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Seminar On
GAS WELDING
AND CUTTING
Melwin D’mello
M.E (Welding Engineering)
Centre for Materials Joining & Research (CEMAJOR),
Department of Manufacturing Engineering,
ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY
Presented by
Welding
Welding is a materials joining process which
produces coalescence of materials by heating them to
suitable temperatures with or without the application of
pressure or by the application of pressure alone, and with or
without the use of filler material. Welding is used for
making permanent joints.
Types of Welding
Gas Welding
• Gas welding is a welding process that melts and joins metals by
heating them with a flame caused by a reaction of fuel gas and
oxygen.
• The most commonly used method is Oxyacetylene welding
due to its high flame temperature.
• The flux may be used to deoxidize and cleanse the weld metal.
• The flux melts, solidifies and forms a slag skin on the resultant
weld metal.
Continued....
• Utilizes oxygen and a fuel gas to heat metal until it is in a
molten state and fuse multiple pieces of metal together.
Can be used with or without a filler rod.
• Great for joining dissimilar metals together.
• Older technology that can be replaced by GTAW
Oxyacetylene Welding
• Also known as “oxyacetylene welding”
• Uses an oxyfuel gas flame
• Can be applied with or without pressure
• Can be applied with or without the use of filler
materials
Gas Welding
• Oxy-acetylene Welding:
CaC2 + 2H2O = Ca (OH) 2 + C2H2
C2H2+2.5O2= 2CO2+H2O(vapour)+ 306.800 cal /mol
Gas Welding (Oxy-acetylene)
• A number of welding processes use a flame produced by
burning a mixture of fuel gas and oxygen. The gas usually
used is Acetylene but other gases are also used.
• Separate cylinders and a hose pipe from each cylinder
transports the gases to a torch. Gas and fuel mix in the torch.
Chemical reactions and temperature
distribution in a neutral oxyacetylene
The secondary combustion is also called the protection envelope since CO and
H2 here consume the O2 entering from surrounding air, thereby protecting the
weld from oxidation.
The Oxy-acetylene welding Flame
The oxy-acetylene flame has two distinct zones.
The inner zone (Primary combustion Zone) is the hottest part
of the flame. The welding should be performed so as the point
of the inner zone should be just above the joint edges.
C2H2 + O2 2CO + H2
Primary Combustion zone
The outer zone the secondary combustion envelope performs
two functions
•Preheats the joint edges
•Prevents oxidation by using some of the surrounding oxygen
from weld pool for combustion and gives off carbon dioxide
and water vapour
CO + H2 + O2 CO2 +H2O
Secondary Combustion zone
Oxyacetylene Welding
• Flame formed by burning a mix of acetylene (C2H2)
and oxygen
• Fusion of metal is achieved by passing the inner
cone of the flame over the metal
• Oxyacetylene can also be used for cutting metals
Oxyacetylene Welding
Uses a high-temperature flame from the
combustion of acetylene and oxygen
Oxyacetylene
welding
(a) overall process
(b) welding area.
Gas Welding
GAS WELDING
• Sound weld is obtained by selecting proper size of flame, filler
material and method of moving torch
• The temperature generated during the process is 33000c
• When the metal is fused, oxygen from the atmosphere and
the torch combines with molten metal and forms oxides,
results defective weld
• Fluxes are added to the welded metal to remove oxides
• Common fluxes used are made of sodium, potassium. Lithium
and borax.
• Flux can be applied as paste, powder,liquid.solid coating or gas.
The Oxy-acetylene welding Flame
Oxidizing
Excess oxygen (1.5:1)
(Brasses, Bronzes, copper)
Neutral
Equal acetylene & oxygen
(low carbon steel, mild
steels).
Reducing or Carburizing
Excess acetylene (0.9:1)
(Alloy steels and
aluminium alloys)
Inner Cone
Secondary Combustion
envelope
Acetylene feather
Max. Temp.
Zone
Types of Gas Welding
1. Leftward Welding
2. Rightward Welding
Gas welding two types
Gas welding equipments
1. Gas Cylinders
Pressure
• Oxygen – 125 kg/cm2
• Acetylene – 16 kg/cm2
2. Regulators
• Working pressure of oxygen 1 kg/cm2
• Working pressure of acetylene 0.15 kg/cm2
• Working pressure varies depending upon the thickness of the work
pieces welded.
3. Pressure Gauges
4. Hoses
5. Welding torch
6. Non return valve
Gas welding Apparatus
1. Oxygen cylinder
2. Acetylene cylinder
3. Pressure gauges
4. Valves
5. Hose pipes
6. Torch
7. Welding tip
8. Pressure regulators
9. Lighter
10. Goggles
Gas welding torch
Gas Welding - Advantages
• Simple equipment
• Portable
• Inexpensive
• Easy for maintenance and repair
Gas Welding - Disadvantages
• Very low welding speed
• High total heat input per unit length
• Large heat affected zone
• Severe distortion
• Not recommended for welding reactive metals such
as titanium and zirconium.
References
• Text Book : “Welding Process and Technology” by Dr. R.S
Parmar, 2015 edition.
