(190 SlideShares)
, STATISTICAL CONSULTANT/ANALYST/TUTOR/CIVIL ENGINEER /MATHEMATICIAN/SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT
at CEO @ TG TUTORIALS / S.M.E @ TUTOR VISTA AND STUDENT OF FORTUNE ,
1.
Error Analysis - Statistics
• Accuracy and Precision
• Individual Measurement Uncertainty
– Distribution of Data
– Means, Variance and Standard Deviation
– Confidence Interval
• Uncertainty of Quantity calculated from several
Measurements
– Error Propagation
• Least Squares Fitting of Data
Slide 1
2.
Accuracy and Precision
• Accuracy
Closeness of the data
(sample) to the “true value.”
• Precision
Closeness of the grouping of
the data (sample) around
some central value.
Slide 2
3.
Accuracy and Precision
• Precise but Inaccurate
Relative Frequency
Relative Frequency
• Inaccurate & Imprecise
True Value
X Value
True Value
X Value
Slide 3
4.
Accuracy and Precision
• Precise and Accurate
Relative Frequency
Relative Frequency
• Accurate but Imprecise
True Value
X Value
True Value
X Value
Slide 4
5.
Accuracy and Precision
Q: How do we quantify the concept of accuracy and
precision? -- How do we characterize the error that
occurred in our measurement?
Slide 5
6.
Individual Measurement
Statistics
• Take N measurements: X1, . . . , XN
• Calculate mean and standard deviation:
1
x
N
Sx
2
N
X
i
i 1
1 N
2
X i x
N i 1
• What to use as the “best value” and uncertainty so
we can say we are Q% confident that the true value
lies in the interval xbest
x.
• Need to know how data is distributed.
Slide 6
7.
Population and Sample
• Parent Population
The set of all possible
measurements.
• Sample
Samples
Handful of
marbles from
the bag
A subset of the population measurements actually
made.
Population
Bag of Marbles
Slide 7
8.
Histogram (Sample Based)
• Histogram
– A plot of the number of
times a given value
occurred.
• Relative Frequency
– A plot of the relative
number of times a given
value occurred.
Histogram
20
Relative Frequency Plot
0.25
Relative Frequency
0.3
Number of
Measurements
25
15
10
5
0
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
X Value (Bin)
X Value (Bin)
Slide 8
9.
Probability Distribution (Population Based)
• Probability Density
Function (pdf) (p(x))
– Describes the probability
distribution of all possible
measures of x.
– Limiting case of the relative
frequency.
Probability Density Function
Probability per unit
change in x
0.3
• Probability Distribution
Function (P(x))
P x P[ X x]
X x
Probability that
– Probability Distribution
Function is the integral of
the pdf, i.e.
x
P x p x dx
0.25
Q: Plot the probability distribution function
vs x.
Q: What is the maximum value of P(x)?
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
x Value (Bin)
Slide 9
10.
Probability Density Function
– The probability that a
measurement X takes value
between (-) is 1.
p x dx 1
– Every pdf satisfies the above
property.
Ex:
1
p x
e
A
x2
B
is a probability density function.
Find the relationship between A
and B.
Hint:
0
2
e - a x dx
1
2
a
Q: Given a pdf, how would one find the
probability that a measurement is
between A and B?
Slide 10
11.
Common Statistical Distributions
• Gaussian (Normal) Distribution
p x
where: x
x
x
x2
1
x 2
e
x x 2
p x
2 x2
= measured value
= true (mean) value
= standard deviation
= variance
Q: What are the two parameters that define a
Gaussian distribution?
x Value
Q: How would one calculate the probability
of a Gaussian distribution between x1
and x2? ( See Chapter 4, Appendix A )
Slide 11
12.
Common Statistical Distributions
• Uniform Distribution
p x
1
x2 x1
0
x1 x x2
p x
otherwise
where: x = measured value
x1 = lower limit
x2 = upper limit
x Value
Q: Why do x1 and x2 also define the magnitude of
the uniform distribution PDF?
Slide 12
13.
Common Statistical Distributions
Ex: A voltage measurement has a Gaussian
distribution with mean 3.4 [V] and a
standard deviation of 0.4 [V]. Using
Chapter 4, Appendix A, calculate the
probability that a measurement is
between:
(a) [2.98, 3.82] [V]
Ex: The quantization error of an ADC has
a uniform distribution in the
quantization interval Q. What is the
probability that the actual input voltage
is within Q/8 of the estimated input
voltage?
(b) [2.4, 4.02] [V]
Slide 13
14.
