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SHAMPOO
Dr. Prashant L. Pingale
Associate Professor,
Dept. of Pharmaceutics,
GES’s Sir Dr. M. S. Gosavi College of Pharm.
Edu. and Research,
Nashik-422005
HAIR CARE PRODUCTS
• Hair cleansers:
– Shampoos of various types
• Hair dressings:
– Brilliantine (make the hair lustrous), pomades, hair oils, hair creams.
• Hair wavers, curlers & straightners:
– Hair waving, cold waving
• Hair tonics:
– Containing sulphur derivatives, vitamins.
• Hair removers:
– Depilatories, epilatories
• Hair dyes & bleaches:
• Shaving preparations: soaps, creams
2
DEFINITION
• Shampoo is a common hair care product
• Used for the removal of oils, dirt, dandruff,
environmental pollutants and other contaminant
particles that gradually build up in hair.
3
Functions of Shampoo
• Cleaning agents:
– shampoos should be mild, effective, without causing irritation
– should be used daily or on alternate days as needed.
– they remove dust and excess oil from the hair.
• Antiseborrhoeic agents:
– Preventing excessive secretion of sebum,
– they have cytostatic effect on cells of the epidermis and follicular
epithelium, thus reducing corneocyte production.
4
• Antidandruff agents:
– these treat dandruff due to fungi like pityriasis versicolor.
– rapidly relieves scaling and pruritis which are associated
with fungal infections.
• Keratolytic agents:
– they remove ointment, pastes, which are used in the
treatment of psoriasis.
– they also remove hard scales from the scalp.
5
Qualities of Shampoo
 Easy spreading
 Easy rinsing
 Should completely remove
dust or soil, excessive sebum
 No damage to hair
 Pleasant fragrance
 Low toxicity
 Good biodegradability
 Effectively wash hair
 Good finish after washing hair
 Minimal skin/eye irritation
 Feels thick and/or creamy
 Good foaming ability
 Slightly acidic (pH LT 7), since a
basic environment weakens the
hair by breaking the disulfide
bonds in hair keratin.
6
Factors taking into consideration
while manufacturing
* Safety or non- toxicity
* Ease of distribution & lathering power
* Lustre imparted to hair
* Ease of combing wet hair
* Speed of drying
* Ease of setting dry hair
7
COMPOSITION
• Surfactant (Cleaning agents)
• Preservatives
• Germicidal & antidandruff agents
• Conditioning agents
• Thickening agent
• Color additives
• Perfumes or Fragrance
• pH adjuster
• Sequestrants
• Pearlscent agent or Opacifying agents
• Humectants
• Clarifying agents 8
Surfactant (Cleaning agents)
• The prime ingredients in all shampoos
• Responsible for cleaning action and lathering properties,
they largely determine the hair’s condition after
shampooing.
• The major types of surfactants are:
– Anionic,
– Cationic,
– Nonionic and
– Amphoteric
9
Anionic Surfactants
► Anionic surfactants carry a negative charge when ionized.
► It provides
 a lot of the lather and
 detergency in the shampoo
 excellent cleanings,
 foaming, and
 solubility properties.
► The most commonly used anionic are:
• Sodium laureth sulphate and
• Sodium lauryl sulphate.
► A major disadvantage is that they can be harsh and irritating to the scalp.
► Frequently, other surfactants and ingredients are added to reduce skin
irritation
10
Cationic surfactants
►Cationic surfactants carry positive charge when ionized.
►They are used less frequently due to their dangerous threat to
eyes if used in large quantities.
►The gentleness of shampoo depends on the surfactant found in
its ingredients.
►Consequently they are not easily removed during the rinsing
process and form the basis of conditioning.
►Polyquarternium-10 is one of the most common cationic
conditioners.
11
Nonionic surfactants
► Nonionic surfactant has no charge to the molecule.
► Not used as a cleaning agent, but are often used in combination
with the primary cleanser
 to change or modify it’s actions,
 they aid in solubility,
 modifying foam,
 conditioning.
► They can strip the hair and lead to scalp irritation due to
excessive defatting.
► These include laureth-3 or 4, cocamide diethanolamine.
12
Amphoteric surfactants
► Carries both positive and negative charges when ionized.
► They are very useful for
• decreasing the irritancy of a formulation
• increasing the active contents level of the product
• quality of the lather produced.
► Each amphoteric surfactant has cationic and anionic charge
groups, positive and negative.
