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SHREE SWAMI ATMANANAD
SARSWATI INSTITUTE OF
TECNOLOGY
SUBJECT-ELEMENTSOF CIVIL
ENGINEERING
CONTOURING
PREPARED BY
 JANI GAUTAM A.
 PATEL SAGAR N.
 CHAUDHRI ANKIT N.
 BHAGAT RADESH H.
 PATEL HARSH S.
 BHUTA YASH J.
 GURASIYA SAUR P.
PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY (PES)
2
GUIDED BY- PROF KHUSBU RAVAL
-PROF SONERI FALGUNI
Contour An imaginary line on the ground
surface joining the points of equal elevation is
known as contour.
In other words, contour is a line in which the
ground surface is intersected by a level
surface obtained by joining points of equal
elevation. This line on the map represents a
contour and is called contour line.
2CONTOURING 2
Contour Map
A map showing contour lines is known as
Contour map.
A contour map gives an idea of the altitudes of
the surface features as well as their relative
positions in plan serves the purpose of both, a
plan and a section.
3CONTOURING 3
Contouring
The process of tracing contour lines
on the surface of the earth is called
Contouring.
3CONTOURING 4
PURPOSE OF CONTOURING
Contour survey is carried out at the starting of
any engineering project such as a road, a
railway, a canal, a dam, a building etc.
i) For preparing contour maps in order to
select the most economical or suitable site.
ii) To locate the alignment of a canal so that it
should follow a ridge line.
iii) To mark the alignment of roads and
railways so that the quantity of earthwork
both in cutting and filling should be
minimum.
4CONTOURING 5
iv) For getting information about the ground
whether it is flat, undulating or
mountainous.
v) To find the capacity of a reservoir and
volume of earthwork especially in a
mountainous region.
vi) To trace out the given grade of a particular
route.
vii)To locate the physical features of the
ground such as a pond depression, hill, steep
or small slopes.
PURPOSE OF CONTOURING (contd.)
CONTOURING 6
CONTOUR INTERVAL
The constant vertical distance between two
consecutive contours is called the contour
interval.
HORIZONTAL EQUIVALENT
The horizontal distance between any two
adjacent contours is called as horizontal
equivalent.
The contour interval is constant between
the consecutive contours while the horizontal
equivalent is variable and depends upon the
slope of the ground.
CONTOURING 7
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS
i) All points in a contour line have the same
elevation.
ii) Flat ground is indicated where the …
contours are widely separated and steep-
slope where they run close together.
iii) A uniform slope is indicated when the
contour lines are uniformly spaced and
iv) A plane surface when they are straight,
parallel and equally spaced.
CONTOURING 13
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS
v) A series of
closed contour
lines on the
map represent
a hill , if the
higher values
are inside
A HILL
60
65
70
75
80
60
65
70
75
80
HILL
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS
vi) A series of
closed contour
lines on the
map indicate a
depression if
the higher
values are
outside
A DEPRESSION
70
60
65
70
75
80
DEPRESSION
60
65
70
75
80
15CONTOURING
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS
vii) Contour line cross ridge or valley line at
right angles.
If the higher
values are inside
the bend or loop
in the contour, it
indicates a
Ridge.
RIDGE LINE
100
90
80
70
60
50
16CONTOURING
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS
vii) Contour line cross ridge or valley line at
right angles.
If the higher
values are
outside the
bend, it
represents
a Valley
VALLEY LINE
100
90
80
70
60
50
17CONTOURING
viii).
Contours cannot end anywhere but close on
themselves either within or outside the limits of
the map.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS
18CONTOURING
ix).
Contour lines cannot
merge or cross one
another on map
except in the case of
an overhanging cliff.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS
40 30 20 10
OVERHANGING CLIFF
10
20
30
40
19CONTOURING
x) Contour lines
never run into one
another except in
the case of a
vertical cliff. In
this case ,several
contours coincide
and the horizontal
equivalent becomes
zero.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS
403020
50
OVERHANGING CLIFF
10
20
30
40
VERTICA
CLIFF
50
10 50
20CONTOURING
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS
X Depressions
between summits is
called a saddle. It is
represented by four
sets of contours as
shown. It represents
a dip in a ridge or
the junction of two
ridges. And in the
case of a mountain
range ,it takes the
form of a pass .
SADDLE70
80
90
70
80
90
110
100
90
21CONTOURING
Line passing through the
saddles and summits gives
water shed line.
DRAWING THE CONTOUR LINES
Contour lines are drawn as fine and smooth free
hand curved lines. Sometimes they are represented by
broken lines .They are inked in either in black or brown
colour. A drawing pen gives a better line than a writing
pen and French curves should be used as much as
possible .Every fifth contour is made thicker than the
rest.
The elevation of contours must be written in a
uniform manner, either on the higher side or in a gap
left in the line .When the contour lines are very long,
their elevations are written at two or three places along
the contour .In the case of small scale maps, it is
sufficient to figure every fifth contour.
45CONTOURING
USES OF CONTOUR MAP
45CONTOURING
(i) A contour map furnishes information regarding the features
of the ground , whether it is flat, undulating or mountainous.
(ii) From a contour map , sections may be easily drawn in any
direction
(iii) Intervisibility between two ground points plotted on map
can be ascertained
(iv) It enables an engineer to approximately select the most
economical or suitable site for an engineering project such as
a road, a railway, a canal or a pipe line etc.
(v) A route of a given grade can be traced on the map.
(vi) Catchment area and capacity of a reservoir may be
determined from the contour map.
