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CHEMISTRY IN
COSMETICS
Presented by
G. Balamurugan ..
TOPICS
• Perfumes
• cleansing cream
• All purpose creams
• Shampoos
• Deodorants
• Antiperspirants
• Face powder
• Compact powder ,sunscreen lotion & skin colorant
PERFUMES
• perfumes are substances used to give a pleasant odour to human body .
perfumes give sense of freshness .
• It is usually in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a persons body .
• Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant fragrance that will provide
a long lasting feeling of freshness .
COMPOSITION OF THE PERFUMES
1. Essential oils :
Derived from natural aromatic plant extracts or synthetic aromatic chemicals .
eg . Limonene , linalool , geraniol ,citral
2. Fixatives :
Natural or synthetic substances used to reduce the evaporation rate .
eg . Benzyl benzoate , benzyl alcohol .
3. Solvents :
The liquid in which the perfumes the oil is dissolved in is usually 98 % ethanol
and 2% water
Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and does not permit microbial
growth in the perfume .
CREAMS
Creams
creams are emulsion applied over skin to provide
localized or systemic effects at the site of application .
• Types of creams :
• Cleansing creams
• Night and massage creams
• Foundation cream
• Vanishing cream , cold cream & all purpose creams
CLEANSING CREAM
• They are used for purpose of removing make up remove the
dirt on the skin and to clean the secretion of the skin form
the face and neck respectively .
• Properties :
 They should be easy to apply
 They should be spread easily on the skin
 They should not cause irritation to skin
 They should not make the skin dry
 They should have a nice applealing appearance .
TYPES OF
CLEANSING
CREAMS
• They are in two types namely ,
• Bees wax –borax type or emulsified type
• Liquefying type
Bees wax –borax type or emulsified type
• This type liquifies when applied to the skin . It is
an o/w type emulsion .
• It contains low % of mineral oil (28%)
Liquefying type
This is thixotropic in nature and it contains very
high % of mineral oil (80%)
ALL PURPOSE CREAMS
• All purpose means its is suitable for hands face and body
• These creams act the role of all types of creams such as cleansing
creams ,night creams ,hand creams , foundation creams .
• They are used by sports person there for they are called sports cream.
uses :
They provide protective film to the skin
They make the rough skin into smooth
Applied in less quantity – act as hand cream and foundation cream .
Applied in more quantity _ act as nourishing cream ,night cream and
cleansing cream .
SHAMPOO
shampoo is a hair care product its is a viscous liquid used for cleaning hair and for medical purpose .
Ideal properties :
 Must effectively and completely remove the dust ,excessive sebam .
 Should effectively wash hair
 Should produce a good amount of foam .
 The shampoo must be easily removed by rinsing with water
 Should leave the hair non dry, soft , lustrous with good ,manageability
 Must impact a pleasant fragrance to the hair
 Should not have the side effect or cause irritation to skin or eye
DEODORANT
• Deodrant it’s a substance apply to the body to prevent body
odour dur to bacterial breakdown of perspiration
• They reduce the odour by reducing bacteria on the skin
and by blocking the sweat glands .
• Formulation
 hexachlorophene
 Bithionol
 Diaphene
 Neomycin
ANTIPERSPIRANTS
• Substances which block pores in
the skin and control sweat and
wetness are called antiperspirants .
• Aluminium chloridrate used which
has antibacterial and astringent
action
• Aluminium chloride and zirconium
compounds are also used as
antiperspirants .
POWDER
• The main property of face powder impart smooth finish to
the skin , masking of shine due to moisture or grease .
• Powder are consider as one of the important products of
skin care preparation .
• They widely used by both men and women .
• There are categorized as face powder and compacts .
 Face powder :-
• These powder have the ability to complement the skin
colour by providing velvety finish to it .
PROPERTIES OF FACE POWDER
• It should impart smooth finish to skin .
• It should mask minor imperfection on the skin .
• It should last for a long period of time .
• There are 3 types of face powder ;
• Light – It used for dry skin, large amount of talk is used in face
powder .
• Medium – It used for moderate oily and normal skin ,contain less
quantity of talk .
• Heavy – It used for extremely oily skin , contain very low quantity
of talk
COMPACT POWDER
• Loose powder or dry powder are compressed in form
of cake along with binders by compaction process ,
in order to form compact powders .
• Compact powder are applied with the help of
powder puff
• The pressure is used for the compaction process
which is very important in this type of formulation .
SUNSCREEN LOTION
• Sunscreen is a substance that products the skin from suns
harmful race .
• These lotion have property of the skin from sun burning .
• Properties :-
o Not be rapidly absorbed
o Be readily soluble in suitable vehicles .
o Be non toxic and non irritant .
o Disadvantage :-
o Sunscreens prepared using chemicals and minerals may cause
cancer . So nowadays sunscreens are manufactured using nano
materials and plant materials .
SKIN COLOURANT
 skin colour is determined by the amount of melanin in the skin .
Melanin is the pigment produce by the body cell call melanocytes .
People with dark skin have more melanin .
Skin colourents are the substances which change the colour complexion by reducing the
synthesis of melanin in the body , this can be done by the following ways …
Skin bleaching – it’s a cosmetic treatment to change the colour complex by applying
bleaching creams to entire body
Skin lightener – it’s a chemical applied to the entire body to change the colour complex.
