SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Ophthalmic Products
Dr. Prashant L. Pingale
Associate Professor, Dept. of Pharmaceutics
GES’s Sir Dr. M. S. Gosavi College of Pharm. Edu. & Research,
Nashik-422005, INDIA
Contact lens and lens care products
General Requirements
Ocular penetration enhancers
Approaches in recent ocular drug delivery system
Various conventional ocular formulations
Mechanisms & barriers for ocular drug absorption
Diagram shows various parts of eyes
Introduction, advantages & disadvantagesC
O
N
T
E
N
T
S
2
 Sterile, isotonic products that may be in the form of solutions,
suspensions, ointments or any novel drug delivery system,
administered topically, subconjunctival or as intraocular injection.
 For ailments of the eye, topical administration is usually preferred
over systemic administration, before reaching the anatomical
barrier of the cornea, any drug molecule administered by the
ocular route has to cross the precorneal barriers.
3
Introduction
Introduction
 They are specialized dosage forms designed to be instilled onto
the external surface of the eye (topical), administered inside
(intraocular) or adjacent (periocular) to the eye or used in
conjunction with an ophthalmic device.
 The most commonly employed ophthalmic dosage forms are
solutions, suspensions, and ointments. But these preparations
when instilled into the eye are rapidly drained away from the
ocular cavity due to tear flow and lacrimal nasal drainage.
 The newest dosage forms for: gels, gel-forming solutions,
ocular inserts, intravitreal injections and implants.
4
Drugs used in the eye
 Miotics e.g. pilocarpine HCl
 Mydriatics e.g. atropine
 Cycloplegics e.g. atropine
 Anti-inflammatory e.g. corticosteroids
 Anti - infectives e.g. antibiotics, antivirals and antibacterials)
 Anti-glucoma drugs e.g. pilocarpine Hcl
 Surgical adjuncts e.g. irrigating solutions
 Diagnostic drugs e.g. sodiumfluorescein
 Anaesthetics e.g. tetracaine
5
Characteristics required ocular drug delivery
system
 Good corneal penetration.
 Prolong contact time with corneal tissue.
 Simplicity of instillation for the patient.
 Non irritative and comfortable form (viscous solution
should not provoke lachrymal secretion and reflex
blinking)
 Appropriate rheological properties and concentrations
of the viscous system
6
Anatomy & Physiology of Eye
Ciliary body
Lens
Cornea
Iris
Anterior
chamber Posterior
chamber
7
Anatomy & Physiology of Eye
 The sclera: The protective outer layer of the eye, referred to as
the “white of the eye” and it maintains the shape of the eye.
 The cornea: The front portion of the sclera, is transparent and
allows light to enter the eye. The cornea is a powerful refracting
surface, providing much of the eye's focusing power.
 The choroid is the second layer of the eye and lies between the
sclera and the retina. It contains the blood vessels that provide
nourishment to the outer layers of the retina.
8
Anatomy & Physiology of Eye
 The iris is the part of the eye that gives it color. It consists of muscular
tissue that responds to surrounding light, making the pupil, or circular
opening in the center of the iris, larger or smaller depending on the
brightness of the light.
 The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure, encased in a thin
transparent covering. The function of the lens is to refract and focus
incoming light onto the retina.
 The retina is the innermost layer in the eye. It converts images into
electrical impulses that are sent along the optic nerve to the brain where
the images are interpreted.
9
Anatomy & Physiology of Eye
 The inside of the eyeball is divided by the lens into two fluid-filled
sections.
 The larger section at the back of the eye is filled with a colorless
gelatinous mass called the vitreous humor.
 The smaller section in the front contains a clear, water-like material
called aqueous humor.
 The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane that begins at the edge of the
cornea and lines the inside surface of the eyelids and sclera, which
serves to lubricate the eye.
10
General requirements and considerations
 Safety
 Ocular toxicity & irritation
 Preservation & Preservatives
11
Safety
▪ Ideally, all ophthalmic products would be terminally sterilized in the final
packaging.
▪ Only few ophthalmic drugs formulated in simple aq. vehicles are stable to
normal autoclaving tempt. & times (121°C for 20-30 min).
▪ Such heat-resistant drugs may be packaged in glass or other heat-
deformation-resistant packaging and thus can be sterilized in this manner.
▪ Most ophthalmic products, however cannot be heat sterilized due to the
active principle or polymers used to increase viscosity are not stable to
heat.
12
Safety
▪ Most ophthalmic products are aseptically manufactured and filled
into previously sterilized containers in aseptic environments using
aseptic filling-and-capping techniques.
13
Ocular toxicity and irritation
- Albino rabbits are used to test the ocular toxicity and irritation of
ophthalmic formulations.
- The procedure based on the examination of the conjunctiva, the cornea
or the iris.
- E.g. USP procedure for plastic containers:
1- Containers are cleaned and sterilized as in the final packaged product.
2- Extracted by submersion in saline and cottonseed oil.
3- Topical ocular instillation of the extracts and blanks in rabbits is
completed and ocular changes examined.
14
Preservation and preservatives
 Preservatives are included in multiple-dose eye solutions for
maintaining the product sterility during use.
 Preservatives not included in unit-dose package.
 The use of preservatives is prohibited in ophthalmic products that are
used at the of eye surgery because, if sufficient concentration of the
preservative is contacted with the corneal endothelium, the cells can
become damaged causing clouding of the cornea and possible loss of
vision.
 So these products should be packaged in sterile, unit-of-use
containers.
 The most common organism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa that grow in
the cornea and cause loss of vision.
15
Preservation and preservatives
16
Preservation and preservatives
Cationic wetting agents:
▪ Benzalkonium chloride (0.01%)
▪ It is generally used in combination with 0.01-0.1%
disodium edetate (EDTA). The chelating, EDTA has
the ability to render the resistant strains of PS
aeruginosa more sensitive to benzalkonium chloride.
Organic mercurials:
▪ Phenylmercuric nitrate 0.002-0.004%
▪ Phenylmercuric acetate 0.005-0.02%.
17
Preservation and preservatives
Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid:
▪ Mixture of 0.1% of both methyl and propyl hydroxybenzoate
(2 :1)
Alcohol Substitutes:
▪ Chlorobutanol (0.5%). Effective only at pH 5-6.
▪ Phenylethanol (0.5%)
18
Absorption of drugs in the eye
Factors affecting drug availability:
Rapid solution drainage by gravity, induced lachrymation,
blinking reflex, and normal tear turnover:
- The normal volume of tears = 7 μl, the blinking eye can
accommodate a volume of up to 30 μl without spillage, the
drop volume = 50 μl
19
Lacrimal nasal drainage
20
Absorption of drugs in the eye
▪ Superficial absorption of drug into the conjunctiva and sclera and
rapid removal by the peripheral blood flow:
▪ Low corneal permeability (act as lipid barrier)
▪ In general:
▪ Transport of hydrophilic and macromolecular drugs occurs through
scleral route
▪ Lipophilic agents of low molecular weight follow transcorneal
transport by passive diffusion and obey
▪ Fick’s first law of diffusion:
J = - D . d Cm / dx
21
Corneal absorption
J = The flux rate across the membrane
D = diffusion coefficient
- The diffusion coefficient, as the molecular size of the drug
Cm = concentration gradient
- As the drug solubility, the gradient, the driving force for drug entry into
the aqueous humor.
- The drug should have dual solubility (oil and water soluble) to traverse
the corneal epithelium (lipid barrier) then the aqueous humour.
22
Corneal absorption
23
Novel approaches in ocular DDS
 In situ forming gels
 Liposomes
 Nanoparticles
 Inserts
 Implantable systems
24
• Minidisc
• Soft contact lenses
• Niosomes
• Pharmacosomes
• Collagen shields
In situ forming gels
 The progress has been made in gel technology lip the
development of in-situ forming gel.
 They are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in
the ocular cul-de-sac to form viscoelastic gel.
 This provides a response to environmental changes.
