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CRACK DEFORMATION MODES
Melwin D’mello
M.E (Welding Engineering)
Department of Manufacturing Engineering,
ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY
By,
CONTENTS
 Crack
 Failure
 Fracture
 Modes of crack deformation
 Liberty ships failure
CRACK
 A break or split in material without a complete
separation of parts.
 Generally, the term is used to describe breaks in
solid material such as metals, stone, ceramics
etc…
CRACK INITIATION
Physically, cracks initiate from,
 An imperfection
 An already existing crack
 A damaged (weakened) area
STEPS IN CRACK
 Plastic deformation
 Crack initiation
 Crack propagation
 Fracture
FAILURE
 Failure is the condition of not meeting a
intended objective and may be viewed as the
opposite of success.
REASONS FOR FAILURE ?
 Fatigue
 Creep
 Corrosion
 Wear
 And many more..
FRACTURE
 A fracture is the separation of an object or material
into two or more pieces under the action of stress.
 The fracture of a solid usually occurs due to the
development of certain displacement discontinuity
surfaces within the solid.
TYPES OF FRACTURE
 Classification is based on the ability of a material to
experience plastic deformation.
 Ductile fracture
◦ Accompanied by significant plastic deformation
 Brittle fracture
◦ Little or no plastic deformation
◦ Sudden, catastrophic
MODES OF CRACK
DEFORMATION
 Irwin was one of the first to study the behavior
of cracks.
 He introduced three different loading modes,
which are still used today.
MODES OF CRACK
DEFORMATION
Mode I
 Mode I denotes a symmetric opening
(opening or tension mode)
Mode II
 Mode II denotes an antisymmetric
separation (In-plane shear mode)
Mode III
 Mode III denotes an antisymmetric
separation (out-of-plane shear or tearing
mode)
LIBERTY SHIPS FAILURE
References
 A text book of “ Mechanical Metallurgy”
by Gorge E. Dieter : Third edition (Indian
edition )
THANK YOU

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Crack Deformation Modes

  • 1. CRACK DEFORMATION MODES Melwin D’mello M.E (Welding Engineering) Department of Manufacturing Engineering, ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY By,
  • 2. CONTENTS  Crack  Failure  Fracture  Modes of crack deformation  Liberty ships failure
  • 3. CRACK  A break or split in material without a complete separation of parts.  Generally, the term is used to describe breaks in solid material such as metals, stone, ceramics etc…
  • 4. CRACK INITIATION Physically, cracks initiate from,  An imperfection  An already existing crack  A damaged (weakened) area
  • 5. STEPS IN CRACK  Plastic deformation  Crack initiation  Crack propagation  Fracture
  • 6. FAILURE  Failure is the condition of not meeting a intended objective and may be viewed as the opposite of success.
  • 7. REASONS FOR FAILURE ?  Fatigue  Creep  Corrosion  Wear  And many more..
  • 8. FRACTURE  A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress.  The fracture of a solid usually occurs due to the development of certain displacement discontinuity surfaces within the solid.
  • 9. TYPES OF FRACTURE  Classification is based on the ability of a material to experience plastic deformation.  Ductile fracture ◦ Accompanied by significant plastic deformation  Brittle fracture ◦ Little or no plastic deformation ◦ Sudden, catastrophic
  • 10. MODES OF CRACK DEFORMATION  Irwin was one of the first to study the behavior of cracks.  He introduced three different loading modes, which are still used today.
  • 12. Mode I  Mode I denotes a symmetric opening (opening or tension mode)
  • 13. Mode II  Mode II denotes an antisymmetric separation (In-plane shear mode)
  • 14. Mode III  Mode III denotes an antisymmetric separation (out-of-plane shear or tearing mode)
  • 16. References  A text book of “ Mechanical Metallurgy” by Gorge E. Dieter : Third edition (Indian edition )