
4- Absorption--- As colloidal dimensions are small
enough, they have a huge surface area. Hence,
the drug constituted colloidal form is released
in large amount.
5-Targeted Drug Delivery--- Liposomes are of
colloidal dimensions and are preferentially
taken up by the liver and spleen.
Applications of colloidal
solutions:
6- Clotting of blood:
- Blood is a colloidal solution and is negatively
charged.
- On applying a solution of Fecl3 bleeding stops and
blood clotting occurs as Fe+3 ions neutralize the
ion charges on the colloidal particles.
Types of colloids on basis of phases
1- The original states of their constituent parts
Types of colloids:
2-The nature of interaction between dispersed phase
and dispersion medium.
A-Lyophilic colloids (solvent loving) – The
particles in a lyophilic system have a great affinity
for the solvent.
• If water is the dispersing medium, it is often known
as a hydrosol or hydrophilic.
• Readily solvated (combined chemically or
physically, with the solvent) and dispersed, even at
high concentrations.
• Solvation is attachment of solvent molecules to
dispersed phase.
Types of colloids:
• Examples of lyophilic sols include sols of gum, gelatin, starch,
proteins and certain polymers (rubber) in organic solvents.
• The dispersed phase does not precipitate easily
• The sols are quite stable as the solute particle surrounded by
two stability factors:
– a- negative or positive charge
– b- layer of solvent (solvent sheath present)
• If the dispersion medium is separated from the dispersed
phase, the sol can be reconstituted by simply remixing with
the dispersion medium. Hence, these sols are called reversible
sols.
• Prepared simply by dissolving the material in the solvent being
used e.g. dissolution of acacia in water.
Types of colloids:
B-lyophobic (solvent hating) - The particles resist solvation
and dispersion in the solvent.
- The concentration of particles is usually relatively low.
- Less viscid (sticky)
- These colloids are easily precipitated on the addition of
small amounts of electrolytes, by heating or by shaking
- Less stable as the particles surrounded only with a layer of
positive or negative charge
- Once precipitated, it is not easy to reconstitute the sol by
simple mixing with the dispersion medium. Hence, these sols
are called irreversible sols.
- Solvent sheath absent
- Examples of lyophobic sols include sols of metals and their
insoluble compounds like sulphides and oxides.
e.g. gold in water
Types of colloids:
C-Association colloids
Types of colloids:
Critical micelle concentration (C.M.C) : the
concentration at which micelle form
- The phenomenon of micelle formation can be
explained:
1- below C.M.C: amphiphiles are adsorbed at the
air/water interface
2- As amphiphile concentration is raised: both the
interphase and bulk phase become saturated
with monomers (C.M.C)
3- any further amphiphile added in excess:
amphiphiles aggregate to form micelles
Association colloids
Types of colloids:
C-Association colloids
- In water: the hydrocarbon chains face inwards
into the micelle forming hydrocarbon core and
surrounded by the polar portions of the
amphiphile associated with water molecules.
- In non-polar liquid: the polar heads facing
inward and the hydrocarbon chains are
associated with non-polar liquid.
- At concentrations close to C.M.C spherical
micelles
- At higher concentrations lamellar
micelles
Comparison of colloidal sols
Lyophilic Associated Lyophobic
Dispersed phase
(large organic mole.
With colloidal size)
Dispersed phase
(micelles of organic
molec. Or ion –size
below the colloidal
range)
Dispersed phase
(Inorganic particles
as gold)
Molec. of dispersed
phase are solvated
Formed
spontaneously
Hydrophilic and
lyophilic portion are
solvated ,
Formed at conc.
above CMC
Not formed
spontaneously
The viscosity ↑ with
↑ the dispersed
phase conc.
The viscosity ↑ with ↑
the micelles conc.
Not greatly increase
Stable dispersion in
presence of
electrolytes
CMC↓ with
electrolytes
Unstable dispersion
in presence of
electrolytes
Method of Preparations
• Dispersion
– Milling
– Peptization (deflocculation)
– Electric arc
– Ultrasonic
• Condensation
– Crystallization (nucleation)
– Addition of non solvent
Collidal mill
Electric Arc
This method is employed for obtaining colloidal solutions of
metals e.g. silver, gold, platinum
ice
Dispersion medium
(Water + KOH)
Electric Arc
• An electric current is struck between two
metallic electrodes placed in a container of
water.
• The intense heat of the arc converts the metal
into vapours which condensed immediately in
the cold water bath.
• This results in the formation of particles of
colloidal size.
Sonicator
Preparation of colloids:
II. Chemical method :by oxidation
- Sulphur solution is obtained by bubbling H2S gas
through the solution of an oxidizing agent like
HNO3 or Br2 in water , according to the following
equations:
- Br2 + H2S S + 2 HBr
- HNO3 + H2S H2O + NO2 + S
Preparation of colloids:
C- Association / amphiphilic colloids
- Certain molecules termed amphiphiles or
surface active agents, characterized by two
regions of opposing solution affinities within the
same molecule.
