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This document discusses different methods for representing data in computers, including numeric and character representations. It covers representing signed and unsigned integers using methods like sign-magnitude, 1's complement, and 2's complement. It also discusses floating point number representation using the IEEE standard. Finally, it discusses character representation using ASCII and Unicode encoding schemes.

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Computer architecture data representation

This document discusses various methods of data representation in digital systems, including number systems, data types, and encoding of numeric values. It covers binary, decimal, and floating point representation, as well as techniques for representing negative numbers like signed magnitude, 1's complement, and 2's complement. Error detection codes like parity bits are also introduced as a way to detect errors during data transmission. Key topics include binary conversion of decimal numbers, floating point representation using mantissa and exponent, overflow detection, and even/odd parity generation.

Computer Organization and Architecture.

This presentation highlights the basics of CPU organization & architecture covering topics like CPU registers, Instruction set, Instruction cycle etc.

Number System in CoMpUtEr

The document discusses different number systems used in computers. It begins by explaining that computers understand numbers and use positional number systems. It then defines the decimal number system as base-10, and explains how place values work in decimals from units to thousands. It proceeds to describe characteristics of binary (base-2), octal (base-8), and hexadecimal (base-16) number systems used in computing, including their digits and place value representation. Finally, it lists topics on converting between decimal and binary, and binary arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Computer arithmetic

All the data about computer arithmetic .. i searched for it in slide share but no result.. so i made it for u guys..

mano.ppt

This document provides an overview of the chapters and content covered in a textbook on computer organization and architecture. The chapters cover digital logic circuits, digital components, data representation, register transfer and microoperations, basic computer organization and design, programming and instruction sets, control units, processor design, pipelining and parallel processing, arithmetic, input/output, and memory organization. Key concepts discussed include logic gates, boolean algebra, combinational and sequential circuits, registers, buses, arithmetic and logic operations, and memory.

Number system

The document discusses different number systems including decimal, binary, octal, hexadecimal, BCD, gray code, and excess-3 code.
- Decimal uses base 10 with symbols 0-9. Binary uses base 2 with symbols 0-1. Octal uses base 8 with symbols 0-7. Hexadecimal uses base 16 with symbols 0-9 and A-F.
- BCD assigns a 4-bit binary code to each decimal digit 0-9. Gray code is a non-weighted cyclic code where successive codes differ in one bit. Excess-3 code derives from 8421 code by adding 0011.

Register transfer and micro-operation

1) The document discusses different types of micro-operations including arithmetic, logic, shift, and register transfer micro-operations.
2) It provides examples of common arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, increment, and decrement. It also describes logic operations like AND, OR, XOR, and complement.
3) Shift micro-operations include logical shifts, circular shifts, and arithmetic shifts which affect the serial input differently.

Basic Computer Organization and Design

Basic Computer Organization and Design
.....................................................................
The basic computer design represents all of the major concepts in CPU design without overwhelming students with the complexity of a modern commercial CPU.

Computer architecture data representation

This document discusses various methods of data representation in digital systems, including number systems, data types, and encoding of numeric values. It covers binary, decimal, and floating point representation, as well as techniques for representing negative numbers like signed magnitude, 1's complement, and 2's complement. Error detection codes like parity bits are also introduced as a way to detect errors during data transmission. Key topics include binary conversion of decimal numbers, floating point representation using mantissa and exponent, overflow detection, and even/odd parity generation.

Computer Organization and Architecture.

This presentation highlights the basics of CPU organization & architecture covering topics like CPU registers, Instruction set, Instruction cycle etc.

Number System in CoMpUtEr

The document discusses different number systems used in computers. It begins by explaining that computers understand numbers and use positional number systems. It then defines the decimal number system as base-10, and explains how place values work in decimals from units to thousands. It proceeds to describe characteristics of binary (base-2), octal (base-8), and hexadecimal (base-16) number systems used in computing, including their digits and place value representation. Finally, it lists topics on converting between decimal and binary, and binary arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Computer arithmetic

All the data about computer arithmetic .. i searched for it in slide share but no result.. so i made it for u guys..

mano.ppt

This document provides an overview of the chapters and content covered in a textbook on computer organization and architecture. The chapters cover digital logic circuits, digital components, data representation, register transfer and microoperations, basic computer organization and design, programming and instruction sets, control units, processor design, pipelining and parallel processing, arithmetic, input/output, and memory organization. Key concepts discussed include logic gates, boolean algebra, combinational and sequential circuits, registers, buses, arithmetic and logic operations, and memory.

