SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Seminar On
X – Ray Diffraction Technique
and
Diffraction Methods
Melwin D’mello
M.E (Welding Engineering)
Centre for Materials Joining & Research (CEMAJOR),
Department of Manufacturing Engineering,
ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY
Presented by
CONTENTS
• Introduction
• Generation of X-ray
• X- ray region
• X- ray diffraction
• XRD Principle
• XRD Equipment
• Diffraction Methods
• Applications of XRD Methods
• References
INTRODUCTION
• X- rays were discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen who called
them “X-rays” and it is also called as “Roentgen Rays”.
• X- ray diffraction was discovered by Max Von Laue in 1912.
• X- rays are electro magnetic radiation with wavelengths in
the range 0.1 to 100 A o .
• X- rays used in diffraction experiments have typical
wavelengths of 0.5 to 1.8 A o.
GENERATION OF X-RAYS
X - RAY REGION
X-RAY DIFFRACTION ( XRD )
• These methods are based on the scattering of X-ray
crystals.
• When x-rays interact with a solid material, the scattered
beams causes diffraction.
XRD PRINCIPLE
• Different Planes in a crystal give different signals
equal to positive interface of waves.
XRD EQIPMENT
X-Ray
Diffraction
Method
1. Laue’s
Method
2. Rotating
Crystal
Method
3. Powder
Method
EXPERIMENTAL
DIFFRACTION METHODS
• In this method a single crystal is held stationary in the path
of radiation of continuous wavelength. While  is kept
constant, the wavelength ,  is varied.
• A plane film receives the diffracted beams. A developed
film after its exposure shows a diffraction pattern that
consists of series of spots.
1. LAUE’S METHOD
Laue’s method is divided
Into two types
a) Transmission Method
b) Back Reflection Method
a) Transmission Method
A beam of x-ray is passed through the crystal,
after passing through the crystal, x-rays are diffracted
and recorded on a photographic plate.
a) Transmission Method
b) Back Reflection Method
This method provides similar information as the
transmission method.
2. ROTATING CRYSTAL
METHOD
Rotating Crystal Method cont…
• In this method , a single crystal is rotated about the fixed
axis in a beam of monochromatic. The angle  is variable
while the wavelength is kept constant.
• The variation of angle  due to rotation of the crystal brings
different atomic planes in the crystal into position.
• To record such reflections a film is mounted on a cylindrical
holder that is concentric with a rotating spindle.
• This method is useful for samples that are difficult to
obtain in single crystal form.
• The powder method is used to determine the value of the
lattice parameters accurately.
3. POWDER METHOD
• A sample of hundreds of powdered crystals show that the
diffracted beams form continuous cones.
• A circle of film is used to record the diffraction pattern.
• Each cone intersects the film giving diffraction lines.
• The lines are seen as arcs on the film.
The powder method cont…
APPLICATIONS OF XRD
METHODS
• Determination of crystal size and shape.
• Particle size determination by spot counting methods.
• Crystallographic structural analysis.
• Unit cell calculations for crystalline materials.
• Identification of single and multi phase materials
REFERENCES
1. “Instrumental Methods Of Chemical Analysis” by
Gurudeep R Chatwal.
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_crystallography
X-Ray Diffraction and  Diffraction Methods BASICS

More Related Content

What's hot

X-Ray Diffraction
X-Ray DiffractionX-Ray Diffraction
X-Ray Diffraction
MANISHSAHU106
 
X ray powder diffraction
X ray powder diffractionX ray powder diffraction
X ray powder diffraction
Amit Shah
 
Bragg’s law
Bragg’s lawBragg’s law
Bragg’s law
Sharda University
 
X ray crystallography
X ray crystallographyX ray crystallography
X ray crystallography
Rx Mukul Sunil Tambe
 
x-ray-diffraction-technique
x-ray-diffraction-techniquex-ray-diffraction-technique
x-ray-diffraction-technique
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy
 
x-ray crystallography,bragg's law,different x-ray diffraction technique,laue ...
x-ray crystallography,bragg's law,different x-ray diffraction technique,laue ...x-ray crystallography,bragg's law,different x-ray diffraction technique,laue ...
x-ray crystallography,bragg's law,different x-ray diffraction technique,laue ...
Siddhapura Pratik
 