Preparation of colloids:
- At low concentration: amphiphiles exist
separately (subcolloidal size)
- At high concentration: form aggregates or
micelles (50 or more monomers) (colloidal size)
Optical Properties of Colloids
1-Faraday-Tyndall effect
– when a strong beam of light is passed through a
colloidal sol, the path of light is illuminated (a
visible cone formed).
- This phenomenon resulting from the scattering of
light by the colloidal particles.
Optical Properties of Colloids
2- Electron microscope
- Electron microscope is capable of yielding
pictures of actual particles size, shape and
structure of colloidal particles.
- Electron microscope has high resolving power, as
its radiation source is a beam of high energy
electrons, while that of optical microscope is
visible light.
- Resolving power is the smallest distance (d) by
which two objects are separated and yet remain
distinguishable.
- Smaller the wave length smaller will be the
distance (d)
- The beam of electron have wavelength 0.01 nm
hence it can measure d upto 0.5 nm (5 Å)
Electron Microscope
SEM
Optical Properties of Colloids
3- Light Scattering
l depend on tyndall effect.
l used to give information about particle size and shape and
for determination of molecular weight of colloids.
l Used to study proteins, association colloids and lyophobic sols.
l Scattering described in terms of turbidity, T
l Turbidity: the fractional decrease in intensity due to
scattering as the incident light passes through 1 cm of
solution.
l Turbidity is proportional to the molecular weight of
lyophilic colloid
l T= Intensity of scatterd light (Is) / Intensity of incident light (I)
Optical Properties of Colloids
3- Light Scattering
Hc / T = 2Bc + 1/M
T: turbidity
C: conc of solute in gm / cc of solution
M: molecular weight
B: interaction constant
H: constant for a particular system
• Plot between
Hc/T against
concentration
result in straight
line with slope
of 2B.
• Intercept on
Hc/T axis give
1/M
Optical Properties of Colloids
3- Light Scattering
(Turbidity)
Optical Properties of Colloids
3- Light Scattering
(Turbidity)
• If molecule / particle is asymetric the
intensity of scatterd light varies with
angle of observation
• This data can help to estimate shape
and size of particles
• Quasielastic light scattering
technique allowed examination of
heparin in aggregates in commercial
prepration stored at various periods
Light scattering and Micelle
mol wt
• Turbidity of surfactant solution depend on
• Amphiphile Monomer
• Amphiphile Aggregate (Micelle)
• CTotal= Cmonomer + Cmicelle
• Cmicelle = C- Cmonomer
• Tmicelle = T- Tmonomer
• Above CMC concentration of monomer
remain constant
• Cmicelle = C- CCMC
• Tmicelle = T- TCMC
Kinetic Properties of Colloids
1-Brownian motion
1-Brownian motion
l The zig-zag movement of colloidal particles continuously
and randomly.
l This brownian motion arises due to the uneven
distribution of the collisions between colloid particle and
the solvent molecules.
l Brownian movement was more rapid for smaller
particles.
l Maximum particle size 0.5 µm (500nm)
l It decrease with increase the viscosity of the medium.
Kinetic Properties of Colloids
2- Diffusion
- Particles diffuse spontaneously from a region of
higher conc. To one of lower conc. Until the conc.
of the system is uniform throughout.
- Diffusion is a direct result of Brownian motion.
- Fick's first law used to describe the diffusion:
(The amount, dq , of substance diffusing in time
dt across a plane of area S is directly
proportional to the change of concentration, dc
with distance traveled, dx
- D is diffusion coefficient
dq = -DS (dc / dx) dt
Kinetic Properties of Colloids
n D is diffusion coefficient
it is the amount of the material diffused per unit
time across a unit area when dc/dx (conc.
gradient) is unity.
n The measured diffusion coeffecient can be used
to determine the radius of particles or molecular
weight.
n D can be obtained by diffusion experiments
through porous membrane
Kinetic Properties of Colloids
Sutherland & Einstine equation
or
Stokes & Einstine equation
D= RT/ 6πηrN
• D= diffusion coeff
• R= Ideal gas constant
• T= Absolute Temp
• η= Viscosity of medium
• r= radius of spherical particle
• N= Avagadro's no.
If colloidal particles assumed to be spherical above
equation can be used to find radius from diffusion
property of collidal dispersion
Kinetic Properties of Colloids
3- Osmotic pressure
Van 't hoff equation:
π= cRT
l π= osmotic pressure
l c= molar concentration of solute
l Equation can be used to determine the
molecular weight of colloid in dilute solution.
