2) BCI MODEL
3) HOW DOES ITWORK?
4) PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
5) WHAT IS AN EEG?
6) BCI APPROACHES
7) WHY BCI?
• Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a fast-growing
emergent technology, in which researchers aim to
build a direct channel between the human brain and
• A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a collaboration in
which a brain accepts and controls a mechanical
device as a natural part of its representation of the
• Computer-brain interfaces are designed to restore
sensory function, transmit sensory information to the
brain, or stimulate the brain through artiﬁcially
generated electrical signals.
• Algorithms to reconstruct movements from motor
cortex neurons, which control movement, were
developed in 1970s.
• The first Intra-Cortical Brain-Computer Interface
was built by implanting electrodes into monkeys.
• After conducting initial studies in rats during the
1990s, researchers developed Brain Computer
Interfaces that decoded brain activity in monkeys
and used the devices to reproduce movements in
monkeys and used the devices to reproduce
monkey movements in robotic arms.
o An Electro Encephalo Gram is a measure of the brain's
voltage fluctuations as detected from scalp electrodes.
o It is an approximation of the cumulative electrical
activity of neurons.
o EEG measures the electrical activity of the brain with
multiple electrodes placed on the scalp
o It is portable and relatively inexpensive thats why most
noninvasive BCIs are presently based on EEG.
• Invasive BCIs are implanted
directly into the grey matter of
the brain during neurosurgery.
• As they rest in the grey
matter, invasive devices
produce the highest quality
signals of BCI devices but are
prone to scar- tissue build-
up, causing the signal to
become weaker or
even lost as the body reacts to
a foreign object in the brain.
• SEMI-INVASIVE BCI devices are implanted inside the skull but rest
outside the brain rather than amidst the grey matter.They produce
better resolution signals than non-invasive BCIs where the bone
tissue of the cranium deflects and deforms signals and have a lower
risk of forming scar-tissue in the brain than fully-invasive BCIs.
•Electrocardiography (ECoG) uses the same technology as non-
invasive electroencephalography, but the electrodes are embedded
in a thin plastic pad that is placed above the cortex, beneath the
single neurons but require less contact with tissue and reduce the risk of scar-tissue build up.
BRAINWAVES PRODUCED BY EEG
• Non-invasive implants
produce poor signal
resolution because the
signals, dispersing and
created by the neurons.
o BCI is a new neuroscience paradigm that might help us better
understand how the human brain works.
o BCI research allows us to develop a new class of bioengineering
control devices and robots.
o BCI hold promise for rehabilitation and improving performance.
o BCI can expand possibilities for advanced human computer
2. BCI offers paralyzed
quality of life.
3. MILITARY and CIVIL
4. Allow patients to control
a computer by conscious
changes of brain activity.
• Provide disabled people with communication, environment
control, and movement restoration.
• Provide enhanced control of devices such as wheelchairs,
vehicles, or assistance robots for people with disabilities.
• Provide additional channel of control in computer games.
• Monitor attention in long-distance drivers or aircraft
out alert and warning for aircraft pilots.
• Develop intelligent relaxation devices.
• Control robots that function in dangerous or
inhospitable situations (e.g., underwater or in
extreme heat or cold).
• Create a feedback loop to enhance the benefits
of certain therapeutic methods.
• Develop passive devices for monitoring
function, such as ,
monitoring long-term drug effects, evaluating
psychological state, etc.
• Monitor stages of sleep
between human brain
2. Better LIVING, more
3. New work area for
scientists and researches
around the world.
1. Virus attacks may
occur to brain
causing ill effects.
2. Requires extensive
3. BCI techniques are
4. Slow speed.
• A potential therapeutic tool.
• BCI is an advancing technology promising paradigm shift in
areas like Machine Control, Human Enhancement,Virtual
reality and etc. So, it’s potentially high impact technology.
• Several potential applications of BCI hold promise for
rehabilitation and improving performance, such as treating
emotional disorders (for example, depression or anxiety),
easing chronic pain, and overcoming movement disabilities due
• Will enable us to achieve singularity very soon.
• Intense R&D in future to attain intuitive efficiency.