► Most amphoteric shampoo surfactants are used in baby
shampoos, because they are gentle and won’t burn the eyes.
o cocamido propyl betaine,
o cocamido betaine.
13
Surfactant Functions in Shampoo
• Cleansing:
 Cleansing is a function of the primary surfactant.
 To be an effective cleansing agent the surfactant system must work
quickly at a relatively low temperature.
 It must be effective in hard and soft water, be able to remove lipids and
other soils and residues left after previous hair treatments and it must
not leave any residues of its own.
 It must be non-toxic and reasonably non-irritant to skin and eyes.
 EX.
 Ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS)
 Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES)
14
• Foaming:
– Foam is also a function of the primary
surfactant
– Few materials can compete with ALS or SLES
for quick foam.
– Additional materials may depress the foam or
make it creamier and stabilise it.
15
• Conditioning:
– There are many ways of improving hair conditions.
– SLES and other anionic surfactants leave the hair
feeling dry and difficult to manage.
– The introduction of a suitable secondary surfactant
greatly reduces this.
16
• Viscosity:
– Products must have sufficient viscosity to stay on the
palm of the hand prior to application but must not come
out of the bottles as a globular lump.
– Anionic systems may be thickened by the addition of
electrolytes or non – ionic compounds.
– Sodium chloride is the materials of common choice.
17
Preservatives
 Bacterial attack may lead to break detergency in shampoos results in
discoloration of product.
 Formaldehyde (0.1- 0.15%) : but not compatible with ings.
 Esters of parahydroxy benzoic acid is also used but inactivated in
presence of non-ionic surfactants & not effective against
pseudomonas.
 Sodium benzoate is another preservative used in shampoos. It kills
bacteria, fungi, and yeasts, and works well in acidic mixtures.
 DMDM hydantoin (dimethylodimethyl hydantoin)
 Imidazolidinyl urea (to prevent fungal and bacterial spoilage)
 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol. (bactericide)
18
Germicidal & antidandruff agents
• Used to prevent microbial infection (germ)
• Treat dandruff
– Germicides:
• quaternary ammonium compounds
– Benzalkonium chloride,
– Cetrimide
– Antidandruff:
– Selenium sulphide,
– Cadmium sulphide,
– Sodium sulphacetamide etc…
19
Conditioning agents
• Give special conditioning effect to hair
• Example:
– lanolin, oils,
– natural products
• Herbal extract,
• Egg,
• Amino acids,
• Lecithin.
20
Thickening agent
• Used to make shampoo, viscous for easy handling & minimize wastage while
pouring
• Example.
– Alginates,
– PVA,
– MC,
– PEG,
– Colloidal silicates
• Sometimes suitable combination of surfactant is also used to make preparation
viscous
– Example: Sulphonated castor oil + Sulphonated olive oil
21
Color additives
• Preferred by several people
• Used by some manufacturer only
• Nowadays commonly used
• Only certified colors are used
• Used to produce attractive impact
• Colors used should be water soluble.
22
Perfumes
• Used to have an after-use fragrance on the
hair
• Mask the odor of the other ingredients,
particularly detergents
• Various perfumes are used in concentration
of 0.3 -1.0%
23
pH balance
• Most shampoos are made slightly acidic, to keep the cuticle
smooth and lying flat on the hair shaft.
• Ingredients like citric acid are added to acidify the shampoo.
• As the shampoo mixes with the water in the shower or bath,
or mixes with dirt on the hair, it can become less acidic as the
acids mix with alkaline water or dirt.
• A compound that releases more acidifying ions when the
acidity gets low, or absorbs acid when the acidity gets too
high, is called a buffer.
• A typical buffering agent used in shampoo is sodium citrate.
24
Sequestrants
• They form water soluble complex with Ca + + & Mg + +
• Prevent the formation of insoluble salts of soaps or
detergents by these two divalent ions present in water
• Examples:
– Sodium salt of EDTA
25
Pearlscent agent or Opacifying
agents
• Used to shine the hairs
• Used to brighten the hairs
• Examples:
– 4 - methyl coumarins
– Used in conc. of 0.2 to 1%
– Generally used in pH 4.5-6.