l Replacing c by cg / M (where cg = the grams
of solute / liter of solution, M = molecular
weight), B is constand which depend upon
solute / solvent interaction
π/cg = RT (1/M + Bcg)
Plot of π/cg
against cg
result in one of
the three plots
Graph
• π/cg = RT (1/M + Bcg)
• Plot of π/cg against cg result in one of
the three plots
• Plot I is ideal, Plot II and III are real
• Slope of line II and III is B, interaction
constant
• In slope III there is good solute
solvent interaction
• Where, vsed. = sedimentation velocity in cm / sec
• d = diameter of particle
• ρ s= density of disperse phase
• ρ o= density of disperse media
• g = acceleration due to gravity
• η = viscosity of dispersion medium in poise
Kinetic Properties of Colloids
4- Sedimentation
50
Stokes‘ Law
v= dx/dt = 2r2(ρ-ρo)g/9ηo
Sedimentation
• In centrifuge, acceleration due to
gravity is replaced by ω2x
• where ω is angular velocity
• x is distance of particle from centre
of rotation
• v= dx/dt = 2r2(ρ-ρo)ω2x/9ηo
• speed of rotation is expressed in rpm
Sedimentation
• Instanteneous velocity of particle is
expressed in Svedberg
sedimentation coefficient
• s= (dx/dt)/ω2x
• if particle move from x1 to at time t1
to x2 at time t2
• s= ln(x2/x1)/ω2 (t2-t1)
Sedimentation
• Sedimentation also help to know degree of
homogenity of the sample
• Sedimentation help to determine molecular wt
of polymer
• Knowing sedimentation coeff, s and diffusion data
molecular wt can be determined
• M= RT/D(1-vρo)
• M= mol wt
• T= absolute temp
• v= partial sp volume
• ρo=density of solvent
Kinetic Properties of Colloids
5- Viscosity:
- It is the resistance to flow of system under an
applied stress.
- The more viscous a liquid, the greater the applied
force required to make it flow at a particular rate.
- The viscosity of colloidal dispersion is affected by
the shape of particles of the disperse phase:
Spherocolloids --> dispersions of low viscosity
Linear particles --> more viscous dispersions
Characterstic of polymer used as plasma substitute
(dextran ) is important to study (viscosity, osmotic
pressure)
Viscosity
• Eistine developed an equation of flow
applicable to dilute collidal dispersion
• Equation is based on hydrodynamic theory
• η=ηo(1+2.5ϕ)
• ηo=viscosity of dispersion medium
• η=viscosity of dispersion system when
volume fraction of collidal particles
present is ϕ (volume conc)
• η&ηo can be determined using capilary
viscometer
Viscosity
• ηrel=η/ηo = 1+2.5ϕ
• ηsp= (η/ηo) -1 =2.5ϕ
• ηsp/ϕ = 2.5
• Because volume fraction () is directly
related to concentration
• ηsp/c = k .... where c is in gm/100ml
Viscosity
• For highly polymeric material, at different
concentration
• ηsp/c = k + k2c + k3c2
• If ηsp/c is plotted against c and
extrapolated to infinite dilution the
intercept on y axis [η]
• [η] = ηi = KMa ... Mark Houwink
equation
• [η] =intrensic viscosity
• K and a are constant to perticular polymer
system
Electric Properties Of Colloids
• The particles of a colloidal solution are
electrically charged and carry the same
type of charge, either negative or
positive.
• The colloidal particles therefore repel
each other and do not cluster together to
settle down.
• The charge on colloidal particles arises
because of the dissociation of the
molecular electrolyte on the surface.
Electrokinetic Phenomena
Electrophoresis
• Electrophoresis is the motion of charged particles
through a liquid under the influence of an applied
electric potential.
• If an electric potential is applied to a colloid, the
charged colloidal particles move toward the
oppositely charged electrode.
Electrokinetic Phenomena
Electrophoresis
• The rate of migration is observed by
using ultra-microscope and it is the
function of charge on particles
• Shear plane is located at periphery of
tightly bound layer hence rate-
determining potential is zeta-
potential
Electrokinetic Phenomena
Electrophoresis
• ζ= v/E × 4πη/ε × (9 × 104)
• ζ = zeta potential (statvolts)
• v = velocity of migration (cm/sec)
• E = Potential gradient
• v/E = Mobility
• η = viscosity of medium (poise)
• ε = dielectric constant
• If the medium is water then above
equation reduces to
• ζ≈ 141 v/E
Electrokinetic Phenomena
Electro-osmosis
• It is the opposite in principal to that of
electrophoresis.
• If the charged particles are rendered immobile,
liquid now moves relative to charged particles
• Liquid moves across porous plug or membrane
relative to solid particles
• When electrodes are placed across a porous plug
and a direct current is applied, liquid medium in the
porous plug space is transported to the oppositly
charged electrode by electro-osmosis.
• Electro-osmotic transport of liquid medium is
another method to determine zeta potential
Electro-osmosis
Electrokinetic Phenomena
Sedimentation Potential
Streaming Potential
• The sedimentation potential also called the
• Sedimentation Potential:- It is the electric
potential induced by the sedimentation of a
charged particle
• Streaming Potential:- It is the electric
potential created by forcing a liquid to flow
through a bed or plug of particles.
