welding metal joining technology welding inspection advanced welding process research engineering soldering types permanent joints brazing soldering shape memory alloys sma advanced materials hydrogen induced cracking hic weld cracks welding defects hot cracks and cold cracks tig variants of tig welding tig welding magnetic arc oscillation welding mao gas welding metal working gas welding and gas cutting cracks in metals modes of crack growth testing crack propogation crack transfer modes mechanical metallurgy cracks crack deformation modes weldability test cold crack test hot crack test root pass murex murex hot-cracking test & root-pass cracking test pwht heat treatment carburizing ceramic joining material joining unique welding process non traditional machining electron beam machining electron beam welding ebw material testing non destructive testing ndt xrd methods diffraction methods x-ray diffraction methods basics xrd smart materials power generation by piezo electric transducer
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