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A Short Introduction to

BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
Outline
•   Definitions
•   History
•   Types
•   EEG
•   Commercialization
•   Outlook
•   Hands on!
Definitions
• Brain–computer interface (BCI)
• A direct communication pathway between
  the brain and an external device
• A.K.A.
  – mind-machine interface (MMI)
  – direct neural interface
  – brain–machine interface (BMI)
Current BCI Systems
History
• Hans Berger
  – First EEG recording in 1924
  – Find oscillation activity: alpha wave (8-12Hz)
History
• Animal Study
  – 1970s University of Washington School of
    Medicine in Seattle
  – 1980s Johns Hopkins University
Types
• Invasive
  – Put the whole module into the brain


• Partially Invasive
  – Attach sensors on the surface of the brain


• Non-invasive
  – Leave everything outside of the skull
Invasive BCI
• Sci-Fi
   – “Plug in” to human central
     neural system
   – Qualia: subjective feelings
• Real world
   – Vision
      • William Dobelle
   – Movement
      • Robotic arms
Partially Invasive BCI
• Electrode on the brain surface
  – Better signals
  – Lower risks
Non-Invasive BCI
• EEG
  – the electrical activity along
    the scalp
• MEG
  – the magnetic fields
    produced by brain
• MRI
  – Use nuclear magnetic
    resonance (NMR) to image
    nuclei of atoms inside the
    body
MRI
• Magnetic resonance imaging
  – uses a powerful magnetic field to systematically
    alter the alignment of this magnetization
  – causes the nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic
    field which can be detected
MEG
• Magnetoencephalography
  – Record magnetic fields produced by electrical
    currents occurring naturally in the brain
  – SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference
    devices)
EEG
• Electroencephalography
  – the most studied
  – fine temporal resolution
  – ease of use
  – portability
  – low set-up cost
EEG Measurement
• Measure the “wave” generated by the brain
Brain Waves
• Different Brain waves
   腦波種類           腦波頻率               心理及活動狀態

 Delta           0.1Hz ~ 3Hz   深度睡眠、無意識狀態

 Theta           4Hz ~ 7Hz     想像力活躍的狀態,幻想、回想,以及作夢

                               安靜、清醒、放鬆的狀態,但沒有到昏昏欲睡
 Alpha           8Hz ~ 12Hz
                               的程度

 Low Beta        12Hz ~ 15Hz   放鬆,但是注意力集中

 Midrange Beta   16Hz ~ 20Hz   思考中,並且意識到自身和環境的變化

 High Beta       21Hz ~ 30Hz   警戒、焦慮的狀態
Brain Waves
• Different Brain waves
                            Delta


                            Theta


                            Alpha


                            Beta
Commercialization
• BrainGate
  – Cyberkinetics
  – Neural Signals
• For PC users
  – Neural Impulse Actuator (April, 2008)
  – Emotiv Systems (December, 2009)
  – NeuroSky (2009-)
Current BCI Systems
Toward a Natural User Interface
• Signal Acquisition
  – Non-intrusive
• Signal Processing
  – Convert what we measured to bits and bytes
• Translation
  – Convert intention to action
Challenges of BCI to NUI
• Lost in Translation
  1. What is in your mind?
  2. How is your brain work?
  3. What are the corresponding EEG patterns?




                        Brain Activity

         EEG                             Thoughts
Outlook
• Artificial Sensory Channel
  – Hearing
  – Vision
  – Motion
  – Neural disorder control


• Portable, non-invasive BCI is not yet intuitive
  – Need to solve translation problems
Tan Le from Emotive System
• Tan Le 展示一個影響深遠
  應用程式,只需要運用意
  念和一點專注力,這令人
  耳目一新的電腦界面可以
  透過頭戴式耳機來解讀使
  用者的大腦電波,從而控
  制虛擬物件和家電用品

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVhggGSjXVg
Hands On: Neurosky
 • Mindset / Mindwave




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CV411vt_51w
Necomimi from Neurowear
• Time Magazine 2011
  – Best Invention of the Year




                       http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w06zvM2x_lw
THANK YOU!

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Introduction to BCI

  • 1. A Short Introduction to BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
  • 2. Outline • Definitions • History • Types • EEG • Commercialization • Outlook • Hands on!
  • 3. Definitions • Brain–computer interface (BCI) • A direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device • A.K.A. – mind-machine interface (MMI) – direct neural interface – brain–machine interface (BMI)
  • 5. History • Hans Berger – First EEG recording in 1924 – Find oscillation activity: alpha wave (8-12Hz)
  • 6. History • Animal Study – 1970s University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle – 1980s Johns Hopkins University
  • 7. Types • Invasive – Put the whole module into the brain • Partially Invasive – Attach sensors on the surface of the brain • Non-invasive – Leave everything outside of the skull
  • 8. Invasive BCI • Sci-Fi – “Plug in” to human central neural system – Qualia: subjective feelings • Real world – Vision • William Dobelle – Movement • Robotic arms
  • 9. Partially Invasive BCI • Electrode on the brain surface – Better signals – Lower risks
  • 10. Non-Invasive BCI • EEG – the electrical activity along the scalp • MEG – the magnetic fields produced by brain • MRI – Use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body
  • 11. MRI • Magnetic resonance imaging – uses a powerful magnetic field to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization – causes the nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field which can be detected
  • 12. MEG • Magnetoencephalography – Record magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain – SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices)
  • 13. EEG • Electroencephalography – the most studied – fine temporal resolution – ease of use – portability – low set-up cost
  • 14. EEG Measurement • Measure the “wave” generated by the brain
  • 15. Brain Waves • Different Brain waves 腦波種類 腦波頻率 心理及活動狀態 Delta 0.1Hz ~ 3Hz 深度睡眠、無意識狀態 Theta 4Hz ~ 7Hz 想像力活躍的狀態,幻想、回想,以及作夢 安靜、清醒、放鬆的狀態,但沒有到昏昏欲睡 Alpha 8Hz ~ 12Hz 的程度 Low Beta 12Hz ~ 15Hz 放鬆,但是注意力集中 Midrange Beta 16Hz ~ 20Hz 思考中,並且意識到自身和環境的變化 High Beta 21Hz ~ 30Hz 警戒、焦慮的狀態
  • 16. Brain Waves • Different Brain waves Delta Theta Alpha Beta
  • 17. Commercialization • BrainGate – Cyberkinetics – Neural Signals • For PC users – Neural Impulse Actuator (April, 2008) – Emotiv Systems (December, 2009) – NeuroSky (2009-)
  • 19. Toward a Natural User Interface • Signal Acquisition – Non-intrusive • Signal Processing – Convert what we measured to bits and bytes • Translation – Convert intention to action
  • 20. Challenges of BCI to NUI • Lost in Translation 1. What is in your mind? 2. How is your brain work? 3. What are the corresponding EEG patterns? Brain Activity EEG Thoughts
  • 21. Outlook • Artificial Sensory Channel – Hearing – Vision – Motion – Neural disorder control • Portable, non-invasive BCI is not yet intuitive – Need to solve translation problems
  • 22. Tan Le from Emotive System • Tan Le 展示一個影響深遠 應用程式,只需要運用意 念和一點專注力,這令人 耳目一新的電腦界面可以 透過頭戴式耳機來解讀使 用者的大腦電波,從而控 制虛擬物件和家電用品 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVhggGSjXVg
  • 23. Hands On: Neurosky • Mindset / Mindwave http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CV411vt_51w
  • 24. Necomimi from Neurowear • Time Magazine 2011 – Best Invention of the Year http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w06zvM2x_lw