Statistical Analysis
• Standard Deviation (x and Sx )
– Characterize the typical deviation of measurements from the mean
and the width of the Gaussian distribution (bell curve).
– Smaller x , implies better ______________.
– Population Based
1
2
2
x x x p x dx
– Sample Based (N samples)
Sx
1
N
N
X
2
i
x
i 1
Q: Often we do not know x , how should we calculate Sx ?
Slide 14
15.
Statistical Analysis
• Standard Deviation (x and Sx ) (cont.)
Common Name for
"Error" Level
Error Level in
Terms of
% That the Deviation
from the Mean is Smaller
Odds That the
Deviation is Greater
Standard Deviation
68.3
about 1 in 3
"Two-Sigma Error"
95
1 in 20
"Three-Sigma Error"
99.7
1 in 370
"Four-Sigma Error"
99.994
1 in 16,000
x Z x x x Z x
Slide 15
16.
Statistical Analysis
• Sampled Mean x is the best estimate of x .
1 N
Best x E X
Estimate
x p x dx
x Xi
N i 1
Degree of Freedom
• Sampled Standard Deviation ( Sx )
– Use x when x is not available. reduce by one degree of freedom.
Sx
1
N
N
X
i 1
2
i
x
N
1
2
S x
X i x
N 1 i 1
When x not known
Q: If the sampled mean is only an estimate of the “true mean” x , how do we characterize its
error?
Q: If we take another set of samples, will we get a different sampled mean?
Q: If we take many more sample sets, what will be the statistics of the set of sampled means?
Slide 16
17.
Statistical Analysis
Ex: The inlet pressure of a steam generator was measured 100 times during a 12 hour
period. The specified inlet pressure is 4.00 MPa, with 0.7% allowable
fluctuation. The measured data is summarized in the following table:
Pressure (P)(MPa) Number of Results (m)
3.970
1
3.980
3
3.990
12
4.000
25
4.010
33
4.020
17
4.030
6
4.040
2
4.050
1
(1) Calculate the mean, variance and standard deviation.
(2) Given the data, what pressure range will contain 95% of the data?
Slide 17
18.
Confidence Interval
• Sampled Mean Statistics
– If N is large, x will also have a Gaussian distribution. (Central Limit Theorem)
– Mean of x :
x E x x
x is an unbiased estimate.
p( x )
p( x )
– Standard Deviation of x :
x
x
N
x is the best estimate of the error
in estimating x .
p( x )
x
x
Q: Since we don’t know x , how would we calculate x ?
Slide 18
19.
Confidence Interval
• For Large Samples ( N > 60 ), Q% of all the sampled means x
will lie in the interval
p x
x
x z Q x x z Q
N
Equivalently,
x zQ x x x zQ x
N
N
x
x
is the Q% Confidence Interval
x
x
zQ x zQ x
When x is unknown, Sx will be a reasonable approximation.
Slide 19
20.
Confidence Interval
Ex: 64 acceleration measurements were taken during an experiment. The
estimated mean and standard deviation of the measurements were 3.15 m/s2
and 0.4 m/s2.
(1) Find the 98% confidence interval for the true mean.
(2) How confident are you that the true mean will be in the range from 2.85
to 3.45 m/s2 ?
Slide 20
21.
Confidence Interval
• For Small Samples ( N < 60 ), the Q% Confidence Interval can
be calculated using the Student-T distribution, which is
similar to the normal distribution but depends on N.
– with Q% confidence, the true mean x will lie in the
following interval about any sampled mean:
Sx
Sx
x t ,Q
x x t ,Q
Q% confidence interval
N
N
Sx
Sx
where N 1
t,Q is defined in class notes Chapter 4, Appendix B.
Slide 21
22.
Confidence Interval
Ex: A simple postal scale is supplied with ½ , 1, 2, and 4 oz brass weights. For
quality check, 14 of the 1 oz weights were measured on a precision scale. The
results, in oz, are as follows:
1.08
1.03
0.96
0.95
1.04
1.01
0.98
0.99
1.05
1.08
0.97
1.00
0.98
1.01
Based on this sample and that the parent population of the weight is normally
distributed, what is the 95% confidence interval for the “true” weight of the 1 oz
brass weights?
Slide 22
23.
Propagation of Error
Q: If you measured the diameter (D) and height (h) of a cylindrical
container, how would the measurement error affect your estimation of
the volume ( V = D2h/4 )?
Q: What is the uncertainty in calculating the kinetic energy ( mv2/ 2 )
given the uncertainties in the measurements of mass (m) and velocity
(v)?
How do errors propagate through calculations?
Slide 23
24.