X-Ray Diffraction Technique
X-Ray Diffraction TechniqueX-Ray Diffraction Technique
X-Ray Diffraction Technique
tabirsir
 
xray diffraction instrumentation
xray diffraction instrumentationxray diffraction instrumentation
xray diffraction instrumentation
Bindu Kshtriya
 
X ray crystallography for mpharm
X ray crystallography for mpharm X ray crystallography for mpharm
X ray crystallography for mpharm
Martin Jacob
 
IR Spectroscopy
IR Spectroscopy IR Spectroscopy
IR Spectroscopy
Ravi Kumar Yadav
 
X ray powder diffraction
X ray powder diffractionX ray powder diffraction
X ray powder diffraction
chiranjibi68
 
X ray crystallography
X ray crystallographyX ray crystallography
X ray crystallography
Rajput1998
 
X ray diffraction and applications
X ray diffraction and applicationsX ray diffraction and applications
X ray diffraction and applications
Deepak Pandey
 
Analysis ppt xrd
Analysis ppt xrdAnalysis ppt xrd
Analysis ppt xrd
pooja joshi
 
Uv visible spectroscopy-instrumentation
Uv visible spectroscopy-instrumentationUv visible spectroscopy-instrumentation
Uv visible spectroscopy-instrumentation
AnusreeAnu11
 
Xray diffraction
Xray diffractionXray diffraction
Xray diffraction
Abhishek Dharwal
 
FTIR
FTIRFTIR
Laue method
Laue methodLaue method
Laue method
Reshma Fathima .K
 
FTIR spectroscopy
FTIR spectroscopyFTIR spectroscopy
FTIR spectroscopy
Preeti Choudhary
 
X ray diffraction
X ray diffractionX ray diffraction
X ray diffraction
hdghcfgfgftf
 

What's hot (20)

X-Ray Diffraction
X-Ray DiffractionX-Ray Diffraction
X-Ray Diffraction
 
X ray powder diffraction
X ray powder diffractionX ray powder diffraction
X ray powder diffraction
 
Bragg’s law
Bragg’s lawBragg’s law
Bragg’s law
 
X ray crystallography
X ray crystallographyX ray crystallography
X ray crystallography
 
x-ray-diffraction-technique
x-ray-diffraction-techniquex-ray-diffraction-technique
x-ray-diffraction-technique
 
x-ray crystallography,bragg's law,different x-ray diffraction technique,laue ...
x-ray crystallography,bragg's law,different x-ray diffraction technique,laue ...x-ray crystallography,bragg's law,different x-ray diffraction technique,laue ...
x-ray crystallography,bragg's law,different x-ray diffraction technique,laue ...
 
X-Ray Diffraction Technique
X-Ray Diffraction TechniqueX-Ray Diffraction Technique
X-Ray Diffraction Technique
 
xray diffraction instrumentation
xray diffraction instrumentationxray diffraction instrumentation
xray diffraction instrumentation
 
X ray crystallography for mpharm
X ray crystallography for mpharm X ray crystallography for mpharm
X ray crystallography for mpharm
 
IR Spectroscopy
IR Spectroscopy IR Spectroscopy
IR Spectroscopy
 
X ray powder diffraction
X ray powder diffractionX ray powder diffraction
X ray powder diffraction
 
X ray crystallography
X ray crystallographyX ray crystallography
X ray crystallography
 
X ray diffraction and applications
X ray diffraction and applicationsX ray diffraction and applications
X ray diffraction and applications
 
Analysis ppt xrd
Analysis ppt xrdAnalysis ppt xrd
Analysis ppt xrd
 
Uv visible spectroscopy-instrumentation
Uv visible spectroscopy-instrumentationUv visible spectroscopy-instrumentation
Uv visible spectroscopy-instrumentation
 
Xray diffraction
Xray diffractionXray diffraction
Xray diffraction
 
FTIR
FTIRFTIR
FTIR
 
Laue method
Laue methodLaue method
Laue method
 
FTIR spectroscopy
FTIR spectroscopyFTIR spectroscopy
FTIR spectroscopy
 
X ray diffraction
X ray diffractionX ray diffraction
X ray diffraction
 

Similar to X-Ray Diffraction and Diffraction Methods BASICS

engineering materials
engineering materialsengineering materials
engineering materials
ramineni krishna chaitanya
 