It contains mercury so this may lead to mercury poisoning .
• TURMERIC EXTRACT
• It used traditionally for cosmetic purposes
as skin colourent .
THANKING YOU

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Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024

  • 2. TOPICS • Perfumes • cleansing cream • All purpose creams • Shampoos • Deodorants • Antiperspirants • Face powder • Compact powder ,sunscreen lotion & skin colorant
  • 3. PERFUMES • perfumes are substances used to give a pleasant odour to human body . perfumes give sense of freshness . • It is usually in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a persons body . • Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant fragrance that will provide a long lasting feeling of freshness .
  • 4. COMPOSITION OF THE PERFUMES 1. Essential oils : Derived from natural aromatic plant extracts or synthetic aromatic chemicals . eg . Limonene , linalool , geraniol ,citral 2. Fixatives : Natural or synthetic substances used to reduce the evaporation rate . eg . Benzyl benzoate , benzyl alcohol .
  • 5. 3. Solvents : The liquid in which the perfumes the oil is dissolved in is usually 98 % ethanol and 2% water Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and does not permit microbial growth in the perfume .
  • 6. CREAMS Creams creams are emulsion applied over skin to provide localized or systemic effects at the site of application . • Types of creams : • Cleansing creams • Night and massage creams • Foundation cream • Vanishing cream , cold cream & all purpose creams
  • 7. CLEANSING CREAM • They are used for purpose of removing make up remove the dirt on the skin and to clean the secretion of the skin form the face and neck respectively . • Properties :  They should be easy to apply  They should be spread easily on the skin  They should not cause irritation to skin  They should not make the skin dry  They should have a nice applealing appearance .
  • 8. TYPES OF CLEANSING CREAMS • They are in two types namely , • Bees wax –borax type or emulsified type • Liquefying type Bees wax –borax type or emulsified type • This type liquifies when applied to the skin . It is an o/w type emulsion . • It contains low % of mineral oil (28%) Liquefying type This is thixotropic in nature and it contains very high % of mineral oil (80%)
  • 9. ALL PURPOSE CREAMS • All purpose means its is suitable for hands face and body • These creams act the role of all types of creams such as cleansing creams ,night creams ,hand creams , foundation creams . • They are used by sports person there for they are called sports cream. uses : They provide protective film to the skin They make the rough skin into smooth Applied in less quantity – act as hand cream and foundation cream . Applied in more quantity _ act as nourishing cream ,night cream and cleansing cream .
  • 10. SHAMPOO shampoo is a hair care product its is a viscous liquid used for cleaning hair and for medical purpose . Ideal properties :  Must effectively and completely remove the dust ,excessive sebam .  Should effectively wash hair  Should produce a good amount of foam .  The shampoo must be easily removed by rinsing with water  Should leave the hair non dry, soft , lustrous with good ,manageability  Must impact a pleasant fragrance to the hair  Should not have the side effect or cause irritation to skin or eye
  • 11. DEODORANT • Deodrant it’s a substance apply to the body to prevent body odour dur to bacterial breakdown of perspiration • They reduce the odour by reducing bacteria on the skin and by blocking the sweat glands . • Formulation  hexachlorophene  Bithionol  Diaphene  Neomycin
  • 12. ANTIPERSPIRANTS • Substances which block pores in the skin and control sweat and wetness are called antiperspirants . • Aluminium chloridrate used which has antibacterial and astringent action • Aluminium chloride and zirconium compounds are also used as antiperspirants .
  • 14. • The main property of face powder impart smooth finish to the skin , masking of shine due to moisture or grease . • Powder are consider as one of the important products of skin care preparation . • They widely used by both men and women . • There are categorized as face powder and compacts .  Face powder :- • These powder have the ability to complement the skin colour by providing velvety finish to it .
  • 15. PROPERTIES OF FACE POWDER • It should impart smooth finish to skin . • It should mask minor imperfection on the skin . • It should last for a long period of time . • There are 3 types of face powder ; • Light – It used for dry skin, large amount of talk is used in face powder . • Medium – It used for moderate oily and normal skin ,contain less quantity of talk . • Heavy – It used for extremely oily skin , contain very low quantity of talk
  • 17. • Loose powder or dry powder are compressed in form of cake along with binders by compaction process , in order to form compact powders . • Compact powder are applied with the help of powder puff • The pressure is used for the compaction process which is very important in this type of formulation .
  • 19. • Sunscreen is a substance that products the skin from suns harmful race . • These lotion have property of the skin from sun burning . • Properties :- o Not be rapidly absorbed o Be readily soluble in suitable vehicles . o Be non toxic and non irritant . o Disadvantage :- o Sunscreens prepared using chemicals and minerals may cause cancer . So nowadays sunscreens are manufactured using nano materials and plant materials .
  • 21.  skin colour is determined by the amount of melanin in the skin . Melanin is the pigment produce by the body cell call melanocytes . People with dark skin have more melanin . Skin colourents are the substances which change the colour complexion by reducing the synthesis of melanin in the body , this can be done by the following ways … Skin bleaching – it’s a cosmetic treatment to change the colour complex by applying bleaching creams to entire body Skin lightener – it’s a chemical applied to the entire body to change the colour complex. It contains mercury so this may lead to mercury poisoning .
  • 22. • TURMERIC EXTRACT • It used traditionally for cosmetic purposes as skin colourent .