Sedimentation Potential
Donnan Membrane Equilibrium
• If NaCl solution is placed on one side of
semipermiable and negatively charged colloid
with irs counter ion (R- Na+) on other side, NaCl
can pass freely but not colloidal particles
• Donnan Membrane Equilibrium give ratio of
concentration of diffusible anion, outside and
inside membrane ar equilibrium
• [Cl-]o/[Cl-]i = √ {1 + [R-]i/[Cl-]i}
• It can be used to determine molecular wt of
protein involving osmotic pressure method
Instability of colloids
Stability of colloids
• Stabilization serves to prevent colloids from
aggregation.
• The presence and magnitude, or absence of a
charge on a colloidal particle is an important factor
in the stability of colloids.
• Two main mechanisms for colloid stabilization:
1-Steric stabilization i.e. surrounding each particle
with a protective solvent sheath which prevent
adherence due to Brownian movement
2-electrostatic stabilization i.e. providing the particles
with electric charge
Stability of colloids
A- Lyophobic sols:
- Unstable.
- The particles stabilized only by the presence of
electrical charges on their surfaces through the
addition of small amount of electrolytes.
- The like charges produce repulsion which prevent
coagulation of the particles and subsequent
settling.
- Addition of electrolytes beyond necessary for
maximum stability results in --> accumulation of
opposite ions and decrease zeta potential -->
coagulation precipitation of colloids.
Stability of colloids
Stability of colloids
- Coagulation also result from mixing of oppositely
charged colloids.
B- Lyophilic sols and association colloids:
- Stable
- Present as true solution
- Addition of moderate amounts of electrolytes not
cause coagulation (opposite lyophobic)
** Salting out:
Definition: agglomeration and precipitation of
lyophilic colloids.
DLVO
Stability of colloids
• This is obtained by:
1- Addition of large amounts of electrolytes
- Anions arranged in a decreasing order of
precipitating power: citrate > tartrate > sulfate >
acetate > chloride> nitrate > bromide > iodide
- The precipitation power is directly related to the
hydration of the ion and its ability to separate
water molecules from colloidal particles
2- addition of less polar solvent
- e.g. alcohol, acetone
Schulze Hardy rule
Hofmeister (lyotropic) series
• Schulze Hardy rule:- Precipitating
power of ion increases with increase
in valency or charge of ion
• Ex: Al+++>Ca++>Na+
• Hofmeister (lyotropic) series:-
Arrange anion and cation in order of
coagulation power of hydrophilic
colloid (ability to seperate water from
collidal particle)
Stability of colloids
- The addition of less polar solvent renders the
solvent mixture unfavourable for the colloids
solubility
Coacervation: The process of mixing negatively
(acacia) and positively (gelatin) charged
hydrophilic colloids, and hence the particles
separate from the dispersion to form a layer rich
in the colloidal aggregates (coacervate)
Sensitization and protective
colloidal action:
• Sensitization: the addition of small amount of
hydrophilic or hydrophobic colloid to a
hydrophobic colloid of opposite charge tend to
sensitize (coagulate) the particles.
• Polymer flocculants can bridge individual
colloidal particles by attractive electrostatic
interactions.
• For example, negatively-charged colloidal
silica particles can be flocculated by the
addition of a positively-charged polymer.
Sensitization and protective
colloidal action:
• Protection: the addition of large amount of
hydrophilic colloid (protective colloid) to a
hydrophobic colloid tend to stabilize the system.
• This may be due to:
The hydrophile is adsorbed as a monomolecular
layer on the hydrophobic particles.
Gold Number
[Important]
• Gold Number is the minimum weight
in milligrams of the protective colloid
(dry wt of dispersed phase) required
to prevent a colour change from red
to violet in 10 mL of a gold sol on
addition of 1 mL of a 10% solution of
NaCl
• Gold no. for Acacia it is 0.1 to 0.2
• Gold no. for Tracaganth it is 2

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Colloids

  • 1. Colloids (Dr.) Mirza Salman Baig Assistant Professor (Pharmaceutics) AIKTC, School of Pharmacy,New Panvel Affiliated to University of Mumbai (INDIA)
  • 2. Dispersed Systems: • Dispersed systems consist of particulate matter (dispersed phase), distributed throughout a continuous phase (dispersion medium). • They are classified according to the particle diameter of the dispersed material: 1- Molecular dispersions (less than 1 nm) - Particles invisible in electron microscope - Pass through semipermeable membranes and filter paper - Particles do not settle down on standing - Undergo rapid diffusion - E.g. ordinary ions, glucose
  • 3. Dispersed Systems: 2- Colloidal dispersions (1 nm - o.5 um) - Particles not resolved by ordinary microscope, can be detected by electron microscope. - Pass through filter paper but not pass through semipermeable membrane. - Particles made to settle by centrifugation - Diffuse very slowly - E.g. colloidal silver sols, naural and synthetic polymers 3- Coarse dispersions (> 0.5 um) - Particles are visible under ordinary microscope - Do not pass through filter paper or semipermeable membrane. - Particles settle down under gravity - Do not diffuse - E.g. emulsions, suspensions, red blood cells
  • 4. Classification based on size Class Size Example Molecular dispersion <1nm glucose solution Colloidal dispersion 1nm to 500nm gold sol, acacia mucilage, milk Coarse dispersion >500nm pharmaceutical suspension
  • 5. Size and shape of colloids: • Particles lying in the colloidal size have large surface area when compared with the surface area of an equal volume of larger particles. • Specific surface: the surface area per unit weight or volume of material. • The possession of large specific surface results in: 1- platinium is effective as catalyst only when found in colloidal form due to large surface area which adsorb reactant on their surface. 2- The colour of colloidal dispersion is related to the size of the paticles e.g. red gold sol takes a blue colour when the particles increase in size
  • 6. Size and shape of colloids: - The shape of colloidal particles in dispersion is important: - The more extended the particle the greater its specific surface the greater the attractive force between the particles of the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium. • Flow, sedimentation and osmotic pressure of the colloidal system affected by the shape of colloidal particles. • Particle shape may also influence the pharmacologic action.