X ray cameras.ppt
X ray cameras.pptX ray cameras.ppt
X ray cameras.ppt
Talha Javed
 
X-ray Crystallography
X-ray CrystallographyX-ray Crystallography
X-ray Crystallography
Akansh Goel
 
presented by yogita thakare.pptx
presented by yogita thakare.pptxpresented by yogita thakare.pptx
presented by yogita thakare.pptx
HemantThakare8
 
Mpat 2 1
Mpat 2 1Mpat 2 1
X ray crystallography. presentation
X ray crystallography. presentationX ray crystallography. presentation
X ray crystallography. presentation
Shakir nazir
 
X ray diffraction studies
X ray diffraction studies X ray diffraction studies
X ray diffraction studies
ashokkumar3279
 
X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Analysis.pdf
X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Analysis.pdfX-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Analysis.pdf
X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Analysis.pdf
SanDeepSharma926061
 
XRAY DIFFRACTION (XRD).pptx
XRAY DIFFRACTION (XRD).pptxXRAY DIFFRACTION (XRD).pptx
XRAY DIFFRACTION (XRD).pptx
THE CREATORS ACADEMY
 
X ray crystallography
X ray crystallographyX ray crystallography
X ray crystallography
Biswash Sapkota
 
X ray Crystallography
X ray CrystallographyX ray Crystallography
X ray Crystallography
silambarasan I
 
X-RAY -DIFRACTION TYPES.ppt
X-RAY -DIFRACTION TYPES.pptX-RAY -DIFRACTION TYPES.ppt
X-RAY -DIFRACTION TYPES.ppt
KiruthikaRajasekaran
 
X-ray Crystallography.pptx
X-ray Crystallography.pptxX-ray Crystallography.pptx
X-ray Crystallography.pptx
NSEmon
 
X ray diffraction.pptx
X ray diffraction.pptxX ray diffraction.pptx
X ray diffraction.pptx
nawabaman1
 
X- ray crystallography, Shriyansh Srivastava, M.Pharm (Department of Pharmaco...
X- ray crystallography, Shriyansh Srivastava, M.Pharm (Department of Pharmaco...X- ray crystallography, Shriyansh Srivastava, M.Pharm (Department of Pharmaco...
X- ray crystallography, Shriyansh Srivastava, M.Pharm (Department of Pharmaco...
Shriyansh Srivastav
 
x ray crystallography & diffraction
x ray crystallography & diffractionx ray crystallography & diffraction
x ray crystallography & diffraction
Arman Dalal
 
X ray diffraction
X ray diffractionX ray diffraction
X ray diffraction
Shivaram
 
XRD
XRDXRD
1 basics of x ray powder diffraction
1 basics of x ray powder diffraction1 basics of x ray powder diffraction
1 basics of x ray powder diffraction
Goenthan27
 
X ray crystallography
X ray  crystallographyX ray  crystallography
X ray crystallography
AkshataMore9
 

Similar to X-Ray Diffraction and Diffraction Methods BASICS (20)

engineering materials
engineering materialsengineering materials
engineering materials
 
X ray cameras.ppt
X ray cameras.pptX ray cameras.ppt
X ray cameras.ppt
 
X-ray Crystallography
X-ray CrystallographyX-ray Crystallography
X-ray Crystallography
 
presented by yogita thakare.pptx
presented by yogita thakare.pptxpresented by yogita thakare.pptx
presented by yogita thakare.pptx
 
Mpat 2 1
Mpat 2 1Mpat 2 1
Mpat 2 1
 
X ray crystallography. presentation
X ray crystallography. presentationX ray crystallography. presentation
X ray crystallography. presentation
 
X ray diffraction studies
X ray diffraction studies X ray diffraction studies
X ray diffraction studies
 
X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Analysis.pdf
X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Analysis.pdfX-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Analysis.pdf
X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Analysis.pdf
 
XRAY DIFFRACTION (XRD).pptx
XRAY DIFFRACTION (XRD).pptxXRAY DIFFRACTION (XRD).pptx
XRAY DIFFRACTION (XRD).pptx
 
X ray crystallography
X ray crystallographyX ray crystallography
X ray crystallography
 
X ray Crystallography
X ray CrystallographyX ray Crystallography
X ray Crystallography
 
