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Seminar On
CARBURIZING
Melwin D’mello
M.E (Welding Engineering)
Centre for Materials Joining & Research (CEMAJOR),
Department of Manufacturing Engineering,
ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY
Presented by
CONTENTS
• Introduction
• Types of Carburizing
• Advantages/Disadvantages
• Applications
• Conclusion
INTRODUCTION
• It is a heat treatment process.
• Increasing Carbon on the surface of iron or steel
followed by heat treatment.
• Absorbs Carbon liberated when the metal is heated in
the presence of Carbon bearing materials.
• Carbon bearing materials can be Charcoal, Carbon
Monoxide or Carbon gases.
HARDENING AGENTS
•Carbon Monoxide Gas
•Sodium Cyanide
•Barium Carbonate
•Hardwood Charcoal
EFFECTING FACTORS
• Longer Carburizing time and higher
temperatures lead to greater diffusion of carbon
into the metal/alloy.
• Rapid Cooling/Quenching results transformation
of austenite to martensite.
• While core remains soft and tough as a ferritic or
pearlitic microstructure.
WHY CARBURIZING IS
USED?
It is used to increase
• Ductility
• Toughness
• Hardness
• Strength
It is also used to relieve internal stresses.
TYPES OF
CARBURIZING
• Gas Carburizing
• Vacuum Carburizing
• Pack Carburizing
• Liquid Carburizing
GAS CARBURIZING
Process Description:
• Main carburizing agent can be either Methane, Propane,
Natural Gas or any other Carbon carrying gas.
• Work pieces are heated with carbon carrying gas.
• Then held for period of time at specific temperature
between 800°C - 950°C.
• After that quench the sample.
GAS CARBURIZING
VACUUM CARBURIZING
• It is done under very low pressure.
• Sample is heated in vacuum above transformation
temperature.
• Then exposed to carbon carrying gas or mixture under
partial pressure.
• Temperature Range: 800°C to 1100°C
• Pressure Range: 1 to 20 torrs
VACUUM CARBURIZING
PACK CARBURIZING
• Sample is packed in a steel container & sample is
completely surrounded by granules of charcoal.
• Then heated in a furnace for 12 to 72 hours at
900°C.
• Due to high temperature, carbon diffuses into
the surface of sample.
PACK CARBURIZING
LIQUID CARBURIZING
• Sample is placed in molten cyanide’s bath so that carbon
will diffuse into the sample.
• Diffusion of carbon into sample is greater than nitrogen.
• Low temperature salt bath contains 20% cyanide &
operate between 1550°F to 1650°F.
• High temperature salt bath contains 10% cyanide &
operate between 1650°F to 1750°F.
LIQUID CARBURIZING
ADVANTAGES
&
DISADVANTAGES
GAS CARBURIZING
Advantages:
• Surface Carbon contents & case depth can be controlled
accurately.
• It is much cleaner and more efficient method.
Dis Advantages:
• Furnace & gas generator are expensive.
• Handling of fire hazards & toxic gases is difficult.
VACUUM CARBURIZING
Advantages:
• Absence of inter-granular oxidation.
• The process is safe & simple to operate & easy to operate.
Dis Advantages:
• Higher initial equipment cost.
• Formation of soot & tar due to pressure and Hydrogen gas
introduced.
PACK CARBURIZING
Advantages:
• It is simple method and less capital investment.
• No atmosphere control furnace is required.
Dis Advantages:
• Carburizing time is very long.
• Difficult to control surface carbon & case depth.
LIQUID CARBURIZING
Advantages:
• Freedom from oxidation & soot problems.
• A rapid rate of penetration.
Dis Advantages:
• Proper composition is necessary to obtain uniform case
depth.
• Parts must be washed after doing the process.
CHANGES
Mechanical Changes:
• Increase surface hardness
• Increase wear resistance
• Increase Fatigue strength
• Increase Tensile Strength
CHANGES
Physical Changes:
• Grain growth may occur.
• Changes in Volume may occur.
Chemical Changes:
• Increased surface carbon content.
APPLICATIONS
• Gear teeth profiles
• Crane wheels
• Crane cable drum
• Support bracket for agricultural tractor
• Machines worm steels
• Hydraulic clutch
APPLICATIONS
• Fly wheels
• Ball bearings
• Gear wheels & pinion blanks
• Railway wheels
• Crankshaft
• Shackles of lock
• Bevel Gears
CONCLUSION
• The mechanical properties of the steels strongly influence
by carburizing.
• Carbon plays important role in increasing the toughness,
hardness and other mechanical properties of steels.
• Gas Carburizing is used for large parts, liquid carburizing
is used for medium & pack carburizing is used for small
parts usually.