  • 8. Purification of colloidal solutions: • When a colloidal solution is prepared is often contains certain electrolytes which tend to destabilize it. The following methods are used for purification: 1- Dialysis: - Semipermeable cellophane membrane prevent the passage of colloidal particles, yet allow the passage of small molecules or electrolytes.
  • 9. Purification of colloidal solutions: 2- Electrodialysis: - In the dialysis unit, the movement of ions across the membrane can be speeded up by applying an electric current through the electrodes induced in the solution. - The most important use of dialysis is the purification of blood in artificial kidney machines. - The dialysis membrane allows small particles (ions) to pass through but the colloidal size particles (haemoglobin) do not pass through the membrane.
  • 11. Applications of colloidal solutions: 1- Therapy--- Colloidal system are used as therapeutic agents in different areas. e.g- Silver colloid-germicidal Copper colloid-anticancer Mercury colloid-Antisyphilis 2- Stability---e.g. lyophobic colloids prevent flocculation in suspensions. e.g- Colloidal dispersion of gelatin is used in coating over tablets and granules which upon drying leaves a uniform dry film over them and protect them from adverse conditions of the atmosphere.
  • 12. Applications of colloidal solutions: 4- Absorption--- As colloidal dimensions are small enough, they have a huge surface area. Hence, the drug constituted colloidal form is released in large amount. 5-Targeted Drug Delivery--- Liposomes are of colloidal dimensions and are preferentially taken up by the liver and spleen.
  • 13. Applications of colloidal solutions: 6- Clotting of blood: - Blood is a colloidal solution and is negatively charged. - On applying a solution of Fecl3 bleeding stops and blood clotting occurs as Fe+3 ions neutralize the ion charges on the colloidal particles.
  • 14. Types of colloids on basis of phases 1- The original states of their constituent parts
  • 15. Types of colloids: 2-The nature of interaction between dispersed phase and dispersion medium. A-Lyophilic colloids (solvent loving) – The particles in a lyophilic system have a great affinity for the solvent. • If water is the dispersing medium, it is often known as a hydrosol or hydrophilic. • Readily solvated (combined chemically or physically, with the solvent) and dispersed, even at high concentrations. • Solvation is attachment of solvent molecules to dispersed phase.
  • 16. Types of colloids: • Examples of lyophilic sols include sols of gum, gelatin, starch, proteins and certain polymers (rubber) in organic solvents. • The dispersed phase does not precipitate easily • The sols are quite stable as the solute particle surrounded by two stability factors: – a- negative or positive charge – b- layer of solvent (solvent sheath present) • If the dispersion medium is separated from the dispersed phase, the sol can be reconstituted by simply remixing with the dispersion medium. Hence, these sols are called reversible sols. • Prepared simply by dissolving the material in the solvent being used e.g. dissolution of acacia in water.
  • 17. Types of colloids: B-lyophobic (solvent hating) - The particles resist solvation and dispersion in the solvent. - The concentration of particles is usually relatively low. - Less viscid (sticky) - These colloids are easily precipitated on the addition of small amounts of electrolytes, by heating or by shaking - Less stable as the particles surrounded only with a layer of positive or negative charge - Once precipitated, it is not easy to reconstitute the sol by simple mixing with the dispersion medium. Hence, these sols are called irreversible sols. - Solvent sheath absent - Examples of lyophobic sols include sols of metals and their insoluble compounds like sulphides and oxides. e.g. gold in water
  • 19. Types of colloids: Critical micelle concentration (C.M.C) : the concentration at which micelle form - The phenomenon of micelle formation can be explained: 1- below C.M.C: amphiphiles are adsorbed at the air/water interface 2- As amphiphile concentration is raised: both the interphase and bulk phase become saturated with monomers (C.M.C) 3- any further amphiphile added in excess: amphiphiles aggregate to form micelles
  • 21. Types of colloids: C-Association colloids - In water: the hydrocarbon chains face inwards into the micelle forming hydrocarbon core and surrounded by the polar portions of the amphiphile associated with water molecules. - In non-polar liquid: the polar heads facing inward and the hydrocarbon chains are associated with non-polar liquid. - At concentrations close to C.M.C spherical micelles - At higher concentrations lamellar micelles
  • 22.