X-RAY -DIFRACTION TYPES.ppt
X-RAY -DIFRACTION TYPES.pptX-RAY -DIFRACTION TYPES.ppt
X-RAY -DIFRACTION TYPES.ppt
 
X-ray Crystallography.pptx
X-ray Crystallography.pptxX-ray Crystallography.pptx
X-ray Crystallography.pptx
 
X ray diffraction.pptx
X ray diffraction.pptxX ray diffraction.pptx
X ray diffraction.pptx
 
X- ray crystallography, Shriyansh Srivastava, M.Pharm (Department of Pharmaco...
X- ray crystallography, Shriyansh Srivastava, M.Pharm (Department of Pharmaco...X- ray crystallography, Shriyansh Srivastava, M.Pharm (Department of Pharmaco...
X- ray crystallography, Shriyansh Srivastava, M.Pharm (Department of Pharmaco...
 
x ray crystallography & diffraction
x ray crystallography & diffractionx ray crystallography & diffraction
x ray crystallography & diffraction
 
X ray diffraction
X ray diffractionX ray diffraction
X ray diffraction
 
XRD
XRDXRD
XRD
 
1 basics of x ray powder diffraction
1 basics of x ray powder diffraction1 basics of x ray powder diffraction
1 basics of x ray powder diffraction
 
X ray crystallography
X ray  crystallographyX ray  crystallography
X ray crystallography
 

More from Melwin Dmello

Types of Soldering
Types of SolderingTypes of Soldering
Types of Soldering
Melwin Dmello
 
HOT CRACKS AND COLD CRACKS (Welding)
HOT CRACKS AND COLD CRACKS (Welding)HOT CRACKS AND COLD CRACKS (Welding)
HOT CRACKS AND COLD CRACKS (Welding)
Melwin Dmello
 
MAGNETIC ARC OSCILLATION (MAO) WELDING
MAGNETIC  ARC  OSCILLATION (MAO)  WELDINGMAGNETIC  ARC  OSCILLATION (MAO)  WELDING
MAGNETIC ARC OSCILLATION (MAO) WELDING
Melwin Dmello
 
Gas welding and Gas cutting Basics
Gas welding and Gas cutting BasicsGas welding and Gas cutting Basics
Gas welding and Gas cutting Basics
Melwin Dmello
 
Crack Deformation Modes
Crack Deformation ModesCrack Deformation Modes
Crack Deformation Modes
Melwin Dmello
 
Murex Hot-Cracking Test & Root-Pass Cracking Test
Murex Hot-Cracking Test  & Root-Pass Cracking Test Murex Hot-Cracking Test  & Root-Pass Cracking Test
Murex Hot-Cracking Test & Root-Pass Cracking Test
Melwin Dmello
 
Carburzing and Different Types of Carburzing
Carburzing and Different Types of CarburzingCarburzing and Different Types of Carburzing
Carburzing and Different Types of Carburzing
Melwin Dmello
 
Electron Beam Welding (EBW) Basics
Electron Beam Welding (EBW) Basics Electron Beam Welding (EBW) Basics
Electron Beam Welding (EBW) Basics
Melwin Dmello
 
Smart Metals
Smart MetalsSmart Metals
Smart Metals
Melwin Dmello
 
Power generation in footsteps by Piezoelectric materials
Power generation in footsteps by Piezoelectric materialsPower generation in footsteps by Piezoelectric materials
Power generation in footsteps by Piezoelectric materials
Melwin Dmello
 

More from Melwin Dmello (10)

Types of Soldering
Types of SolderingTypes of Soldering
Types of Soldering
 
HOT CRACKS AND COLD CRACKS (Welding)
HOT CRACKS AND COLD CRACKS (Welding)HOT CRACKS AND COLD CRACKS (Welding)
HOT CRACKS AND COLD CRACKS (Welding)
 
MAGNETIC ARC OSCILLATION (MAO) WELDING
MAGNETIC  ARC  OSCILLATION (MAO)  WELDINGMAGNETIC  ARC  OSCILLATION (MAO)  WELDING
MAGNETIC ARC OSCILLATION (MAO) WELDING
 
Gas welding and Gas cutting Basics
Gas welding and Gas cutting BasicsGas welding and Gas cutting Basics
Gas welding and Gas cutting Basics
 
Crack Deformation Modes
Crack Deformation ModesCrack Deformation Modes
Crack Deformation Modes
 