 Three methods have been employed to cause phase transition in
the eye surface.
 These are change in pH, change in temperature and ion
activation.
25
Change in pH
In this method gelling of the solution is triggered by a
change in the pH.
CAP latex cross linked polyacrylic acid and derivatives
such as carbomers are used.
They are low viscosity polymeric dispersion in water
which undergoes spontaneous coagulation and gelation
after instillation in the conjunctival cul-de-sac.
26
Change in Temperature
 In this method gelling of the solution is triggered by
change in the temperature.
 Sustained drug delivery can be achieved by the use of a
polymer that changes from solution to gel at the
temperature of the eye.
 But disadvantage of this is characterized by high
polymer concentration (25% Poloxamers).
 Methyl cellulose and smart hydrogels are other
examples.
27
Ionic strength
 In this method gelling of the solution Instilled Is triggered
by change in the Ionic strength.
 Example Is Gelrite.
 Gelrite is a polysaccharide, low acetyl gellan gum, which
forms a clear gel in the presence of mono or divalent
cations.
 The concentration of sodium in human tears is 2.6 g/l is
particularly suitable to cause gelation of the material
when topically installed into the conjunctival sac.
28
Liposomes
 'Lipos' meaning fat and 'Soma' meaning body
 artificially prepared vesicles made of lipid bilayer.
 can be filled with drugs, and used to deliver drugs for cancer
and other diseases.
 can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes, for
example by sonication.
 can be composed of naturally-derived phospholipids with
mixed lipid chains (like egg phosphatidylethanolamine) or other
surfactants.
29
Liposomes
 The use of liposomes as a topically administered ocular drug
delivery system began in the early stage of research into
ophthalmic drug delivery.
 But the results were favorable for lipophilic drugs and not for-
hydrophilic drugs.
 Liposomes must be suitable for ocular DD provided, they had an
affinity for, and were able to bind to, ocular surfaces, and release
contents at optimal rates.
 The addition of stearylamine to a liposomal preparation enhanced
the corneal absorption of dexamethyl valerate.
30
Liposomes
 The corneal epithelium is thinly coated with negatively charged
mucin to which the positive surface charge of the liposome may
absorb more strongly.
 Coating with bioadhesive polymers to liposomes, prolong the
precomea retention of liposomes.
 Carbopol 1342-coated pilocarpine containing liposomes were
shown to produce a longer duration of action.
 Liposomal preparation of acetazolamide, hydrocortisone and
tropicamide are studied.
 Coating the lipueme with bioadhesive polymers Ilka carbopal
increased the corneal retention followed by sustained action
Cyclosporin applied topically to the eye in the olive oil crops in a
liposome encapsulated form and in a cellophane shield showed
slow releasing property.
31
Nanoparticles
a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its
transport and properties. It is further classified according to
size: in terms of diameter, fine particles cover a range between
100 and 2500 nanometers.
provide SR and prolonged therapeutic activity.
when retained in cul-de-sac after topical administration &
entrapped drug must be released from particles at an
appropriate rate.
enhance particle retention, it is desirable to fabricate the
particles with bioadhesive materials.
32
Nanoparticles
 Biodegradation is also a highly desirable property for the
fabrication of nanoparticles.
 Most commonly used polymers are venous poly (alkyl
cyanoacrylates), poly S- caprolactone and PLGA, which undergo
hydrolysis in tears.
 Coating of nanoparticles with bioadhesive polymers improves the
bioavailability. Chitosan coated nanocapsules improve the
bioavailability.
 Nanoparticles as an ophthalmic drug delivery have been
demonstrated for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
33
Inserts
34
Classification of Patented Ocular Inserts
Insoluble
inserts
Soluble
inserts
Bioerodible
inserts
35
Classification of Patented Ocular Inserts
1) Insoluble inserts
a) Diffusion based
b) Osmotic based
c) Soft contact lenses
2) Soluble inserts
3) Bioerodible inserts
36
Characteristics of inserts
1) Ease of handling and insertion
2) Lack of expulsion during wear
3) Reproducibility of release kinetics (Zero-order drug delivery)
4) Applicability to variety of drugs
5) Non-interference with vision and oxygen permeability
6) Sterility
7) Stability
8) Ease of manufacture
37
Inserts
Solid inserts were introduced into the market 60 years ago.
The first solid insert was described in 1948 in BP.
It was an atropine containing gelatin wafer and in 1980's
numerous systems were developed using various polymers &
different drug release principles for controlled drug release.
Insoluble inserts are polymeric systems into which the drug is
incorporated as a solution or dispersion.
Ophthalmic inserts (ocuserts): alginate salts, PVP, modified
collagen and HPC.
Ocufit is a silicone elastomer based matrix that allows for the
CR of an active ingredient over, a period of at least 2 weeks.
38
Inserts
 Soluble inserts consists of all monolytic polymeric devices
that at the end of their release, the device dissolve or erode.
 Soluble ophthalmic drug inserts is a soluble copolymer of
acrylarnide, N-vinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl acrylate.
 It is a sterile thin film or wafer of oval shape.
 The system soften in 10-15 sec after introduction in to the
upper conjuctival sac, gradually dissolves within 1 h, while
releasing the drug.
 A soluble insert containing gentamycin sulphate and
dexamethasone phosphate has been developed.
 Pilocarpine Insert for glaucoma is also available.
39
Inserts
But these systems have the drawback that that blurred
vision while the polymer is dissolving.
Water soluble bioadhesive component in its formulation has
been developed to decrease the risk of expulsion and
ensure prolonged residence in the eye, combined with
controlled drug release.
They are bioadhesive ophthalmic drug inserts.
A system based on gentamycin obtained by extrusion of a
mixture of polymers, showing a release timer of about 72 h
has been reported.
Due to difficulty with self-insertion, foreign body sensation,
only few insert products are listed and pharmaceutical
manufacturers are not actively developing inserts for
commercialization.
40
Implantable systems
 The poly lactic acid and its copolymers with glycolic acid
have been used extensively as implants.
 An ocular implant for delivering ganciclovir for the treatment
of cytomegalo virus has also been developed.
 This delivers drug directly to the retina for over 5 months.
 These systems are less popular as they require minor
surgery.
41
Minidisc
 Minidisc is a controlled release monolithic matrix type
device consisting of a contoured disc with a convex front
and a concave back surface.
 The principle component is A (1) bis (4-methacryloxybutyl)-
polydimethyI siloxane.
 They can be made hydrophilic and hydrophobic to permit
extended release of bath water soluble and water insoluble
drugs.
42
Soft contact lenses
 The most widely used Material is poly-2-hydrosyethyl -
methacrylate.
 Its copolymers with PVP are used both to correct eyesight
and hold and deliver drugs.
 Controlled release can be obtained by binding the active
ingredient via biodegradable covalent linkages.
43
Niosomes
 Niosomes are reported as successful ophthalmic carriers.
 Discoidal niosomes of timolol maleate have been reported
to be promising systems for the controlled ocular
administration of water soluble drugs.
 The disc shape provides for a better fit in the cul-de-sac of
the eye and then large size may prevent release their
drainage into the systemic pool.
44
Pharmacosomes
 They are the vesicles formed by the amphiphilic drugs.
 Any drug possessing a free carboxyl group or an active
hydrogen atom (-OH, -NH2) can be esterifies to the hydroxyl
group of a lipid molecule, thus generating an amphiphilic
prodrug.
 These are converted to pharmacosomes on dilution with
water.
 They show greater stability, facilitated transport across the
cornea and a controlled release profile.
45
Collagen shields
 Manufactured from porcine scleral tissue, which bears a
collagen composition similar to that of human cornea.
 Hydrated before being placed on eye and drug is loaded
with the collagen shield simply by soaking it in drug
solution.
 Provide a layer of collagen solution that lubricates the eye.