Propagation of Error
• A Simple Example
Suppose that y is related to two independent quantities X1 and
X2 through
y C1 X 1 C 2 X 2 f X 1 , X 2
To relate the changes in y to the uncertainties in X1 and X2, we
need to find dy = g(dX1, dX2):
dy
The magnitude of dy is the expected change in y due to the
uncertainties in x1 and x2:
2
2
f
f
y y
x1
x 2
X
X
1
2
C C
2
1
x1
2
2
x2
Slide 24
25.
Propagation of Error
• General Formula
Suppose that y is related to n independent measured variables
{X1, X2, …, Xn} by a functional representation:
y f X 1, X 2 , , X n
Given the uncertainties of X’s around some operating points:
x1 x 1 , x 2 x 2 , , x n x n
The expected value of y and its uncertainty y are:
y f x1 , x1 , , xn
2
2
f
f
f
y
x1
x2
x n
X
X
X
1
2
n
2
x1 , x1 ,, x n
Slide 25
26.
Propagation of Error
•Proof:
Assume that the variability in measurement y is caused
by k independent zero-mean error sources: e1, e2, . . . , ek.
Then, (y - ytrue)2 = (e1 + e2 + . . . + ek)2
= e12 + e22 + . . . + ek2 + 2e1e2 + 2e1e3 + . . .
E[(y - ytrue)2] = E[e12 + e22 + . . . + ek2 + 2e1e2 + 2e1e3 + . . .]
= E[e12 + e22 + . . . + ek2]
y
E e1 2 E e2 2 E e k 2 1 2 2 2 k 2
Slide 26
27.
Propagation of Error
• Example (Standard Deviation of Sampled Mean)
Given
x
1
X 1 X 2 X 3 X N
N
Use the general formula for error propagation:
2
x
x
x
x1
X
X x2
1
2
x
2
2
x
x
x3
X
X x N
3
N
2
x
N
Slide 27
28.
Propagation of Error
Ex: What is the uncertainty in calculating the kinetic energy ( mv2/ 2 ) given
the uncertainties in the measurements of mass (m) and velocity (v)?
2
KE
KE
KE
m
v
m
v
2
1
m 2
v 2
mv 2
2 mv 2
2
m
v
1
m 2 v 2
2
mv 2
m
v
2
Slide 28
29.
• Best Linear Fit
–How do we characterize “BEST”?
Fit a linear model (relation)
Output Y
Least Squares Fitting of Data
best linear
fit yest
yi ao a1 xi
to N pairs of [xi, yi] measurements.
Given xi, the error between the
estimated output y i and the measured
output yi is:
ni yi yi
measured
output yi
Input X
The “BEST” fit is the model that
N 2
N
2
min ni min yi yi
minimizes the sum of the ___________
i=1
i=1
of the error
Least Square Error
Slide 29
30.
Least Squares Fitting of Data
N
N
2
2
Let
J yi yi yi ao a1 x i
i=1
i=1
The two independent variables are?
M inim ize J Find a o and a1 such that dJ 0
J
J
0
0
a
a o
N
i 1 2 y i a o a1 x i 0
N
i 1 2 x i y i a o a1 x i 0
Q: What are we trying to solve?
Slide 30
31.
Least Squares Fitting of Data
Rewrite the last two equations as two simultaneous equations for
ao and a1:
x
y
a N a
i
1 i
o
2
a o x i a1 x i
x i yi
ao yi
a x y
1 i i
xi 2 yi xi xi yi
ao
N xi yi xi yi
a1
xi 2 xi
where N
Slide 31
2
32.
Least Squares Fitting of Data
• Summary: Given N pairs of input/output measurements [xi, yi],
the best linear Least Squares model from input xi to output yi is:
yi ao a1 xi
x y x x y
2
where
ao
a1
i
i
i
i i
N x i yi x i yi
and N
x i 2 xi
• The process of minimizing squared error can be used for fitting
nonlinear models and many engineering applications.
• Same result can also be derived from a probability distribution
point of view (see Course Notes, Ch. 4 - Maximum Likelihood Estimation ).
Q: Given a theoretical model y = ao + a2 x2 , what are the Least Squares estimates for ao & a2?
Slide 32
2
33.
Least Squares Fitting of Data
• Variance of the fit:
n2
1
N 2
yi ao a1xi 2
N
i 1
• Variance of the measurements in y: y2
• Assume measurements in x are precise.
• Correlation coefficient:
n2
n2
R 1 2 1 2 ,
y
Sy
2
is a measure of how well the model explains the data.
R2 = 1 implies that the linear model fits the data perfectly.
Slide 33
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