Number system

The document discusses different number systems including decimal, binary, octal, hexadecimal, BCD, gray code, and excess-3 code.
- Decimal uses base 10 with symbols 0-9. Binary uses base 2 with symbols 0-1. Octal uses base 8 with symbols 0-7. Hexadecimal uses base 16 with symbols 0-9 and A-F.
- BCD assigns a 4-bit binary code to each decimal digit 0-9. Gray code is a non-weighted cyclic code where successive codes differ in one bit. Excess-3 code derives from 8421 code by adding 0011.

Register transfer and micro-operation

1) The document discusses different types of micro-operations including arithmetic, logic, shift, and register transfer micro-operations.
2) It provides examples of common arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, increment, and decrement. It also describes logic operations like AND, OR, XOR, and complement.
3) Shift micro-operations include logical shifts, circular shifts, and arithmetic shifts which affect the serial input differently.

Basic Computer Organization and Design

Basic Computer Organization and Design
.....................................................................
The basic computer design represents all of the major concepts in CPU design without overwhelming students with the complexity of a modern commercial CPU.

Instruction format

An instruction format specifies an operation code and operands. There are three main types of instruction formats: three address instructions specify memory addresses for two operands and one destination; two address instructions specify two memory locations or registers with the destination assumed to be the first operand; and one address instructions use a single accumulator register for all data manipulation. Addressing modes further specify how the address field of an instruction is interpreted to determine the effective address of an operand. Common addressing modes include immediate, register, register indirect, auto-increment/decrement, direct, indirect, relative, indexed, and base register addressing.

Computer Number system

this power point Presentation proved brief description of computer number system also provide mathematical calculation ability to student

1.1.2 HEXADECIMAL

This explanation is on Hexadecimal for students taking computer science [2210]. Any suggestions or query can be forwarded to buxooa72@gmail.com.

Number System

alll About Number Systems, learning of Conversion of ... Binary NS to Decimal NS, Octal NS, Hexa-Decimal NS ... Decimal NS to Binary NS, Octal NS, Hexa-Decimal NS ... Octal NS to Binary NS, Decimal NS, Hexa-Decimal NS ... Hexa-Decimal NS to Binary NS, Decimal NS, Octal NS

Data representation

This document discusses different methods of data representation in computers. It covers numeric systems like binary, octal and hexadecimal that represent numeric data. It also discusses character encoding standards like ASCII and Unicode that allow computers to represent text in different languages. Data types like alphanumeric, alphabetic and numeric are also explained along with how binary arithmetic is used for calculations in computers.

Signed Binary Numbers

The document discusses different methods for representing signed binary numbers:
1) Sign-magnitude notation represents positive and negative numbers by using the most significant bit to indicate the sign (0 for positive, 1 for negative) and the remaining bits for the magnitude.
2) One's complement represents negative numbers by inverting all bits of the positive number.
3) Two's complement, the most common method, represents negative numbers by inverting all bits and adding 1 to the result. This allows simple addition to perform subtraction.

Number system

To Download this click on the link below:-
http://www29.zippyshare.com/v/42478054/file.html
Number System
Decimal Number System
Binary Number System
Why Binary?
Octal Number System
Hexadecimal Number System
Relationship between Hexadecimal, Octal, Decimal, and Binary
Number Conversions

Floating point representation

Real numbers can be stored using floating point representation, which separates a real number into three parts: a sign bit, exponent, and mantissa. The exponent indicates the power of the base 10 that the mantissa is multiplied by. Common standards like IEEE 754 define single and double precision formats that allocate more bits for higher precision at the cost of range. Summarizing a floating point number involves determining the exponent by shifting the decimal, converting the number to a leading digit mantissa, and writing the sign, exponent, and mantissa based on the specified precision format.

Binary codes

This document defines and classifies different types of binary codes. It explains that binary codes represent numeric and alphanumeric data as groups of bits. Binary codes are classified as weighted or non-weighted, reflective or non-reflective, and sequential or non-sequential. Common binary codes include ASCII, EBCDIC, Hollerith, BCD, excess-3, and Gray codes. Error detecting and correcting codes are also discussed which add extra bits to detect or correct errors during data transmission. Examples of different binary codes are provided.

Digital Logic circuit

This document provides an overview of digital logic circuits and sequential circuits. It discusses various logic gates like OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR and XOR gates. It explains their truth tables and symbols. It also covers Boolean algebra, map simplification using K-maps, combinational circuits like multiplexers, demultiplexers, encoders and decoders. Finally, it describes different types of flip-flops like SR, D, JK and T flip-flops which are used to build sequential circuits that have memory and can store past states.