 Collagen shields presoaked in tobramycin were used to
treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected cornea excoriation.
 Shield are not fully transparent & thus reduce visual activity.
 Are appropriate delivery systems for both hydrophilic and
hydrophobic drugs with poor penetration properties.
46
Viscosity improver
Used to prolong precorneal residence time and to improve
bioavailability, attempts were made to increase the viscosity
of the formulation
Examples are hydrophilic polymers such as cellulose,
polyalcohol and polyacrylic acid.
Na+ CMC: mucoadhesion polymers good adhesive strength.
The effects of polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamide based
hydrogels are tested on miotic response of pilocarpine.
47
Viscosity improver
 Carbomer were used in liquid and semisolid formulations as
suspending or viscosity increasing agents. Formulations
including creams, gels and ointments were used as ophthalmic
products.
 Polysaccharide such as xanthan gum was found to increase the
viscosity.
 Polycarbophil is water insoluble cross linked polyacrylic acid
helps in the retention of DDS in the eye due to the formation of
hydrogel bonds and mucoadhesive strength.
48
OCULAR PENETRATION ENHANCERS
 Purpose: After topical instillation of product, the drug is subjected
to a number of very efficient elimination mechanisms such as
drainage, binding to proteins, normal tear turnover, induced tear
production and non-productive absorption via the conjunctiva.
 So drug absorption is virtually complete in 90 sec. due to the rapid
removal of drug from the precorneal area & also the cornea is
poorly permeable to both hydrophilic & hydrophobic compounds.
 As a result, only approx. 10% or less of the topically applied dose
can be absorbed into the anterior segment of the eye
49
Penetration enhancers: characteristics
Absorbing-enhancing action should be immediate &
unidirectional, & the duration should be specific and
predictable.
Immediate recovery of the tissue after removing the
absorption enhancers.
No systemic and local effect associated with the enhancers.
Enhancers should be physically and chemically compatible
with a wide range of drugs and excipients.
50
Example of penetration enhancers
Class Examples
Surfactant Spans 20, 40, 85. Tweens 20, 40, 81.
Bile acids Deoxycholic acid, Taurocholic acid Taurodeoxycholic acid,
Urodeoxycholic acid Taurorsodeoxycholic acid
Fatty acid Capric acid
Preservatives Benzalkonium chloride, Chlorhexidine digluconate, Benzyl
alcohol, Chlorbutanol 2-Phenylethanol, Propyl paraben
Chelating agent EDTA
Others Alpha-cyclodextrin, Hexamethylene Lauramide,
Hexamethylene Octanamide, Decylmethylsulfoxide
Saponin.
51
Penetration enhancers : mechanisms
Altering membrane structure & enhancing transcellular
transport by extracting membrane components and/or
increasing fluidity.
Enhancing paracellular transport: Chelating calcium ions
leads to opening of tight junctions; Inducing high osmotic
pressure that transiently opens tight junctions; Introducing
agents to disrupt the structure of tight junctions.
Altering mucus structure and rheology so that this diffusion
barrier is weakened.
Modifying the physical properties of drug-enhancer entity.
Inhibiting enzyme activity.
52
Evaluation of ocular drug delivery systems
➢ In – vitro evaluation methods
➢ In – vivo evaluation methods
➢ In vitro – in vivo correlation
53
In – vitro evaluation methods
 Bottle method
 In this method, dosage forms are placed in the culture bottles
containing phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The culture bottles are
shaken in a thermostatic water bath at 37°C. A sample of
medium is taken out at appropriate intervals and analyzed for
drug contents.
 Diffusion method
 An appropriate simulator apparatus is used in this method. Drug
solution is placed in the donor compartment and buffer medium
is placed in the receptor compartment. An artificial membrane or
goat cornea is placed in between donor and receptor
compartment. Drug diffused in receptor compartment is
measured at various time intervals.
54
In – vitro evaluation methods
 Modified rotating basket method
 In this method, dosage form is placed in a basket assembly
connected to a stirrer. The assembly is lowered into a jacketed
beaker containing buffer medium. The temperature of system
is maintained at 37°C. A sample of medium is taken out at
appropriate time intervals and analyzed for drug content.
 Modified rotating paddle apparatus
 In this method, diffusion cells (those that are used for analysis
of semi-solid formulations) are placed in the flask of rotating
paddle apparatus. The buffer medium is placed in the flask and
paddle is rotated at 50 rpm. The entire unit is maintained at
37+0.5° C. Aliquots of samples are removed at appropriate
time intervals and analyzed for drug content.
55
In – vitro evaluation methods
 Flow through devices
 There are limitations to the official dissolution testing
apparatus concerning maintenance of sink condition for drugs
that saturate rapidly in large volumes of medium.
 The in-homogenicity of the solution in the rotating basket and
poor reproducibility led to enhanced use of flow through
devices.
 A constant fluid circulation apparatus is used as a flow through
device.
 The apparatus consist of a glass dissolution cell, a continuous
duty oscillating pump, a water bath and a reservoir.
56
In – vitro evaluation methods
 The dosage form is placed in the reservoir of the dissolution
medium.
 The whole assembly is maintained at the temperature of 37°C.
 The dissolution medium is circulated through the apparatus.
 Sampling of medium is done at various time intervals and
analyzed for drug content.
 Ali and Sharma had fabricated flow through cell for the
determination of in- vitro release of drug from ocular inserts.
 Sultana et al. modified the same apparatus by introducing
jacketed flask and eye.
57
In – vivo evaluation methods
 The controlled ocular drug delivery systems can be evaluated for
its PK & PD profiles.
 The main objective of the PK studies is to determine the drug
release from the dosage form to the eye.
 Rabbit is used as an experimental animal because of a number of
anatomical and physiological ocular similarities and also due to
larger size of the eye.
 PK studies are performed by measuring drug concentration in
various eye tissues e.g. lens, cornea, iris, ciliary body, retina
sclera, aqueous and vitreous humour in rabbits.
 The intraocular pressure of the eye is measured with a tonometer.
 Ocular PK studies can also be carried out by tear fluid sampling,
which is a non-invasive technique.
58
In – vivo evaluation methods
 Usually, disposible glass capillaries of 1ml capacity are used for
sampling.
 The samples are collected from the marginal tear strip of the rabbits.
 The capillary force fills the tube rapidly and the small volume collected
does not interfere with the ocular pharmacokinetics.
 Extreme care must be taken to avoid any corneal contact and possible
induced lacrimation.
 To withdraw aqueous humour, rabbits are anaesthetized with ketamine
and aqueous humour about 200 ml is withdrawn from the anterior
chamber using 1ml syringe with 26 guage needle.
 Vitreous samples are also obtained with 20 gauge needle.
 The entire cornea, lens, and iris-ciliary body are also removed and
analyzed for the drug content.
59
In vitro – in vivo correlation
 In establishing a good in-vitro-in-vivo correlation, one has to
consider not only the pharmaceutics aspects of the controlled
release drug delivery systems but also the biopharmaceutics and
pharmacokinetics of the therapeutic agent in the body after its
delivery from a drug delivery system, as well as the
pharmacodynamics of the therapeutic agent at the site of drug
actions.
60
Questions from the topic
 What do you know about Ocular drug delivery system? What are the
advantages of ODDS?
 With neat labeled diagram show various parts of eyes. Write a note
on Mechanisms and barriers for ocular drug absorption.
 What are various conventional ocular formulations?
 What are the approaches in recent ocular drug delivery system?
Write a short note on ocular inserts, nanoparticles & liposomes.
 Write a note on microspheres and nanoparticles drug delivery
system used as ocular drug delivery system.
 Write a note on:
 In situ-forming hydrogels
 Iontophoresis as an ocular drug delivery system.
 Write a note on ocular penetration enhancers.
61
62