  • 23. Comparison of colloidal sols Lyophilic Associated Lyophobic Dispersed phase (large organic mole. With colloidal size) Dispersed phase (micelles of organic molec. Or ion –size below the colloidal range) Dispersed phase (Inorganic particles as gold) Molec. of dispersed phase are solvated Formed spontaneously Hydrophilic and lyophilic portion are solvated , Formed at conc. above CMC Not formed spontaneously The viscosity ↑ with ↑ the dispersed phase conc. The viscosity ↑ with ↑ the micelles conc. Not greatly increase Stable dispersion in presence of electrolytes CMC↓ with electrolytes Unstable dispersion in presence of electrolytes
  • 24. Method of Preparations • Dispersion – Milling – Peptization (deflocculation) – Electric arc – Ultrasonic • Condensation – Crystallization (nucleation) – Addition of non solvent
  • 26. Electric Arc This method is employed for obtaining colloidal solutions of metals e.g. silver, gold, platinum ice Dispersion medium (Water + KOH)
  • 27. Electric Arc • An electric current is struck between two metallic electrodes placed in a container of water. • The intense heat of the arc converts the metal into vapours which condensed immediately in the cold water bath. • This results in the formation of particles of colloidal size.
  • 29. Preparation of colloids: II. Chemical method :by oxidation - Sulphur solution is obtained by bubbling H2S gas through the solution of an oxidizing agent like HNO3 or Br2 in water , according to the following equations: - Br2 + H2S S + 2 HBr - HNO3 + H2S H2O + NO2 + S
  • 30. Preparation of colloids: C- Association / amphiphilic colloids - Certain molecules termed amphiphiles or surface active agents, characterized by two regions of opposing solution affinities within the same molecule.
  • 31. Preparation of colloids: - At low concentration: amphiphiles exist separately (subcolloidal size) - At high concentration: form aggregates or micelles (50 or more monomers) (colloidal size)
  • 32. Optical Properties of Colloids 1-Faraday-Tyndall effect – when a strong beam of light is passed through a colloidal sol, the path of light is illuminated (a visible cone formed). - This phenomenon resulting from the scattering of light by the colloidal particles.
  • 33.
  • 34. Optical Properties of Colloids 2- Electron microscope - Electron microscope is capable of yielding pictures of actual particles size, shape and structure of colloidal particles. - Electron microscope has high resolving power, as its radiation source is a beam of high energy electrons, while that of optical microscope is visible light. - Resolving power is the smallest distance (d) by which two objects are separated and yet remain distinguishable. - Smaller the wave length smaller will be the distance (d) - The beam of electron have wavelength 0.01 nm hence it can measure d upto 0.5 nm (5 Å)
  • 36. SEM
  • 37. Optical Properties of Colloids 3- Light Scattering l depend on tyndall effect. l used to give information about particle size and shape and for determination of molecular weight of colloids. l Used to study proteins, association colloids and lyophobic sols. l Scattering described in terms of turbidity, T l Turbidity: the fractional decrease in intensity due to scattering as the incident light passes through 1 cm of solution. l Turbidity is proportional to the molecular weight of lyophilic colloid l T= Intensity of scatterd light (Is) / Intensity of incident light (I)
  • 38. Optical Properties of Colloids 3- Light Scattering Hc / T = 2Bc + 1/M T: turbidity C: conc of solute in gm / cc of solution M: molecular weight B: interaction constant H: constant for a particular system
  • 39. • Plot between Hc/T against concentration result in straight line with slope of 2B. • Intercept on Hc/T axis give 1/M Optical Properties of Colloids 3- Light Scattering (Turbidity)
  • 40. Optical Properties of Colloids 3- Light Scattering (Turbidity) • If molecule / particle is asymetric the intensity of scatterd light varies with angle of observation • This data can help to estimate shape and size of particles • Quasielastic light scattering technique allowed examination of heparin in aggregates in commercial prepration stored at various periods
  • 41. Light scattering and Micelle mol wt • Turbidity of surfactant solution depend on • Amphiphile Monomer • Amphiphile Aggregate (Micelle) • CTotal= Cmonomer + Cmicelle • Cmicelle = C- Cmonomer • Tmicelle = T- Tmonomer • Above CMC concentration of monomer remain constant • Cmicelle = C- CCMC • Tmicelle = T- TCMC
  • 42. Kinetic Properties of Colloids 1-Brownian motion
  • 43. 1-Brownian motion l The zig-zag movement of colloidal particles continuously and randomly. l This brownian motion arises due to the uneven distribution of the collisions between colloid particle and the solvent molecules. l Brownian movement was more rapid for smaller particles. l Maximum particle size 0.5 µm (500nm) l It decrease with increase the viscosity of the medium.