Instruction codes

An instruction code consists of an operation code and operand(s) that specify the operation to perform and data to use. Operation codes are binary codes that define operations like addition, subtraction, etc. Early computers stored programs and data in separate memory sections and used a single accumulator register. Modern computers have multiple registers for temporary storage and performing operations faster than using only memory. Computer instructions encode an operation code and operand fields to specify the basic operations to perform on data stored in registers or memory.

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

The document discusses the binary number system. It begins by defining number systems and the decimal system. It then introduces the binary number system which has a base of 2 and uses only the digits 0 and 1. It shows how to write binary numbers and provides a table to demonstrate counting and place values in the binary system. The document explains two methods for converting between decimal and binary numbers - the division method to convert decimals to binary, and the expansion method to convert binary to decimal. It includes examples and practice problems for students to convert numbers between the two number systems.

Register transfer language

Register transfer language is used to describe micro-operation transfers between registers. It represents the sequence of micro-operations performed on binary information stored in registers and the control that initiates the sequences. A register is a group of flip-flops that store binary information. Information can be transferred between registers using replacement operators and control functions. Common bus systems using multiplexers or three-state buffers allow efficient information transfer between multiple registers by selecting one register at a time to connect to the shared bus lines. Memory transfers are represented by specifying the memory word selected by the address in a register and the data register involved in the transfer.

1's and 2's complement

This document discusses 1's and 2's complement in binary numbers. 1's complement involves flipping all the bits in a binary number to perform subtraction. 2's complement is obtained by adding 1 to the 1's complement. As an example, it shows subtracting 1010 from 1111 in binary using the 1's and 2's complement methods.

ADDRESSING MODES

The document discusses addressing modes in computers. It defines addressing modes as the different ways of specifying the location of an operand in an instruction. It describes 10 common addressing modes including implied, immediate, register, register indirect, auto increment/decrement, direct, indirect, relative, indexed, and base register addressing modes. It provides examples of instructions for each addressing mode and explains how the effective address is calculated. Addressing modes allow for versatility in programming through features like pointers, loop counters, data indexing, and program relocation while reducing the number of bits needed in instruction addresses.

Data representation

This document discusses different methods of representing data in a computer, including numeric data types, number systems, and encoding schemes. It covers binary, decimal, octal, and hexadecimal number systems. Methods for representing signed and unsigned integers are described, such as signed-magnitude, 1's complement, and 2's complement representations. Floating point number representation with a sign bit, exponent field, and significand is also summarized. Conversion between different number bases and data encodings like binary-coded decimal are explained through examples.

Instruction pipeline: Computer Architecture

Pipelining is an speed up technique where multiple instructions are overlapped in execution on a processor. It is an important topic in Computer Architecture.
This slide try to relate the problem with real life scenario for easily understanding the concept and show the major inner mechanism.

Computer instructions

An instruction format consists of bits that specify an operation to perform on data in computer memory. The processor fetches instructions from memory and decodes the bits to execute them. Instruction formats have operation codes to define operations like addition and an address field to specify where data is located. Computers may have different instruction sets.

Number system conversion

This document introduces group members Md. Ilias Bappi and Md.Kawsar Hamid and presents information on number systems and conversions. It discusses the decimal number system and defines ones' complement and twos' complement in binary. It provides examples of converting between binary, decimal, octal, and hexadecimal systems using appropriate techniques like multiplying bit positions by powers of the base. Conversions include binary to decimal, octal to decimal, hexadecimal to decimal, decimal to binary, octal to binary, hexadecimal to binary, decimal to octal, octal to hexadecimal, and binary to decimal representations of fractions.

Complements of numbers

This document discusses different types of number complements that allow subtraction to be performed using addition. It explains that subtraction using borrowing is inefficient for computers, so instead subtraction is done by taking the complement of one of the numbers and then adding. For binary numbers, the 2's complement is commonly used, where the 2's complement of a number is found by flipping all the bits and adding 1. The document provides examples of calculating 1's, 2's, and other bases' complements.

[1] Data Representation

The document discusses how computers represent data using binary numbers (1s and 0s). It explains that binary is used because it provides an easy way to represent two states (on/off) in storage devices. It then discusses how different numbers of bits (binary digits) can be used to represent different numbers in binary, and provides examples of converting between binary and decimal numbers. Finally, it briefly introduces the concept of data compression for reducing the size of files.