More Related Content

What's hot

SODI(Soluble Ocular Drug Insert).pptx
SODI(Soluble Ocular Drug Insert).pptxSODI(Soluble Ocular Drug Insert).pptx
SODI(Soluble Ocular Drug Insert).pptx
PawanDhamala1
 
EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMSEVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
SANI SINGH
 
Ocular inserts
Ocular insertsOcular inserts
Ocular inserts
Suvarna Phadatare
 
Microspheres and microcapsules
Microspheres and microcapsulesMicrospheres and microcapsules
Microspheres and microcapsules
JayBhavsar41
 
Ocular drug delivery system rucha
Ocular drug delivery system ruchaOcular drug delivery system rucha
Ocular drug delivery system rucha
Danish Kurien
 
Ocular drug delivery system
Ocular drug delivery systemOcular drug delivery system
Ocular drug delivery system
PAYALBORAWAKE
 
Occular drug delivery system ppt
Occular drug delivery system pptOccular drug delivery system ppt
Occular drug delivery system ppt
Pankaj Verma
 
Mucoadhesive drug delivery system Mali vv ppt
Mucoadhesive drug delivery system Mali vv pptMucoadhesive drug delivery system Mali vv ppt
Mucoadhesive drug delivery system Mali vv ppt
VidhyaMali1
 
Buccal drug delivery system
Buccal drug delivery system Buccal drug delivery system
Buccal drug delivery system
supriyawable1
 
Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS)
Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS)Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS)
Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS)
SanketPawar47
 
occular drug delivery system
occular drug delivery systemoccular drug delivery system
occular drug delivery system
pratiksha Pratiksha
 
Ocular dds
Ocular ddsOcular dds
ocular drug delivery
ocular drug deliveryocular drug delivery
ocular drug delivery
JayeshRajput7
 
Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System
Ophthalmic Drug Delivery SystemOphthalmic Drug Delivery System
Formulation and evaluation of tdds
Formulation and evaluation of tddsFormulation and evaluation of tdds
Formulation and evaluation of tdds
Pankaj Verma
 
Large & Small Volume Parenteral
Large & Small Volume ParenteralLarge & Small Volume Parenteral
Large & Small Volume Parenteral
SreePrakashPandey
 
Controlled drug delivery systems
Controlled drug delivery systemsControlled drug delivery systems
Controlled drug delivery systems
CT institute of pharmaceutical sciences
 
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OCUSERTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN HCl
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OCUSERTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN HClFORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OCUSERTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN HCl
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OCUSERTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN HCl
Mohammad Adil
 
ocular drug delivery systems
ocular drug delivery systemsocular drug delivery systems
ocular drug delivery systems
Vijayalakshmi Kalaga
 
Penetration enhancer with their examples
Penetration enhancer with their examplesPenetration enhancer with their examples
Penetration enhancer with their examples
Ankita Rai
 

What's hot (20)

SODI(Soluble Ocular Drug Insert).pptx
SODI(Soluble Ocular Drug Insert).pptxSODI(Soluble Ocular Drug Insert).pptx
SODI(Soluble Ocular Drug Insert).pptx
 
EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMSEVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
 
Ocular inserts
Ocular insertsOcular inserts
Ocular inserts
 
Microspheres and microcapsules
Microspheres and microcapsulesMicrospheres and microcapsules
Microspheres and microcapsules
 
Ocular drug delivery system rucha
Ocular drug delivery system ruchaOcular drug delivery system rucha
Ocular drug delivery system rucha
 
Ocular drug delivery system
Ocular drug delivery systemOcular drug delivery system
Ocular drug delivery system
 
Occular drug delivery system ppt
Occular drug delivery system pptOccular drug delivery system ppt
Occular drug delivery system ppt
 
Mucoadhesive drug delivery system Mali vv ppt
Mucoadhesive drug delivery system Mali vv pptMucoadhesive drug delivery system Mali vv ppt
Mucoadhesive drug delivery system Mali vv ppt
 
Buccal drug delivery system
Buccal drug delivery system Buccal drug delivery system
Buccal drug delivery system
 
Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS)
Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS)Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS)
Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS)
 
occular drug delivery system
occular drug delivery systemoccular drug delivery system
occular drug delivery system
 
Ocular dds
Ocular ddsOcular dds
Ocular dds
 
ocular drug delivery
ocular drug deliveryocular drug delivery
ocular drug delivery
 
Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System
Ophthalmic Drug Delivery SystemOphthalmic Drug Delivery System
Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System
 
Formulation and evaluation of tdds
Formulation and evaluation of tddsFormulation and evaluation of tdds
Formulation and evaluation of tdds
 
Large & Small Volume Parenteral
Large & Small Volume ParenteralLarge & Small Volume Parenteral
Large & Small Volume Parenteral
 
Controlled drug delivery systems
Controlled drug delivery systemsControlled drug delivery systems
Controlled drug delivery systems
 
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OCUSERTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN HCl
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OCUSERTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN HClFORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OCUSERTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN HCl
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OCUSERTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN HCl
 
ocular drug delivery systems
ocular drug delivery systemsocular drug delivery systems
ocular drug delivery systems
 
Penetration enhancer with their examples
Penetration enhancer with their examplesPenetration enhancer with their examples
Penetration enhancer with their examples
 

Similar to Ophthalmic drug delivery system

ophthalmic preparations 5062856ophthalmic preparations.ppt
ophthalmic preparations 5062856ophthalmic preparations.pptophthalmic preparations 5062856ophthalmic preparations.ppt
ophthalmic preparations 5062856ophthalmic preparations.ppt
Abdelrhman Abooda
 
ocular drug delivary system.....
ocular drug delivary system.....ocular drug delivary system.....
ocular drug delivary system.....
dushyant kumar dewangan
 
ODDS PPT .pptx
ODDS PPT .pptxODDS PPT .pptx
ODDS PPT .pptx
maheshjogdand3
 
Ophthalmic dosage form: eye drops & ointment
Ophthalmic dosage form: eye drops & ointmentOphthalmic dosage form: eye drops & ointment
Ophthalmic dosage form: eye drops & ointment
himanshu dhawan
 
Ocular controlled drug delivery system
Ocular controlled drug delivery systemOcular controlled drug delivery system
Ocular controlled drug delivery system
debasishsahoo36
 
Ophthalmic drugdelivery system
Ophthalmic drugdelivery systemOphthalmic drugdelivery system
Ophthalmic drugdelivery system
Yamini Shah
 
Opthalmic drug delivery system
Opthalmic drug delivery systemOpthalmic drug delivery system
Opthalmic drug delivery system
PriyankaDabirBharadk
 
Ophthalmic preparation
Ophthalmic preparationOphthalmic preparation
Ophthalmic preparation
Ravish Yadav
 
Ophthalmic preparations
Ophthalmic preparationsOphthalmic preparations
Ophthalmic preparations
Srikanth Avn
 
Opthalmic preparation
Opthalmic preparationOpthalmic preparation
Opthalmic preparation
KIRAN PATANGE
 
Ophthalmic drug delivery system
Ophthalmic drug delivery systemOphthalmic drug delivery system
Ophthalmic drug delivery system
BINDIYA PATEL
 
ocular drug delivery
ocular drug delivery ocular drug delivery
ocular drug delivery
vsrujanav
 
Ocular Drug Delivery System
Ocular Drug Delivery SystemOcular Drug Delivery System
Ocular Drug Delivery System
Arunpandiyan59
 
Ocdds upp
Ocdds uppOcdds upp
Introduction to Ophthalmic products
Introduction to Ophthalmic productsIntroduction to Ophthalmic products
Introduction to Ophthalmic products
Ganesh Derkar
 
Ocular Drug Delivery system
Ocular Drug Delivery systemOcular Drug Delivery system
Ocular Drug Delivery system
Rajashri Patil
 
Odds ocular drug delivery system
Odds ocular drug delivery system Odds ocular drug delivery system
Odds ocular drug delivery system
akshay Bhama
 
Ocular dds
Ocular ddsOcular dds
Ocular dds
Mithun Maniyar
 
Ocular drug delivery system
Ocular drug delivery systemOcular drug delivery system
Ocular drug delivery system
sangram patil
 
Drug delivery&contact lens
Drug delivery&contact lensDrug delivery&contact lens
Drug delivery&contact lens
KafrELShiekh University
 

Similar to Ophthalmic drug delivery system (20)

ophthalmic preparations 5062856ophthalmic preparations.ppt
ophthalmic preparations 5062856ophthalmic preparations.pptophthalmic preparations 5062856ophthalmic preparations.ppt
ophthalmic preparations 5062856ophthalmic preparations.ppt
 
ocular drug delivary system.....
ocular drug delivary system.....ocular drug delivary system.....
ocular drug delivary system.....
 