  • 44. Kinetic Properties of Colloids 2- Diffusion - Particles diffuse spontaneously from a region of higher conc. To one of lower conc. Until the conc. of the system is uniform throughout. - Diffusion is a direct result of Brownian motion. - Fick's first law used to describe the diffusion: (The amount, dq , of substance diffusing in time dt across a plane of area S is directly proportional to the change of concentration, dc with distance traveled, dx - D is diffusion coefficient dq = -DS (dc / dx) dt
  • 45. Kinetic Properties of Colloids n D is diffusion coefficient it is the amount of the material diffused per unit time across a unit area when dc/dx (conc. gradient) is unity. n The measured diffusion coeffecient can be used to determine the radius of particles or molecular weight. n D can be obtained by diffusion experiments through porous membrane
  • 46. Kinetic Properties of Colloids Sutherland & Einstine equation or Stokes & Einstine equation D= RT/ 6πηrN • D= diffusion coeff • R= Ideal gas constant • T= Absolute Temp • η= Viscosity of medium • r= radius of spherical particle • N= Avagadro's no. If colloidal particles assumed to be spherical above equation can be used to find radius from diffusion property of collidal dispersion
  • 47. Kinetic Properties of Colloids 3- Osmotic pressure Van 't hoff equation: π= cRT l π= osmotic pressure l c= molar concentration of solute l Equation can be used to determine the molecular weight of colloid in dilute solution. l Replacing c by cg / M (where cg = the grams of solute / liter of solution, M = molecular weight), B is constand which depend upon solute / solvent interaction π/cg = RT (1/M + Bcg)
  • 48. Plot of π/cg against cg result in one of the three plots
  • 49. Graph • π/cg = RT (1/M + Bcg) • Plot of π/cg against cg result in one of the three plots • Plot I is ideal, Plot II and III are real • Slope of line II and III is B, interaction constant • In slope III there is good solute solvent interaction
  • 50. • Where, vsed. = sedimentation velocity in cm / sec • d = diameter of particle • ρ s= density of disperse phase • ρ o= density of disperse media • g = acceleration due to gravity • η = viscosity of dispersion medium in poise Kinetic Properties of Colloids 4- Sedimentation 50 Stokes‘ Law v= dx/dt = 2r2(ρ-ρo)g/9ηo
  • 51. Sedimentation • In centrifuge, acceleration due to gravity is replaced by ω2x • where ω is angular velocity • x is distance of particle from centre of rotation • v= dx/dt = 2r2(ρ-ρo)ω2x/9ηo • speed of rotation is expressed in rpm
  • 52. Sedimentation • Instanteneous velocity of particle is expressed in Svedberg sedimentation coefficient • s= (dx/dt)/ω2x • if particle move from x1 to at time t1 to x2 at time t2 • s= ln(x2/x1)/ω2 (t2-t1)
  • 53. Sedimentation • Sedimentation also help to know degree of homogenity of the sample • Sedimentation help to determine molecular wt of polymer • Knowing sedimentation coeff, s and diffusion data molecular wt can be determined • M= RT/D(1-vρo) • M= mol wt • T= absolute temp • v= partial sp volume • ρo=density of solvent
  • 54.
  • 55. Kinetic Properties of Colloids 5- Viscosity: - It is the resistance to flow of system under an applied stress. - The more viscous a liquid, the greater the applied force required to make it flow at a particular rate. - The viscosity of colloidal dispersion is affected by the shape of particles of the disperse phase: Spherocolloids --> dispersions of low viscosity Linear particles --> more viscous dispersions Characterstic of polymer used as plasma substitute (dextran ) is important to study (viscosity, osmotic pressure)
  • 56. Viscosity • Eistine developed an equation of flow applicable to dilute collidal dispersion • Equation is based on hydrodynamic theory • η=ηo(1+2.5ϕ) • ηo=viscosity of dispersion medium • η=viscosity of dispersion system when volume fraction of collidal particles present is ϕ (volume conc) • η&ηo can be determined using capilary viscometer
  • 57. Viscosity • ηrel=η/ηo = 1+2.5ϕ • ηsp= (η/ηo) -1 =2.5ϕ • ηsp/ϕ = 2.5 • Because volume fraction () is directly related to concentration • ηsp/c = k .... where c is in gm/100ml
  • 58. Viscosity • For highly polymeric material, at different concentration • ηsp/c = k + k2c + k3c2 • If ηsp/c is plotted against c and extrapolated to infinite dilution the intercept on y axis [η] • [η] = ηi = KMa ... Mark Houwink equation • [η] =intrensic viscosity • K and a are constant to perticular polymer system
  • 59. Electric Properties Of Colloids • The particles of a colloidal solution are electrically charged and carry the same type of charge, either negative or positive. • The colloidal particles therefore repel each other and do not cluster together to settle down. • The charge on colloidal particles arises because of the dissociation of the molecular electrolyte on the surface.
  • 60. Electrokinetic Phenomena Electrophoresis • Electrophoresis is the motion of charged particles through a liquid under the influence of an applied electric potential. • If an electric potential is applied to a colloid, the charged colloidal particles move toward the oppositely charged electrode.