• Text Book : “Welding Engineering and Technology” by Dr. R.S
Parmar, 2015 edition
THANK
YOU

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Gas welding and Gas cutting Basics

  • 1. Seminar On GAS WELDING AND CUTTING Melwin D’mello M.E (Welding Engineering) Centre for Materials Joining & Research (CEMAJOR), Department of Manufacturing Engineering, ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY Presented by
  • 2. Welding Welding is a materials joining process which produces coalescence of materials by heating them to suitable temperatures with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone, and with or without the use of filler material. Welding is used for making permanent joints.
  • 4. Gas Welding • Gas welding is a welding process that melts and joins metals by heating them with a flame caused by a reaction of fuel gas and oxygen. • The most commonly used method is Oxyacetylene welding due to its high flame temperature. • The flux may be used to deoxidize and cleanse the weld metal. • The flux melts, solidifies and forms a slag skin on the resultant weld metal.
  • 5. Continued.... • Utilizes oxygen and a fuel gas to heat metal until it is in a molten state and fuse multiple pieces of metal together. Can be used with or without a filler rod. • Great for joining dissimilar metals together. • Older technology that can be replaced by GTAW
  • 6. Oxyacetylene Welding • Also known as “oxyacetylene welding” • Uses an oxyfuel gas flame • Can be applied with or without pressure • Can be applied with or without the use of filler materials
  • 7. Gas Welding • Oxy-acetylene Welding: CaC2 + 2H2O = Ca (OH) 2 + C2H2 C2H2+2.5O2= 2CO2+H2O(vapour)+ 306.800 cal /mol
  • 8. Gas Welding (Oxy-acetylene) • A number of welding processes use a flame produced by burning a mixture of fuel gas and oxygen. The gas usually used is Acetylene but other gases are also used. • Separate cylinders and a hose pipe from each cylinder transports the gases to a torch. Gas and fuel mix in the torch.
  • 9. Chemical reactions and temperature distribution in a neutral oxyacetylene The secondary combustion is also called the protection envelope since CO and H2 here consume the O2 entering from surrounding air, thereby protecting the weld from oxidation.
  • 10. The Oxy-acetylene welding Flame The oxy-acetylene flame has two distinct zones. The inner zone (Primary combustion Zone) is the hottest part of the flame. The welding should be performed so as the point of the inner zone should be just above the joint edges. C2H2 + O2 2CO + H2 Primary Combustion zone
  • 11. The outer zone the secondary combustion envelope performs two functions •Preheats the joint edges •Prevents oxidation by using some of the surrounding oxygen from weld pool for combustion and gives off carbon dioxide and water vapour CO + H2 + O2 CO2 +H2O Secondary Combustion zone
  • 12. Oxyacetylene Welding • Flame formed by burning a mix of acetylene (C2H2) and oxygen • Fusion of metal is achieved by passing the inner cone of the flame over the metal • Oxyacetylene can also be used for cutting metals
  • 13. Oxyacetylene Welding Uses a high-temperature flame from the combustion of acetylene and oxygen
  • 14. Oxyacetylene welding (a) overall process (b) welding area. Gas Welding
  • 15. GAS WELDING • Sound weld is obtained by selecting proper size of flame, filler material and method of moving torch • The temperature generated during the process is 33000c • When the metal is fused, oxygen from the atmosphere and the torch combines with molten metal and forms oxides, results defective weld • Fluxes are added to the welded metal to remove oxides • Common fluxes used are made of sodium, potassium. Lithium and borax. • Flux can be applied as paste, powder,liquid.solid coating or gas.
  • 16. The Oxy-acetylene welding Flame Oxidizing Excess oxygen (1.5:1) (Brasses, Bronzes, copper) Neutral Equal acetylene & oxygen (low carbon steel, mild steels). Reducing or Carburizing Excess acetylene (0.9:1) (Alloy steels and aluminium alloys) Inner Cone Secondary Combustion envelope Acetylene feather Max. Temp. Zone
  • 17. Types of Gas Welding 1. Leftward Welding 2. Rightward Welding
  • 19. Gas welding equipments 1. Gas Cylinders Pressure • Oxygen – 125 kg/cm2 • Acetylene – 16 kg/cm2 2. Regulators • Working pressure of oxygen 1 kg/cm2 • Working pressure of acetylene 0.15 kg/cm2 • Working pressure varies depending upon the thickness of the work pieces welded. 3. Pressure Gauges 4. Hoses 5. Welding torch 6. Non return valve
  • 20.
  • 21. Gas welding Apparatus 1. Oxygen cylinder 2. Acetylene cylinder 3. Pressure gauges 4. Valves 5. Hose pipes 6. Torch 7. Welding tip 8. Pressure regulators 9. Lighter 10. Goggles
  • 23.
  • 24. Gas Welding - Advantages • Simple equipment • Portable • Inexpensive • Easy for maintenance and repair
  • 25. Gas Welding - Disadvantages • Very low welding speed • High total heat input per unit length • Large heat affected zone • Severe distortion • Not recommended for welding reactive metals such as titanium and zirconium.
  • 26. References • Text Book : “Welding Process and Technology” by Dr. R.S Parmar, 2015 edition. • Text Book : “Welding Engineering and Technology” by Dr. R.S Parmar, 2015 edition