Murex Hot-Cracking Test & Root-Pass Cracking Test
Murex Hot-Cracking Test  & Root-Pass Cracking Test Murex Hot-Cracking Test  & Root-Pass Cracking Test
Murex Hot-Cracking Test & Root-Pass Cracking Test
 
Carburzing and Different Types of Carburzing
Carburzing and Different Types of CarburzingCarburzing and Different Types of Carburzing
Carburzing and Different Types of Carburzing
 
Electron Beam Welding (EBW) Basics
Electron Beam Welding (EBW) Basics Electron Beam Welding (EBW) Basics
Electron Beam Welding (EBW) Basics
 
Smart Metals
Smart MetalsSmart Metals
Smart Metals
 
Power generation in footsteps by Piezoelectric materials
Power generation in footsteps by Piezoelectric materialsPower generation in footsteps by Piezoelectric materials
Power generation in footsteps by Piezoelectric materials
 

Recently uploaded

paper relate Chozhavendhan et al. 2020.pdf
paper relate Chozhavendhan et al. 2020.pdfpaper relate Chozhavendhan et al. 2020.pdf
paper relate Chozhavendhan et al. 2020.pdf
ShurooqTaib
 
Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
Transcat
 
Call For Paper -3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advan...
Call For Paper -3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advan...Call For Paper -3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advan...
Call For Paper -3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advan...
ijseajournal
 
openshift technical overview - Flow of openshift containerisatoin
openshift technical overview - Flow of openshift containerisatoinopenshift technical overview - Flow of openshift containerisatoin
openshift technical overview - Flow of openshift containerisatoin
snaprevwdev
 
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
upoux
 
Particle Swarm Optimization–Long Short-Term Memory based Channel Estimation w...
Particle Swarm Optimization–Long Short-Term Memory based Channel Estimation w...Particle Swarm Optimization–Long Short-Term Memory based Channel Estimation w...
Particle Swarm Optimization–Long Short-Term Memory based Channel Estimation w...
IJCNCJournal
 
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdfAsymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
felixwold
 
原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
ydzowc
 
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdfSri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
Balvir Singh
 
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surfaceOpen Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
Indrajeet sahu
 
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back EndFULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
PreethaV16
 
一比一原版(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证如何办理
sydezfe
 
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEERDELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES
 
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
uqyfuc
 
OOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming language
OOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming languageOOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming language
OOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming language
PreethaV16
 
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.pptIntroduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
Dwarkadas J Sanghvi College of Engineering
 
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptxITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
VANDANAMOHANGOUDA
 
comptia-security-sy0-701-exam-objectives-(5-0).pdf
comptia-security-sy0-701-exam-objectives-(5-0).pdfcomptia-security-sy0-701-exam-objectives-(5-0).pdf
comptia-security-sy0-701-exam-objectives-(5-0).pdf
foxlyon
 
ELS: 2.4.1 POWER ELECTRONICS Course objectives: This course will enable stude...
ELS: 2.4.1 POWER ELECTRONICS Course objectives: This course will enable stude...ELS: 2.4.1 POWER ELECTRONICS Course objectives: This course will enable stude...
ELS: 2.4.1 POWER ELECTRONICS Course objectives: This course will enable stude...
Kuvempu University
 
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure MeasurementProperties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
Indrajeet sahu
 

Recently uploaded (20)

paper relate Chozhavendhan et al. 2020.pdf
paper relate Chozhavendhan et al. 2020.pdfpaper relate Chozhavendhan et al. 2020.pdf
paper relate Chozhavendhan et al. 2020.pdf
 
Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...
 
Call For Paper -3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advan...
Call For Paper -3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advan...Call For Paper -3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advan...
Call For Paper -3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advan...
 
openshift technical overview - Flow of openshift containerisatoin
openshift technical overview - Flow of openshift containerisatoinopenshift technical overview - Flow of openshift containerisatoin
openshift technical overview - Flow of openshift containerisatoin
 
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理
 
Particle Swarm Optimization–Long Short-Term Memory based Channel Estimation w...
Particle Swarm Optimization–Long Short-Term Memory based Channel Estimation w...Particle Swarm Optimization–Long Short-Term Memory based Channel Estimation w...
Particle Swarm Optimization–Long Short-Term Memory based Channel Estimation w...
 