  • 61. Electrokinetic Phenomena Electrophoresis • The rate of migration is observed by using ultra-microscope and it is the function of charge on particles • Shear plane is located at periphery of tightly bound layer hence rate- determining potential is zeta- potential
  • 62. Electrokinetic Phenomena Electrophoresis • ζ= v/E × 4πη/ε × (9 × 104) • ζ = zeta potential (statvolts) • v = velocity of migration (cm/sec) • E = Potential gradient • v/E = Mobility • η = viscosity of medium (poise) • ε = dielectric constant • If the medium is water then above equation reduces to • ζ≈ 141 v/E
  • 63. Electrokinetic Phenomena Electro-osmosis • It is the opposite in principal to that of electrophoresis. • If the charged particles are rendered immobile, liquid now moves relative to charged particles • Liquid moves across porous plug or membrane relative to solid particles • When electrodes are placed across a porous plug and a direct current is applied, liquid medium in the porous plug space is transported to the oppositly charged electrode by electro-osmosis. • Electro-osmotic transport of liquid medium is another method to determine zeta potential
  • 65. Electrokinetic Phenomena Sedimentation Potential Streaming Potential • The sedimentation potential also called the • Sedimentation Potential:- It is the electric potential induced by the sedimentation of a charged particle • Streaming Potential:- It is the electric potential created by forcing a liquid to flow through a bed or plug of particles.
  • 67. Donnan Membrane Equilibrium • If NaCl solution is placed on one side of semipermiable and negatively charged colloid with irs counter ion (R- Na+) on other side, NaCl can pass freely but not colloidal particles • Donnan Membrane Equilibrium give ratio of concentration of diffusible anion, outside and inside membrane ar equilibrium • [Cl-]o/[Cl-]i = √ {1 + [R-]i/[Cl-]i} • It can be used to determine molecular wt of protein involving osmotic pressure method
  • 69. Stability of colloids • Stabilization serves to prevent colloids from aggregation. • The presence and magnitude, or absence of a charge on a colloidal particle is an important factor in the stability of colloids. • Two main mechanisms for colloid stabilization: 1-Steric stabilization i.e. surrounding each particle with a protective solvent sheath which prevent adherence due to Brownian movement 2-electrostatic stabilization i.e. providing the particles with electric charge
  • 70. Stability of colloids A- Lyophobic sols: - Unstable. - The particles stabilized only by the presence of electrical charges on their surfaces through the addition of small amount of electrolytes. - The like charges produce repulsion which prevent coagulation of the particles and subsequent settling. - Addition of electrolytes beyond necessary for maximum stability results in --> accumulation of opposite ions and decrease zeta potential --> coagulation precipitation of colloids.
  • 72. Stability of colloids - Coagulation also result from mixing of oppositely charged colloids. B- Lyophilic sols and association colloids: - Stable - Present as true solution - Addition of moderate amounts of electrolytes not cause coagulation (opposite lyophobic) ** Salting out: Definition: agglomeration and precipitation of lyophilic colloids.
  • 73. DLVO
  • 74. Stability of colloids • This is obtained by: 1- Addition of large amounts of electrolytes - Anions arranged in a decreasing order of precipitating power: citrate > tartrate > sulfate > acetate > chloride> nitrate > bromide > iodide - The precipitation power is directly related to the hydration of the ion and its ability to separate water molecules from colloidal particles 2- addition of less polar solvent - e.g. alcohol, acetone
  • 75. Schulze Hardy rule Hofmeister (lyotropic) series • Schulze Hardy rule:- Precipitating power of ion increases with increase in valency or charge of ion • Ex: Al+++>Ca++>Na+ • Hofmeister (lyotropic) series:- Arrange anion and cation in order of coagulation power of hydrophilic colloid (ability to seperate water from collidal particle)
  • 76. Stability of colloids - The addition of less polar solvent renders the solvent mixture unfavourable for the colloids solubility Coacervation: The process of mixing negatively (acacia) and positively (gelatin) charged hydrophilic colloids, and hence the particles separate from the dispersion to form a layer rich in the colloidal aggregates (coacervate)
  • 77. Sensitization and protective colloidal action: • Sensitization: the addition of small amount of hydrophilic or hydrophobic colloid to a hydrophobic colloid of opposite charge tend to sensitize (coagulate) the particles. • Polymer flocculants can bridge individual colloidal particles by attractive electrostatic interactions. • For example, negatively-charged colloidal silica particles can be flocculated by the addition of a positively-charged polymer.
  • 78. Sensitization and protective colloidal action: • Protection: the addition of large amount of hydrophilic colloid (protective colloid) to a hydrophobic colloid tend to stabilize the system. • This may be due to: The hydrophile is adsorbed as a monomolecular layer on the hydrophobic particles.
  • 79. Gold Number [Important] • Gold Number is the minimum weight in milligrams of the protective colloid (dry wt of dispersed phase) required to prevent a colour change from red to violet in 10 mL of a gold sol on addition of 1 mL of a 10% solution of NaCl • Gold no. for Acacia it is 0.1 to 0.2 • Gold no. for Tracaganth it is 2