(vii) Contour map may be used to determine the quantities of
earth work.
THANK YOU
PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY (PES)
20

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Countering for surveying

  • 1. SHREE SWAMI ATMANANAD SARSWATI INSTITUTE OF TECNOLOGY SUBJECT-ELEMENTSOF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONTOURING
  • 2. PREPARED BY  JANI GAUTAM A.  PATEL SAGAR N.  CHAUDHRI ANKIT N.  BHAGAT RADESH H.  PATEL HARSH S.  BHUTA YASH J.  GURASIYA SAUR P. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY (PES) 2 GUIDED BY- PROF KHUSBU RAVAL -PROF SONERI FALGUNI
  • 3. Contour An imaginary line on the ground surface joining the points of equal elevation is known as contour. In other words, contour is a line in which the ground surface is intersected by a level surface obtained by joining points of equal elevation. This line on the map represents a contour and is called contour line. 2CONTOURING 2
  • 4. Contour Map A map showing contour lines is known as Contour map. A contour map gives an idea of the altitudes of the surface features as well as their relative positions in plan serves the purpose of both, a plan and a section. 3CONTOURING 3
  • 5. Contouring The process of tracing contour lines on the surface of the earth is called Contouring. 3CONTOURING 4
  • 6. PURPOSE OF CONTOURING Contour survey is carried out at the starting of any engineering project such as a road, a railway, a canal, a dam, a building etc. i) For preparing contour maps in order to select the most economical or suitable site. ii) To locate the alignment of a canal so that it should follow a ridge line. iii) To mark the alignment of roads and railways so that the quantity of earthwork both in cutting and filling should be minimum. 4CONTOURING 5
  • 7. iv) For getting information about the ground whether it is flat, undulating or mountainous. v) To find the capacity of a reservoir and volume of earthwork especially in a mountainous region. vi) To trace out the given grade of a particular route. vii)To locate the physical features of the ground such as a pond depression, hill, steep or small slopes. PURPOSE OF CONTOURING (contd.) CONTOURING 6
  • 8. CONTOUR INTERVAL The constant vertical distance between two consecutive contours is called the contour interval. HORIZONTAL EQUIVALENT The horizontal distance between any two adjacent contours is called as horizontal equivalent. The contour interval is constant between the consecutive contours while the horizontal equivalent is variable and depends upon the slope of the ground. CONTOURING 7
  • 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS i) All points in a contour line have the same elevation. ii) Flat ground is indicated where the … contours are widely separated and steep- slope where they run close together. iii) A uniform slope is indicated when the contour lines are uniformly spaced and iv) A plane surface when they are straight, parallel and equally spaced. CONTOURING 13
  • 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS v) A series of closed contour lines on the map represent a hill , if the higher values are inside A HILL 60 65 70 75 80 60 65 70 75 80 HILL
  • 11. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS vi) A series of closed contour lines on the map indicate a depression if the higher values are outside A DEPRESSION 70 60 65 70 75 80 DEPRESSION 60 65 70 75 80 15CONTOURING
  • 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS vii) Contour line cross ridge or valley line at right angles. If the higher values are inside the bend or loop in the contour, it indicates a Ridge. RIDGE LINE 100 90 80 70 60 50 16CONTOURING
  • 13. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS vii) Contour line cross ridge or valley line at right angles. If the higher values are outside the bend, it represents a Valley VALLEY LINE 100 90 80 70 60 50 17CONTOURING
  • 14. viii). Contours cannot end anywhere but close on themselves either within or outside the limits of the map. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS 18CONTOURING
  • 15. ix). Contour lines cannot merge or cross one another on map except in the case of an overhanging cliff. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS 40 30 20 10 OVERHANGING CLIFF 10 20 30 40 19CONTOURING
  • 16. x) Contour lines never run into one another except in the case of a vertical cliff. In this case ,several contours coincide and the horizontal equivalent becomes zero. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS 403020 50 OVERHANGING CLIFF 10 20 30 40 VERTICA CLIFF 50 10 50 20CONTOURING
  • 17. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOURS X Depressions between summits is called a saddle. It is represented by four sets of contours as shown. It represents a dip in a ridge or the junction of two ridges. And in the case of a mountain range ,it takes the form of a pass . SADDLE70 80 90 70 80 90 110 100 90 21CONTOURING Line passing through the saddles and summits gives water shed line.
  • 18. DRAWING THE CONTOUR LINES Contour lines are drawn as fine and smooth free hand curved lines. Sometimes they are represented by broken lines .They are inked in either in black or brown colour. A drawing pen gives a better line than a writing pen and French curves should be used as much as possible .Every fifth contour is made thicker than the rest. The elevation of contours must be written in a uniform manner, either on the higher side or in a gap left in the line .When the contour lines are very long, their elevations are written at two or three places along the contour .In the case of small scale maps, it is sufficient to figure every fifth contour. 45CONTOURING
  • 19. USES OF CONTOUR MAP 45CONTOURING (i) A contour map furnishes information regarding the features of the ground , whether it is flat, undulating or mountainous. (ii) From a contour map , sections may be easily drawn in any direction (iii) Intervisibility between two ground points plotted on map can be ascertained (iv) It enables an engineer to approximately select the most economical or suitable site for an engineering project such as a road, a railway, a canal or a pipe line etc. (v) A route of a given grade can be traced on the map. (vi) Catchment area and capacity of a reservoir may be determined from the contour map. (vii) Contour map may be used to determine the quantities of earth work.
  • 20. THANK YOU PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY (PES) 20