26
Clarifying agents
• Used to clear the shampoo
• Used to improve transparency
• Example:
– Ethanol,
– Isopropyl alcohol,
– PG,
– Phosphates etc…
27
Types of shampoo
 Powder shampoo
 Clear liquid shampoo
 Liquid cream or lotion shampoo
 Solid cream or gel shampoo
 Oil shampoo
 Medicated shampoo
 Antidandruff shampoo
 Baby shampoo
 Soap Baby shampoo
 Aerosol shampoo
 Herbal shampoo 28
Powder shampoo
• Sodium bicarbonate : 50 %
• Disodium phospahate : 20%
• Soap powder : 30%
• Perfume : q.s
• Procedure:
– Mix all ingredients & add perfume finally
Formula
29
Clear liquid shampoo
• Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate : 45%
• Coconut monoethanolamine : 2%
• Water : 53%
• Perfume : q.s.
• Color : q.s.
• Preservative : q.s.
• Procedure:
– Made by simple solution
– Color & Preservative should be dissolved in water
– Perfume should be added last
Formula
30
Oil shampoo
• Sulphonated olive oil : 16%
• Sulphonated castor oil : 16%
• Water : 68%
• Perfume : q.s.
• Color : q.s.
• Preservative : q.s.
• Procedure:
– Mix all ingredients together
– Color & Preservative should be dissolved in water
– Perfume should be added last
Formula
31
Antidandruff shampoo
• Thymol : 0.05%
• Menthol: 0.10%
• Camphor: 0.10%
• Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate: 50%
• Water: 49.75%
• Perfume: q.s.
• Procedure:
– Mix thymol, menthol & camphor together
– Add perfume & add smalll amount of detergent with stirring
– Continue the addition of detergent with gentle stirring
– Add water to volume
Formula
32
Herbals used in shampoo
• Aloe
• Marigold
• Arnica
• Rosemary
• Chamomile
• Horsetail
• Licorice
33
Shampoo’s
1. Clinic Plus
2. Sunsilk
3. Chik
Herbal Shampoos
1. Ayush
2. Dabur Vatika
3. Nyle
Anti Dandruff Shampoos
1. Clinic All Clear
2. Head and Shoulders
3. Dandrazol
Baby Shampoo
1. Johnson's Baby Shampoo
2. Dalin Baby Shampoo
34
Evaluation of Shampoo
• Determination of pH
• Determine Percent of Solids
• Shake Test - Determination of Foam Formation
• Foam Quality and Retention
• Determination of Relative Viscosity
• Dirt Dispersion
• Effect on skin & eyes
• Effect on hair
35

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Shampoo

  • 1. SHAMPOO Dr. Prashant L. Pingale Associate Professor, Dept. of Pharmaceutics, GES’s Sir Dr. M. S. Gosavi College of Pharm. Edu. and Research, Nashik-422005
  • 2. HAIR CARE PRODUCTS • Hair cleansers: – Shampoos of various types • Hair dressings: – Brilliantine (make the hair lustrous), pomades, hair oils, hair creams. • Hair wavers, curlers & straightners: – Hair waving, cold waving • Hair tonics: – Containing sulphur derivatives, vitamins. • Hair removers: – Depilatories, epilatories • Hair dyes & bleaches: • Shaving preparations: soaps, creams 2
  • 3. DEFINITION • Shampoo is a common hair care product • Used for the removal of oils, dirt, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. 3
  • 4. Functions of Shampoo • Cleaning agents: – shampoos should be mild, effective, without causing irritation – should be used daily or on alternate days as needed. – they remove dust and excess oil from the hair. • Antiseborrhoeic agents: – Preventing excessive secretion of sebum, – they have cytostatic effect on cells of the epidermis and follicular epithelium, thus reducing corneocyte production. 4
  • 5. • Antidandruff agents: – these treat dandruff due to fungi like pityriasis versicolor. – rapidly relieves scaling and pruritis which are associated with fungal infections. • Keratolytic agents: – they remove ointment, pastes, which are used in the treatment of psoriasis. – they also remove hard scales from the scalp. 5
  • 6. Qualities of Shampoo  Easy spreading  Easy rinsing  Should completely remove dust or soil, excessive sebum  No damage to hair  Pleasant fragrance  Low toxicity  Good biodegradability  Effectively wash hair  Good finish after washing hair  Minimal skin/eye irritation  Feels thick and/or creamy  Good foaming ability  Slightly acidic (pH LT 7), since a basic environment weakens the hair by breaking the disulfide bonds in hair keratin. 6
  • 7. Factors taking into consideration while manufacturing * Safety or non- toxicity * Ease of distribution & lathering power * Lustre imparted to hair * Ease of combing wet hair * Speed of drying * Ease of setting dry hair 7