ODDS PPT .pptx
ODDS PPT .pptxODDS PPT .pptx
ODDS PPT .pptx
 
Ophthalmic dosage form: eye drops & ointment
Ophthalmic dosage form: eye drops & ointmentOphthalmic dosage form: eye drops & ointment
Ophthalmic dosage form: eye drops & ointment
 
Ocular controlled drug delivery system
Ocular controlled drug delivery systemOcular controlled drug delivery system
Ocular controlled drug delivery system
 
Ophthalmic drugdelivery system
Ophthalmic drugdelivery systemOphthalmic drugdelivery system
Ophthalmic drugdelivery system
 
Opthalmic drug delivery system
Opthalmic drug delivery systemOpthalmic drug delivery system
Opthalmic drug delivery system
 
Ophthalmic preparation
Ophthalmic preparationOphthalmic preparation
Ophthalmic preparation
 
Ophthalmic preparations
Ophthalmic preparationsOphthalmic preparations
Ophthalmic preparations
 
Opthalmic preparation
Opthalmic preparationOpthalmic preparation
Opthalmic preparation
 
Ophthalmic drug delivery system
Ophthalmic drug delivery systemOphthalmic drug delivery system
Ophthalmic drug delivery system
 
ocular drug delivery
ocular drug delivery ocular drug delivery
ocular drug delivery
 
Ocular Drug Delivery System
Ocular Drug Delivery SystemOcular Drug Delivery System
Ocular Drug Delivery System
 
Ocdds upp
Ocdds uppOcdds upp
Ocdds upp
 
Introduction to Ophthalmic products
Introduction to Ophthalmic productsIntroduction to Ophthalmic products
Introduction to Ophthalmic products
 
Ocular Drug Delivery system
Ocular Drug Delivery systemOcular Drug Delivery system
Ocular Drug Delivery system
 
Odds ocular drug delivery system
Odds ocular drug delivery system Odds ocular drug delivery system
Odds ocular drug delivery system
 
Ocular dds
Ocular ddsOcular dds
Ocular dds
 
Ocular drug delivery system
Ocular drug delivery systemOcular drug delivery system
Ocular drug delivery system
 
Drug delivery&contact lens
Drug delivery&contact lensDrug delivery&contact lens
Drug delivery&contact lens
 

More from Dr. Prashant L. Pingale GES's Sir Dr. M. S. Gosavi College of Pharmacy, Nashik

Targeted drug delivery
Targeted drug delivery Targeted drug delivery
Transdermal drug delivery system
Transdermal drug delivery systemTransdermal drug delivery system
Polymers in controlled release Drug Delivery System
Polymers in controlled release Drug Delivery SystemPolymers in controlled release Drug Delivery System
Polymers in controlled release Drug Delivery System
Dr. Prashant L. Pingale GES's Sir Dr. M. S. Gosavi College of Pharmacy, Nashik
 
Nasopulmonary Drug Delivery System
Nasopulmonary Drug Delivery SystemNasopulmonary Drug Delivery System
Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System
Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery SystemMucoadhesive Drug Delivery System
Microencapsulation
MicroencapsulationMicroencapsulation
Implantable Drug Delivery System
Implantable Drug Delivery SystemImplantable Drug Delivery System
Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System
Gastroretentive Drug Delivery SystemGastroretentive Drug Delivery System
Lyophillization
LyophillizationLyophillization
Large volume parenterals
Large volume parenteralsLarge volume parenterals
Small volume parenterals
Small volume parenteralsSmall volume parenterals
Sterile formulations
Sterile formulationsSterile formulations
Pilot plant scale up for Small Volume Parenterals
Pilot plant scale up for Small Volume Parenterals Pilot plant scale up for Small Volume Parenterals
Pilot plant scale up for Small Volume Parenterals
Dr. Prashant L. Pingale GES's Sir Dr. M. S. Gosavi College of Pharmacy, Nashik
 
Right to information act
Right to information actRight to information act
Small volume parenterals
Small volume parenteralsSmall volume parenterals
GMP design of parenteral production facility
GMP design of parenteral production facilityGMP design of parenteral production facility
Prefilled syringes
Prefilled syringesPrefilled syringes
Blow fill seal technology
Blow fill seal technologyBlow fill seal technology
Solubility of drugs
Solubility of drugsSolubility of drugs
States of matter
States of matterStates of matter

More from Dr. Prashant L. Pingale GES's Sir Dr. M. S. Gosavi College of Pharmacy, Nashik (20)

Targeted drug delivery
Targeted drug delivery Targeted drug delivery
Targeted drug delivery
 
Transdermal drug delivery system
Transdermal drug delivery systemTransdermal drug delivery system
Transdermal drug delivery system
 
Polymers in controlled release Drug Delivery System
Polymers in controlled release Drug Delivery SystemPolymers in controlled release Drug Delivery System
Polymers in controlled release Drug Delivery System
 
Nasopulmonary Drug Delivery System
Nasopulmonary Drug Delivery SystemNasopulmonary Drug Delivery System
Nasopulmonary Drug Delivery System
 
Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System
Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery SystemMucoadhesive Drug Delivery System
Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System
 
Microencapsulation
MicroencapsulationMicroencapsulation
Microencapsulation
 
Implantable Drug Delivery System
Implantable Drug Delivery SystemImplantable Drug Delivery System
Implantable Drug Delivery System
 
Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System
Gastroretentive Drug Delivery SystemGastroretentive Drug Delivery System
Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System
 
Lyophillization
LyophillizationLyophillization
Lyophillization
 
Large volume parenterals
Large volume parenteralsLarge volume parenterals
Large volume parenterals
 
Small volume parenterals
Small volume parenteralsSmall volume parenterals
Small volume parenterals
 
Sterile formulations
Sterile formulationsSterile formulations
Sterile formulations
 
Pilot plant scale up for Small Volume Parenterals
Pilot plant scale up for Small Volume Parenterals Pilot plant scale up for Small Volume Parenterals
Pilot plant scale up for Small Volume Parenterals
 
Right to information act
Right to information actRight to information act
Right to information act
 
Small volume parenterals
Small volume parenteralsSmall volume parenterals
Small volume parenterals
 
GMP design of parenteral production facility
GMP design of parenteral production facilityGMP design of parenteral production facility
GMP design of parenteral production facility
 
Prefilled syringes
Prefilled syringesPrefilled syringes
Prefilled syringes
 
Blow fill seal technology
Blow fill seal technologyBlow fill seal technology
Blow fill seal technology
 
Solubility of drugs
Solubility of drugsSolubility of drugs
Solubility of drugs
 
States of matter
States of matterStates of matter
States of matter
 

Recently uploaded

Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S EliotSkimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
nitinpv4ai
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
TechSoup
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
Mohammad Al-Dhahabi
 
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
IsmaelVazquez38
 
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
EduSkills OECD
 
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
deepaannamalai16
 
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
ImMuslim
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
Jyoti Chand
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
RamseyBerglund
 
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
indexPub
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
giancarloi8888
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
deepaannamalai16
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSimple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
RandolphRadicy
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - FRIENDS PLUS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (B...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - FRIENDS PLUS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (B...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - FRIENDS PLUS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (B...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - FRIENDS PLUS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (B...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptxA Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
OH TEIK BIN
 
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptxContiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Kalna College
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
David Douglas School District
 
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
Kalna College
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S EliotSkimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
 
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
 
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
 
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
 
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
 
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSimple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - FRIENDS PLUS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (B...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - FRIENDS PLUS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (B...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - FRIENDS PLUS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (B...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - FRIENDS PLUS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (B...
 