REFERENCES
• A Text book of “MATERIAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING”
By O P Khanna : 2013 Edition
THANK YOU

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Carburzing and Different Types of Carburzing

  • 1. Seminar On CARBURIZING Melwin D’mello M.E (Welding Engineering) Centre for Materials Joining & Research (CEMAJOR), Department of Manufacturing Engineering, ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY Presented by
  • 2. CONTENTS • Introduction • Types of Carburizing • Advantages/Disadvantages • Applications • Conclusion
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • It is a heat treatment process. • Increasing Carbon on the surface of iron or steel followed by heat treatment. • Absorbs Carbon liberated when the metal is heated in the presence of Carbon bearing materials. • Carbon bearing materials can be Charcoal, Carbon Monoxide or Carbon gases.
  • 4. HARDENING AGENTS •Carbon Monoxide Gas •Sodium Cyanide •Barium Carbonate •Hardwood Charcoal
  • 5. EFFECTING FACTORS • Longer Carburizing time and higher temperatures lead to greater diffusion of carbon into the metal/alloy. • Rapid Cooling/Quenching results transformation of austenite to martensite. • While core remains soft and tough as a ferritic or pearlitic microstructure.
  • 6. WHY CARBURIZING IS USED? It is used to increase • Ductility • Toughness • Hardness • Strength It is also used to relieve internal stresses.
  • 7. TYPES OF CARBURIZING • Gas Carburizing • Vacuum Carburizing • Pack Carburizing • Liquid Carburizing
  • 8. GAS CARBURIZING Process Description: • Main carburizing agent can be either Methane, Propane, Natural Gas or any other Carbon carrying gas. • Work pieces are heated with carbon carrying gas. • Then held for period of time at specific temperature between 800°C - 950°C. • After that quench the sample.
  • 10. VACUUM CARBURIZING • It is done under very low pressure. • Sample is heated in vacuum above transformation temperature. • Then exposed to carbon carrying gas or mixture under partial pressure. • Temperature Range: 800°C to 1100°C • Pressure Range: 1 to 20 torrs
  • 12. PACK CARBURIZING • Sample is packed in a steel container & sample is completely surrounded by granules of charcoal. • Then heated in a furnace for 12 to 72 hours at 900°C. • Due to high temperature, carbon diffuses into the surface of sample.
  • 14. LIQUID CARBURIZING • Sample is placed in molten cyanide’s bath so that carbon will diffuse into the sample. • Diffusion of carbon into sample is greater than nitrogen. • Low temperature salt bath contains 20% cyanide & operate between 1550°F to 1650°F. • High temperature salt bath contains 10% cyanide & operate between 1650°F to 1750°F.
  • 17. GAS CARBURIZING Advantages: • Surface Carbon contents & case depth can be controlled accurately. • It is much cleaner and more efficient method. Dis Advantages: • Furnace & gas generator are expensive. • Handling of fire hazards & toxic gases is difficult.
  • 18. VACUUM CARBURIZING Advantages: • Absence of inter-granular oxidation. • The process is safe & simple to operate & easy to operate. Dis Advantages: • Higher initial equipment cost. • Formation of soot & tar due to pressure and Hydrogen gas introduced.
  • 19. PACK CARBURIZING Advantages: • It is simple method and less capital investment. • No atmosphere control furnace is required. Dis Advantages: • Carburizing time is very long. • Difficult to control surface carbon & case depth.
  • 20. LIQUID CARBURIZING Advantages: • Freedom from oxidation & soot problems. • A rapid rate of penetration. Dis Advantages: • Proper composition is necessary to obtain uniform case depth. • Parts must be washed after doing the process.
  • 21. CHANGES Mechanical Changes: • Increase surface hardness • Increase wear resistance • Increase Fatigue strength • Increase Tensile Strength
  • 22. CHANGES Physical Changes: • Grain growth may occur. • Changes in Volume may occur. Chemical Changes: • Increased surface carbon content.
  • 23. APPLICATIONS • Gear teeth profiles • Crane wheels • Crane cable drum • Support bracket for agricultural tractor • Machines worm steels • Hydraulic clutch
  • 24. APPLICATIONS • Fly wheels • Ball bearings • Gear wheels & pinion blanks • Railway wheels • Crankshaft • Shackles of lock • Bevel Gears
  • 25. CONCLUSION • The mechanical properties of the steels strongly influence by carburizing. • Carbon plays important role in increasing the toughness, hardness and other mechanical properties of steels. • Gas Carburizing is used for large parts, liquid carburizing is used for medium & pack carburizing is used for small parts usually.
  • 26. REFERENCES • A Text book of “MATERIAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING” By O P Khanna : 2013 Edition