  • 8. COMPOSITION • Surfactant (Cleaning agents) • Preservatives • Germicidal & antidandruff agents • Conditioning agents • Thickening agent • Color additives • Perfumes or Fragrance • pH adjuster • Sequestrants • Pearlscent agent or Opacifying agents • Humectants • Clarifying agents 8
  • 9. Surfactant (Cleaning agents) • The prime ingredients in all shampoos • Responsible for cleaning action and lathering properties, they largely determine the hair’s condition after shampooing. • The major types of surfactants are: – Anionic, – Cationic, – Nonionic and – Amphoteric 9
  • 10. Anionic Surfactants ► Anionic surfactants carry a negative charge when ionized. ► It provides  a lot of the lather and  detergency in the shampoo  excellent cleanings,  foaming, and  solubility properties. ► The most commonly used anionic are: • Sodium laureth sulphate and • Sodium lauryl sulphate. ► A major disadvantage is that they can be harsh and irritating to the scalp. ► Frequently, other surfactants and ingredients are added to reduce skin irritation 10
  • 11. Cationic surfactants ►Cationic surfactants carry positive charge when ionized. ►They are used less frequently due to their dangerous threat to eyes if used in large quantities. ►The gentleness of shampoo depends on the surfactant found in its ingredients. ►Consequently they are not easily removed during the rinsing process and form the basis of conditioning. ►Polyquarternium-10 is one of the most common cationic conditioners. 11
  • 12. Nonionic surfactants ► Nonionic surfactant has no charge to the molecule. ► Not used as a cleaning agent, but are often used in combination with the primary cleanser  to change or modify it’s actions,  they aid in solubility,  modifying foam,  conditioning. ► They can strip the hair and lead to scalp irritation due to excessive defatting. ► These include laureth-3 or 4, cocamide diethanolamine. 12
  • 13. Amphoteric surfactants ► Carries both positive and negative charges when ionized. ► They are very useful for • decreasing the irritancy of a formulation • increasing the active contents level of the product • quality of the lather produced. ► Each amphoteric surfactant has cationic and anionic charge groups, positive and negative. ► Most amphoteric shampoo surfactants are used in baby shampoos, because they are gentle and won’t burn the eyes. o cocamido propyl betaine, o cocamido betaine. 13
  • 14. Surfactant Functions in Shampoo • Cleansing:  Cleansing is a function of the primary surfactant.  To be an effective cleansing agent the surfactant system must work quickly at a relatively low temperature.  It must be effective in hard and soft water, be able to remove lipids and other soils and residues left after previous hair treatments and it must not leave any residues of its own.  It must be non-toxic and reasonably non-irritant to skin and eyes.  EX.  Ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS)  Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) 14
  • 15. • Foaming: – Foam is also a function of the primary surfactant – Few materials can compete with ALS or SLES for quick foam. – Additional materials may depress the foam or make it creamier and stabilise it. 15
  • 16. • Conditioning: – There are many ways of improving hair conditions. – SLES and other anionic surfactants leave the hair feeling dry and difficult to manage. – The introduction of a suitable secondary surfactant greatly reduces this. 16
  • 17. • Viscosity: – Products must have sufficient viscosity to stay on the palm of the hand prior to application but must not come out of the bottles as a globular lump. – Anionic systems may be thickened by the addition of electrolytes or non – ionic compounds. – Sodium chloride is the materials of common choice. 17
  • 18. Preservatives  Bacterial attack may lead to break detergency in shampoos results in discoloration of product.  Formaldehyde (0.1- 0.15%) : but not compatible with ings.  Esters of parahydroxy benzoic acid is also used but inactivated in presence of non-ionic surfactants & not effective against pseudomonas.  Sodium benzoate is another preservative used in shampoos. It kills bacteria, fungi, and yeasts, and works well in acidic mixtures.  DMDM hydantoin (dimethylodimethyl hydantoin)  Imidazolidinyl urea (to prevent fungal and bacterial spoilage)  2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol. (bactericide) 18