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptxA Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
 
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptxContiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
 
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
 

Ophthalmic drug delivery system

  • 1. Ophthalmic Products Dr. Prashant L. Pingale Associate Professor, Dept. of Pharmaceutics GES’s Sir Dr. M. S. Gosavi College of Pharm. Edu. & Research, Nashik-422005, INDIA
  • 2. Contact lens and lens care products General Requirements Ocular penetration enhancers Approaches in recent ocular drug delivery system Various conventional ocular formulations Mechanisms & barriers for ocular drug absorption Diagram shows various parts of eyes Introduction, advantages & disadvantagesC O N T E N T S 2
  • 3.  Sterile, isotonic products that may be in the form of solutions, suspensions, ointments or any novel drug delivery system, administered topically, subconjunctival or as intraocular injection.  For ailments of the eye, topical administration is usually preferred over systemic administration, before reaching the anatomical barrier of the cornea, any drug molecule administered by the ocular route has to cross the precorneal barriers. 3 Introduction
  • 4. Introduction  They are specialized dosage forms designed to be instilled onto the external surface of the eye (topical), administered inside (intraocular) or adjacent (periocular) to the eye or used in conjunction with an ophthalmic device.  The most commonly employed ophthalmic dosage forms are solutions, suspensions, and ointments. But these preparations when instilled into the eye are rapidly drained away from the ocular cavity due to tear flow and lacrimal nasal drainage.  The newest dosage forms for: gels, gel-forming solutions, ocular inserts, intravitreal injections and implants. 4
  • 5. Drugs used in the eye  Miotics e.g. pilocarpine HCl  Mydriatics e.g. atropine  Cycloplegics e.g. atropine  Anti-inflammatory e.g. corticosteroids  Anti - infectives e.g. antibiotics, antivirals and antibacterials)  Anti-glucoma drugs e.g. pilocarpine Hcl  Surgical adjuncts e.g. irrigating solutions  Diagnostic drugs e.g. sodiumfluorescein  Anaesthetics e.g. tetracaine 5
  • 6. Characteristics required ocular drug delivery system  Good corneal penetration.  Prolong contact time with corneal tissue.  Simplicity of instillation for the patient.  Non irritative and comfortable form (viscous solution should not provoke lachrymal secretion and reflex blinking)  Appropriate rheological properties and concentrations of the viscous system 6
  • 7. Anatomy & Physiology of Eye Ciliary body Lens Cornea Iris Anterior chamber Posterior chamber 7
  • 8. Anatomy & Physiology of Eye  The sclera: The protective outer layer of the eye, referred to as the “white of the eye” and it maintains the shape of the eye.  The cornea: The front portion of the sclera, is transparent and allows light to enter the eye. The cornea is a powerful refracting surface, providing much of the eye's focusing power.  The choroid is the second layer of the eye and lies between the sclera and the retina. It contains the blood vessels that provide nourishment to the outer layers of the retina. 8
  • 9. Anatomy & Physiology of Eye  The iris is the part of the eye that gives it color. It consists of muscular tissue that responds to surrounding light, making the pupil, or circular opening in the center of the iris, larger or smaller depending on the brightness of the light.  The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure, encased in a thin transparent covering. The function of the lens is to refract and focus incoming light onto the retina.  The retina is the innermost layer in the eye. It converts images into electrical impulses that are sent along the optic nerve to the brain where the images are interpreted. 9
  • 10. Anatomy & Physiology of Eye  The inside of the eyeball is divided by the lens into two fluid-filled sections.  The larger section at the back of the eye is filled with a colorless gelatinous mass called the vitreous humor.  The smaller section in the front contains a clear, water-like material called aqueous humor.  The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane that begins at the edge of the cornea and lines the inside surface of the eyelids and sclera, which serves to lubricate the eye. 10
  • 11. General requirements and considerations  Safety  Ocular toxicity & irritation  Preservation & Preservatives 11
  • 12. Safety ▪ Ideally, all ophthalmic products would be terminally sterilized in the final packaging. ▪ Only few ophthalmic drugs formulated in simple aq. vehicles are stable to normal autoclaving tempt. & times (121°C for 20-30 min). ▪ Such heat-resistant drugs may be packaged in glass or other heat- deformation-resistant packaging and thus can be sterilized in this manner. ▪ Most ophthalmic products, however cannot be heat sterilized due to the active principle or polymers used to increase viscosity are not stable to heat. 12
  • 13. Safety ▪ Most ophthalmic products are aseptically manufactured and filled into previously sterilized containers in aseptic environments using aseptic filling-and-capping techniques. 13
  • 14. Ocular toxicity and irritation - Albino rabbits are used to test the ocular toxicity and irritation of ophthalmic formulations. - The procedure based on the examination of the conjunctiva, the cornea or the iris. - E.g. USP procedure for plastic containers: 1- Containers are cleaned and sterilized as in the final packaged product. 2- Extracted by submersion in saline and cottonseed oil. 3- Topical ocular instillation of the extracts and blanks in rabbits is completed and ocular changes examined. 14
  • 15. Preservation and preservatives  Preservatives are included in multiple-dose eye solutions for maintaining the product sterility during use.  Preservatives not included in unit-dose package.  The use of preservatives is prohibited in ophthalmic products that are used at the of eye surgery because, if sufficient concentration of the preservative is contacted with the corneal endothelium, the cells can become damaged causing clouding of the cornea and possible loss of vision.  So these products should be packaged in sterile, unit-of-use containers.  The most common organism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa that grow in the cornea and cause loss of vision. 15
  • 17. Preservation and preservatives Cationic wetting agents: ▪ Benzalkonium chloride (0.01%) ▪ It is generally used in combination with 0.01-0.1% disodium edetate (EDTA). The chelating, EDTA has the ability to render the resistant strains of PS aeruginosa more sensitive to benzalkonium chloride. Organic mercurials: ▪ Phenylmercuric nitrate 0.002-0.004% ▪ Phenylmercuric acetate 0.005-0.02%. 17
  • 18. Preservation and preservatives Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid: ▪ Mixture of 0.1% of both methyl and propyl hydroxybenzoate (2 :1) Alcohol Substitutes: ▪ Chlorobutanol (0.5%). Effective only at pH 5-6. ▪ Phenylethanol (0.5%) 18
  • 19. Absorption of drugs in the eye Factors affecting drug availability: Rapid solution drainage by gravity, induced lachrymation, blinking reflex, and normal tear turnover: - The normal volume of tears = 7 μl, the blinking eye can accommodate a volume of up to 30 μl without spillage, the drop volume = 50 μl 19
  • 21. Absorption of drugs in the eye ▪ Superficial absorption of drug into the conjunctiva and sclera and rapid removal by the peripheral blood flow: ▪ Low corneal permeability (act as lipid barrier) ▪ In general: ▪ Transport of hydrophilic and macromolecular drugs occurs through scleral route ▪ Lipophilic agents of low molecular weight follow transcorneal transport by passive diffusion and obey ▪ Fick’s first law of diffusion: J = - D . d Cm / dx 21
  • 22. Corneal absorption J = The flux rate across the membrane D = diffusion coefficient - The diffusion coefficient, as the molecular size of the drug Cm = concentration gradient - As the drug solubility, the gradient, the driving force for drug entry into the aqueous humor. - The drug should have dual solubility (oil and water soluble) to traverse the corneal epithelium (lipid barrier) then the aqueous humour. 22
  • 24. Novel approaches in ocular DDS  In situ forming gels  Liposomes  Nanoparticles  Inserts  Implantable systems 24 • Minidisc • Soft contact lenses • Niosomes • Pharmacosomes • Collagen shields