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdfAsymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
Asymmetrical Repulsion Magnet Motor Ratio 6-7.pdf
 
原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
 
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdfSri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf
 
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surfaceOpen Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface
 
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back EndFULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
FULL STACK PROGRAMMING - Both Front End and Back End
 
一比一原版(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证如何办理
 
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEERDELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER
 
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理
 
OOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming language
OOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming languageOOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming language
OOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming language
 
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.pptIntroduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt
 
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptxITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
 
comptia-security-sy0-701-exam-objectives-(5-0).pdf
comptia-security-sy0-701-exam-objectives-(5-0).pdfcomptia-security-sy0-701-exam-objectives-(5-0).pdf
comptia-security-sy0-701-exam-objectives-(5-0).pdf
 
ELS: 2.4.1 POWER ELECTRONICS Course objectives: This course will enable stude...
ELS: 2.4.1 POWER ELECTRONICS Course objectives: This course will enable stude...ELS: 2.4.1 POWER ELECTRONICS Course objectives: This course will enable stude...
ELS: 2.4.1 POWER ELECTRONICS Course objectives: This course will enable stude...
 
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure MeasurementProperties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
 

X-Ray Diffraction and Diffraction Methods BASICS

  • 1. Seminar On X – Ray Diffraction Technique and Diffraction Methods Melwin D’mello M.E (Welding Engineering) Centre for Materials Joining & Research (CEMAJOR), Department of Manufacturing Engineering, ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY Presented by
  • 2. CONTENTS • Introduction • Generation of X-ray • X- ray region • X- ray diffraction • XRD Principle • XRD Equipment • Diffraction Methods • Applications of XRD Methods • References
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • X- rays were discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen who called them “X-rays” and it is also called as “Roentgen Rays”. • X- ray diffraction was discovered by Max Von Laue in 1912. • X- rays are electro magnetic radiation with wavelengths in the range 0.1 to 100 A o . • X- rays used in diffraction experiments have typical wavelengths of 0.5 to 1.8 A o.
  • 5. X - RAY REGION
  • 6. X-RAY DIFFRACTION ( XRD ) • These methods are based on the scattering of X-ray crystals. • When x-rays interact with a solid material, the scattered beams causes diffraction.
  • 7. XRD PRINCIPLE • Different Planes in a crystal give different signals equal to positive interface of waves.
  • 9. X-Ray Diffraction Method 1. Laue’s Method 2. Rotating Crystal Method 3. Powder Method EXPERIMENTAL DIFFRACTION METHODS
  • 10. • In this method a single crystal is held stationary in the path of radiation of continuous wavelength. While  is kept constant, the wavelength ,  is varied. • A plane film receives the diffracted beams. A developed film after its exposure shows a diffraction pattern that consists of series of spots. 1. LAUE’S METHOD
  • 11. Laue’s method is divided Into two types a) Transmission Method b) Back Reflection Method
  • 12. a) Transmission Method A beam of x-ray is passed through the crystal, after passing through the crystal, x-rays are diffracted and recorded on a photographic plate.
  • 14. b) Back Reflection Method This method provides similar information as the transmission method.
  • 16. Rotating Crystal Method cont… • In this method , a single crystal is rotated about the fixed axis in a beam of monochromatic. The angle  is variable while the wavelength is kept constant. • The variation of angle  due to rotation of the crystal brings different atomic planes in the crystal into position. • To record such reflections a film is mounted on a cylindrical holder that is concentric with a rotating spindle.
  • 17. • This method is useful for samples that are difficult to obtain in single crystal form. • The powder method is used to determine the value of the lattice parameters accurately. 3. POWDER METHOD
  • 18. • A sample of hundreds of powdered crystals show that the diffracted beams form continuous cones. • A circle of film is used to record the diffraction pattern. • Each cone intersects the film giving diffraction lines. • The lines are seen as arcs on the film. The powder method cont…
  • 19. APPLICATIONS OF XRD METHODS • Determination of crystal size and shape. • Particle size determination by spot counting methods. • Crystallographic structural analysis. • Unit cell calculations for crystalline materials. • Identification of single and multi phase materials
  • 20. REFERENCES 1. “Instrumental Methods Of Chemical Analysis” by Gurudeep R Chatwal. 2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_crystallography