  • 19. Germicidal & antidandruff agents • Used to prevent microbial infection (germ) • Treat dandruff – Germicides: • quaternary ammonium compounds – Benzalkonium chloride, – Cetrimide – Antidandruff: – Selenium sulphide, – Cadmium sulphide, – Sodium sulphacetamide etc… 19
  • 20. Conditioning agents • Give special conditioning effect to hair • Example: – lanolin, oils, – natural products • Herbal extract, • Egg, • Amino acids, • Lecithin. 20
  • 21. Thickening agent • Used to make shampoo, viscous for easy handling & minimize wastage while pouring • Example. – Alginates, – PVA, – MC, – PEG, – Colloidal silicates • Sometimes suitable combination of surfactant is also used to make preparation viscous – Example: Sulphonated castor oil + Sulphonated olive oil 21
  • 22. Color additives • Preferred by several people • Used by some manufacturer only • Nowadays commonly used • Only certified colors are used • Used to produce attractive impact • Colors used should be water soluble. 22
  • 23. Perfumes • Used to have an after-use fragrance on the hair • Mask the odor of the other ingredients, particularly detergents • Various perfumes are used in concentration of 0.3 -1.0% 23
  • 24. pH balance • Most shampoos are made slightly acidic, to keep the cuticle smooth and lying flat on the hair shaft. • Ingredients like citric acid are added to acidify the shampoo. • As the shampoo mixes with the water in the shower or bath, or mixes with dirt on the hair, it can become less acidic as the acids mix with alkaline water or dirt. • A compound that releases more acidifying ions when the acidity gets low, or absorbs acid when the acidity gets too high, is called a buffer. • A typical buffering agent used in shampoo is sodium citrate. 24
  • 25. Sequestrants • They form water soluble complex with Ca + + & Mg + + • Prevent the formation of insoluble salts of soaps or detergents by these two divalent ions present in water • Examples: – Sodium salt of EDTA 25
  • 26. Pearlscent agent or Opacifying agents • Used to shine the hairs • Used to brighten the hairs • Examples: – 4 - methyl coumarins – Used in conc. of 0.2 to 1% – Generally used in pH 4.5-6. 26
  • 27. Clarifying agents • Used to clear the shampoo • Used to improve transparency • Example: – Ethanol, – Isopropyl alcohol, – PG, – Phosphates etc… 27
  • 28. Types of shampoo  Powder shampoo  Clear liquid shampoo  Liquid cream or lotion shampoo  Solid cream or gel shampoo  Oil shampoo  Medicated shampoo  Antidandruff shampoo  Baby shampoo  Soap Baby shampoo  Aerosol shampoo  Herbal shampoo 28
  • 29. Powder shampoo • Sodium bicarbonate : 50 % • Disodium phospahate : 20% • Soap powder : 30% • Perfume : q.s • Procedure: – Mix all ingredients & add perfume finally Formula 29
  • 30. Clear liquid shampoo • Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate : 45% • Coconut monoethanolamine : 2% • Water : 53% • Perfume : q.s. • Color : q.s. • Preservative : q.s. • Procedure: – Made by simple solution – Color & Preservative should be dissolved in water – Perfume should be added last Formula 30
  • 31. Oil shampoo • Sulphonated olive oil : 16% • Sulphonated castor oil : 16% • Water : 68% • Perfume : q.s. • Color : q.s. • Preservative : q.s. • Procedure: – Mix all ingredients together – Color & Preservative should be dissolved in water – Perfume should be added last Formula 31
  • 32. Antidandruff shampoo • Thymol : 0.05% • Menthol: 0.10% • Camphor: 0.10% • Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate: 50% • Water: 49.75% • Perfume: q.s. • Procedure: – Mix thymol, menthol & camphor together – Add perfume & add smalll amount of detergent with stirring – Continue the addition of detergent with gentle stirring – Add water to volume Formula 32
  • 33. Herbals used in shampoo • Aloe • Marigold • Arnica • Rosemary • Chamomile • Horsetail • Licorice 33
  • 34. Shampoo’s 1. Clinic Plus 2. Sunsilk 3. Chik Herbal Shampoos 1. Ayush 2. Dabur Vatika 3. Nyle Anti Dandruff Shampoos 1. Clinic All Clear 2. Head and Shoulders 3. Dandrazol Baby Shampoo 1. Johnson's Baby Shampoo 2. Dalin Baby Shampoo 34
  • 35. Evaluation of Shampoo • Determination of pH • Determine Percent of Solids • Shake Test - Determination of Foam Formation • Foam Quality and Retention • Determination of Relative Viscosity • Dirt Dispersion • Effect on skin & eyes • Effect on hair 35