  • 25. In situ forming gels  The progress has been made in gel technology lip the development of in-situ forming gel.  They are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in the ocular cul-de-sac to form viscoelastic gel.  This provides a response to environmental changes.  Three methods have been employed to cause phase transition in the eye surface.  These are change in pH, change in temperature and ion activation. 25
  • 26. Change in pH In this method gelling of the solution is triggered by a change in the pH. CAP latex cross linked polyacrylic acid and derivatives such as carbomers are used. They are low viscosity polymeric dispersion in water which undergoes spontaneous coagulation and gelation after instillation in the conjunctival cul-de-sac. 26
  • 27. Change in Temperature  In this method gelling of the solution is triggered by change in the temperature.  Sustained drug delivery can be achieved by the use of a polymer that changes from solution to gel at the temperature of the eye.  But disadvantage of this is characterized by high polymer concentration (25% Poloxamers).  Methyl cellulose and smart hydrogels are other examples. 27
  • 28. Ionic strength  In this method gelling of the solution Instilled Is triggered by change in the Ionic strength.  Example Is Gelrite.  Gelrite is a polysaccharide, low acetyl gellan gum, which forms a clear gel in the presence of mono or divalent cations.  The concentration of sodium in human tears is 2.6 g/l is particularly suitable to cause gelation of the material when topically installed into the conjunctival sac. 28
  • 29. Liposomes  'Lipos' meaning fat and 'Soma' meaning body  artificially prepared vesicles made of lipid bilayer.  can be filled with drugs, and used to deliver drugs for cancer and other diseases.  can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes, for example by sonication.  can be composed of naturally-derived phospholipids with mixed lipid chains (like egg phosphatidylethanolamine) or other surfactants. 29
  • 30. Liposomes  The use of liposomes as a topically administered ocular drug delivery system began in the early stage of research into ophthalmic drug delivery.  But the results were favorable for lipophilic drugs and not for- hydrophilic drugs.  Liposomes must be suitable for ocular DD provided, they had an affinity for, and were able to bind to, ocular surfaces, and release contents at optimal rates.  The addition of stearylamine to a liposomal preparation enhanced the corneal absorption of dexamethyl valerate. 30
  • 31. Liposomes  The corneal epithelium is thinly coated with negatively charged mucin to which the positive surface charge of the liposome may absorb more strongly.  Coating with bioadhesive polymers to liposomes, prolong the precomea retention of liposomes.  Carbopol 1342-coated pilocarpine containing liposomes were shown to produce a longer duration of action.  Liposomal preparation of acetazolamide, hydrocortisone and tropicamide are studied.  Coating the lipueme with bioadhesive polymers Ilka carbopal increased the corneal retention followed by sustained action Cyclosporin applied topically to the eye in the olive oil crops in a liposome encapsulated form and in a cellophane shield showed slow releasing property. 31
  • 32. Nanoparticles a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport and properties. It is further classified according to size: in terms of diameter, fine particles cover a range between 100 and 2500 nanometers. provide SR and prolonged therapeutic activity. when retained in cul-de-sac after topical administration & entrapped drug must be released from particles at an appropriate rate. enhance particle retention, it is desirable to fabricate the particles with bioadhesive materials. 32
  • 33. Nanoparticles  Biodegradation is also a highly desirable property for the fabrication of nanoparticles.  Most commonly used polymers are venous poly (alkyl cyanoacrylates), poly S- caprolactone and PLGA, which undergo hydrolysis in tears.  Coating of nanoparticles with bioadhesive polymers improves the bioavailability. Chitosan coated nanocapsules improve the bioavailability.  Nanoparticles as an ophthalmic drug delivery have been demonstrated for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. 33
  • 35. Classification of Patented Ocular Inserts Insoluble inserts Soluble inserts Bioerodible inserts 35
  • 36. Classification of Patented Ocular Inserts 1) Insoluble inserts a) Diffusion based b) Osmotic based c) Soft contact lenses 2) Soluble inserts 3) Bioerodible inserts 36
  • 37. Characteristics of inserts 1) Ease of handling and insertion 2) Lack of expulsion during wear 3) Reproducibility of release kinetics (Zero-order drug delivery) 4) Applicability to variety of drugs 5) Non-interference with vision and oxygen permeability 6) Sterility 7) Stability 8) Ease of manufacture 37
  • 38. Inserts Solid inserts were introduced into the market 60 years ago. The first solid insert was described in 1948 in BP. It was an atropine containing gelatin wafer and in 1980's numerous systems were developed using various polymers & different drug release principles for controlled drug release. Insoluble inserts are polymeric systems into which the drug is incorporated as a solution or dispersion. Ophthalmic inserts (ocuserts): alginate salts, PVP, modified collagen and HPC. Ocufit is a silicone elastomer based matrix that allows for the CR of an active ingredient over, a period of at least 2 weeks. 38
  • 39. Inserts  Soluble inserts consists of all monolytic polymeric devices that at the end of their release, the device dissolve or erode.  Soluble ophthalmic drug inserts is a soluble copolymer of acrylarnide, N-vinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl acrylate.  It is a sterile thin film or wafer of oval shape.  The system soften in 10-15 sec after introduction in to the upper conjuctival sac, gradually dissolves within 1 h, while releasing the drug.  A soluble insert containing gentamycin sulphate and dexamethasone phosphate has been developed.  Pilocarpine Insert for glaucoma is also available. 39
  • 40. Inserts But these systems have the drawback that that blurred vision while the polymer is dissolving. Water soluble bioadhesive component in its formulation has been developed to decrease the risk of expulsion and ensure prolonged residence in the eye, combined with controlled drug release. They are bioadhesive ophthalmic drug inserts. A system based on gentamycin obtained by extrusion of a mixture of polymers, showing a release timer of about 72 h has been reported. Due to difficulty with self-insertion, foreign body sensation, only few insert products are listed and pharmaceutical manufacturers are not actively developing inserts for commercialization. 40
  • 41. Implantable systems  The poly lactic acid and its copolymers with glycolic acid have been used extensively as implants.  An ocular implant for delivering ganciclovir for the treatment of cytomegalo virus has also been developed.  This delivers drug directly to the retina for over 5 months.  These systems are less popular as they require minor surgery. 41
  • 42. Minidisc  Minidisc is a controlled release monolithic matrix type device consisting of a contoured disc with a convex front and a concave back surface.  The principle component is A (1) bis (4-methacryloxybutyl)- polydimethyI siloxane.  They can be made hydrophilic and hydrophobic to permit extended release of bath water soluble and water insoluble drugs. 42
  • 43. Soft contact lenses  The most widely used Material is poly-2-hydrosyethyl - methacrylate.  Its copolymers with PVP are used both to correct eyesight and hold and deliver drugs.  Controlled release can be obtained by binding the active ingredient via biodegradable covalent linkages. 43
  • 44. Niosomes  Niosomes are reported as successful ophthalmic carriers.  Discoidal niosomes of timolol maleate have been reported to be promising systems for the controlled ocular administration of water soluble drugs.  The disc shape provides for a better fit in the cul-de-sac of the eye and then large size may prevent release their drainage into the systemic pool. 44
  • 45. Pharmacosomes  They are the vesicles formed by the amphiphilic drugs.  Any drug possessing a free carboxyl group or an active hydrogen atom (-OH, -NH2) can be esterifies to the hydroxyl group of a lipid molecule, thus generating an amphiphilic prodrug.  These are converted to pharmacosomes on dilution with water.  They show greater stability, facilitated transport across the cornea and a controlled release profile. 45
  • 46. Collagen shields  Manufactured from porcine scleral tissue, which bears a collagen composition similar to that of human cornea.  Hydrated before being placed on eye and drug is loaded with the collagen shield simply by soaking it in drug solution.  Provide a layer of collagen solution that lubricates the eye.  Collagen shields presoaked in tobramycin were used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected cornea excoriation.  Shield are not fully transparent & thus reduce visual activity.  Are appropriate delivery systems for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs with poor penetration properties. 46
  • 47. Viscosity improver Used to prolong precorneal residence time and to improve bioavailability, attempts were made to increase the viscosity of the formulation Examples are hydrophilic polymers such as cellulose, polyalcohol and polyacrylic acid. Na+ CMC: mucoadhesion polymers good adhesive strength. The effects of polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamide based hydrogels are tested on miotic response of pilocarpine. 47
  • 48. Viscosity improver  Carbomer were used in liquid and semisolid formulations as suspending or viscosity increasing agents. Formulations including creams, gels and ointments were used as ophthalmic products.  Polysaccharide such as xanthan gum was found to increase the viscosity.  Polycarbophil is water insoluble cross linked polyacrylic acid helps in the retention of DDS in the eye due to the formation of hydrogel bonds and mucoadhesive strength. 48
  • 49. OCULAR PENETRATION ENHANCERS  Purpose: After topical instillation of product, the drug is subjected to a number of very efficient elimination mechanisms such as drainage, binding to proteins, normal tear turnover, induced tear production and non-productive absorption via the conjunctiva.  So drug absorption is virtually complete in 90 sec. due to the rapid removal of drug from the precorneal area & also the cornea is poorly permeable to both hydrophilic & hydrophobic compounds.  As a result, only approx. 10% or less of the topically applied dose can be absorbed into the anterior segment of the eye 49
  • 50. Penetration enhancers: characteristics Absorbing-enhancing action should be immediate & unidirectional, & the duration should be specific and predictable. Immediate recovery of the tissue after removing the absorption enhancers. No systemic and local effect associated with the enhancers. Enhancers should be physically and chemically compatible with a wide range of drugs and excipients. 50
  • 51. Example of penetration enhancers Class Examples Surfactant Spans 20, 40, 85. Tweens 20, 40, 81. Bile acids Deoxycholic acid, Taurocholic acid Taurodeoxycholic acid, Urodeoxycholic acid Taurorsodeoxycholic acid Fatty acid Capric acid Preservatives Benzalkonium chloride, Chlorhexidine digluconate, Benzyl alcohol, Chlorbutanol 2-Phenylethanol, Propyl paraben Chelating agent EDTA Others Alpha-cyclodextrin, Hexamethylene Lauramide, Hexamethylene Octanamide, Decylmethylsulfoxide Saponin. 51
  • 52. Penetration enhancers : mechanisms Altering membrane structure & enhancing transcellular transport by extracting membrane components and/or increasing fluidity. Enhancing paracellular transport: Chelating calcium ions leads to opening of tight junctions; Inducing high osmotic pressure that transiently opens tight junctions; Introducing agents to disrupt the structure of tight junctions. Altering mucus structure and rheology so that this diffusion barrier is weakened. Modifying the physical properties of drug-enhancer entity. Inhibiting enzyme activity. 52
  • 53. Evaluation of ocular drug delivery systems ➢ In – vitro evaluation methods ➢ In – vivo evaluation methods ➢ In vitro – in vivo correlation 53
  • 54. In – vitro evaluation methods  Bottle method  In this method, dosage forms are placed in the culture bottles containing phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The culture bottles are shaken in a thermostatic water bath at 37°C. A sample of medium is taken out at appropriate intervals and analyzed for drug contents.  Diffusion method  An appropriate simulator apparatus is used in this method. Drug solution is placed in the donor compartment and buffer medium is placed in the receptor compartment. An artificial membrane or goat cornea is placed in between donor and receptor compartment. Drug diffused in receptor compartment is measured at various time intervals. 54
  • 55. In – vitro evaluation methods  Modified rotating basket method  In this method, dosage form is placed in a basket assembly connected to a stirrer. The assembly is lowered into a jacketed beaker containing buffer medium. The temperature of system is maintained at 37°C. A sample of medium is taken out at appropriate time intervals and analyzed for drug content.  Modified rotating paddle apparatus  In this method, diffusion cells (those that are used for analysis of semi-solid formulations) are placed in the flask of rotating paddle apparatus. The buffer medium is placed in the flask and paddle is rotated at 50 rpm. The entire unit is maintained at 37+0.5° C. Aliquots of samples are removed at appropriate time intervals and analyzed for drug content. 55
  • 56. In – vitro evaluation methods  Flow through devices  There are limitations to the official dissolution testing apparatus concerning maintenance of sink condition for drugs that saturate rapidly in large volumes of medium.  The in-homogenicity of the solution in the rotating basket and poor reproducibility led to enhanced use of flow through devices.  A constant fluid circulation apparatus is used as a flow through device.  The apparatus consist of a glass dissolution cell, a continuous duty oscillating pump, a water bath and a reservoir. 56
  • 57. In – vitro evaluation methods  The dosage form is placed in the reservoir of the dissolution medium.  The whole assembly is maintained at the temperature of 37°C.  The dissolution medium is circulated through the apparatus.  Sampling of medium is done at various time intervals and analyzed for drug content.  Ali and Sharma had fabricated flow through cell for the determination of in- vitro release of drug from ocular inserts.  Sultana et al. modified the same apparatus by introducing jacketed flask and eye. 57
  • 58. In – vivo evaluation methods  The controlled ocular drug delivery systems can be evaluated for its PK & PD profiles.  The main objective of the PK studies is to determine the drug release from the dosage form to the eye.  Rabbit is used as an experimental animal because of a number of anatomical and physiological ocular similarities and also due to larger size of the eye.  PK studies are performed by measuring drug concentration in various eye tissues e.g. lens, cornea, iris, ciliary body, retina sclera, aqueous and vitreous humour in rabbits.  The intraocular pressure of the eye is measured with a tonometer.  Ocular PK studies can also be carried out by tear fluid sampling, which is a non-invasive technique. 58
  • 59. In – vivo evaluation methods  Usually, disposible glass capillaries of 1ml capacity are used for sampling.  The samples are collected from the marginal tear strip of the rabbits.  The capillary force fills the tube rapidly and the small volume collected does not interfere with the ocular pharmacokinetics.  Extreme care must be taken to avoid any corneal contact and possible induced lacrimation.  To withdraw aqueous humour, rabbits are anaesthetized with ketamine and aqueous humour about 200 ml is withdrawn from the anterior chamber using 1ml syringe with 26 guage needle.  Vitreous samples are also obtained with 20 gauge needle.  The entire cornea, lens, and iris-ciliary body are also removed and analyzed for the drug content. 59
  • 60. In vitro – in vivo correlation  In establishing a good in-vitro-in-vivo correlation, one has to consider not only the pharmaceutics aspects of the controlled release drug delivery systems but also the biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics of the therapeutic agent in the body after its delivery from a drug delivery system, as well as the pharmacodynamics of the therapeutic agent at the site of drug actions. 60
  • 61. Questions from the topic  What do you know about Ocular drug delivery system? What are the advantages of ODDS?  With neat labeled diagram show various parts of eyes. Write a note on Mechanisms and barriers for ocular drug absorption.  What are various conventional ocular formulations?  What are the approaches in recent ocular drug delivery system? Write a short note on ocular inserts, nanoparticles & liposomes.  Write a note on microspheres and nanoparticles drug delivery system used as ocular drug delivery system.  Write a note on:  In situ-forming hydrogels  Iontophoresis as an ocular drug delivery system.  Write a note on ocular penetration enhancers. 61
  • 62. 62