Topic 1 Data Representation

The document discusses different methods of representing data in computers, including:
1. Binary representation of numbers using 0s and 1s. This allows integers and floating point numbers to be stored.
2. Text representation using character encoding standards like ASCII and Unicode which assign binary codes to letters, numbers and symbols.
3. Graphic representations including bitmapped images and vector graphics. Bitmaps store color values for each pixel while vectors store mathematical descriptions of shapes.

Instruction format

An instruction format specifies an operation code and operands. There are three main types of instruction formats: three address instructions specify memory addresses for two operands and one destination; two address instructions specify two memory locations or registers with the destination assumed to be the first operand; and one address instructions use a single accumulator register for all data manipulation. Addressing modes further specify how the address field of an instruction is interpreted to determine the effective address of an operand. Common addressing modes include immediate, register, register indirect, auto-increment/decrement, direct, indirect, relative, indexed, and base register addressing.

Computer Number system

this power point Presentation proved brief description of computer number system also provide mathematical calculation ability to student

1.1.2 HEXADECIMAL

This explanation is on Hexadecimal for students taking computer science [2210]. Any suggestions or query can be forwarded to buxooa72@gmail.com.

Number System

alll About Number Systems, learning of Conversion of ... Binary NS to Decimal NS, Octal NS, Hexa-Decimal NS ... Decimal NS to Binary NS, Octal NS, Hexa-Decimal NS ... Octal NS to Binary NS, Decimal NS, Hexa-Decimal NS ... Hexa-Decimal NS to Binary NS, Decimal NS, Octal NS

Data representation

This document discusses different methods of data representation in computers. It covers numeric systems like binary, octal and hexadecimal that represent numeric data. It also discusses character encoding standards like ASCII and Unicode that allow computers to represent text in different languages. Data types like alphanumeric, alphabetic and numeric are also explained along with how binary arithmetic is used for calculations in computers.

Signed Binary Numbers

The document discusses different methods for representing signed binary numbers:
1) Sign-magnitude notation represents positive and negative numbers by using the most significant bit to indicate the sign (0 for positive, 1 for negative) and the remaining bits for the magnitude.
2) One's complement represents negative numbers by inverting all bits of the positive number.
3) Two's complement, the most common method, represents negative numbers by inverting all bits and adding 1 to the result. This allows simple addition to perform subtraction.

Number system

To Download this click on the link below:-
http://www29.zippyshare.com/v/42478054/file.html
Number System
Decimal Number System
Binary Number System
Why Binary?
Octal Number System
Hexadecimal Number System
Relationship between Hexadecimal, Octal, Decimal, and Binary
Number Conversions

Floating point representation

Real numbers can be stored using floating point representation, which separates a real number into three parts: a sign bit, exponent, and mantissa. The exponent indicates the power of the base 10 that the mantissa is multiplied by. Common standards like IEEE 754 define single and double precision formats that allocate more bits for higher precision at the cost of range. Summarizing a floating point number involves determining the exponent by shifting the decimal, converting the number to a leading digit mantissa, and writing the sign, exponent, and mantissa based on the specified precision format.

Binary codes

This document defines and classifies different types of binary codes. It explains that binary codes represent numeric and alphanumeric data as groups of bits. Binary codes are classified as weighted or non-weighted, reflective or non-reflective, and sequential or non-sequential. Common binary codes include ASCII, EBCDIC, Hollerith, BCD, excess-3, and Gray codes. Error detecting and correcting codes are also discussed which add extra bits to detect or correct errors during data transmission. Examples of different binary codes are provided.

Digital Logic circuit

This document provides an overview of digital logic circuits and sequential circuits. It discusses various logic gates like OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR and XOR gates. It explains their truth tables and symbols. It also covers Boolean algebra, map simplification using K-maps, combinational circuits like multiplexers, demultiplexers, encoders and decoders. Finally, it describes different types of flip-flops like SR, D, JK and T flip-flops which are used to build sequential circuits that have memory and can store past states.

Instruction codes

An instruction code consists of an operation code and operand(s) that specify the operation to perform and data to use. Operation codes are binary codes that define operations like addition, subtraction, etc. Early computers stored programs and data in separate memory sections and used a single accumulator register. Modern computers have multiple registers for temporary storage and performing operations faster than using only memory. Computer instructions encode an operation code and operand fields to specify the basic operations to perform on data stored in registers or memory.

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

The document discusses the binary number system. It begins by defining number systems and the decimal system. It then introduces the binary number system which has a base of 2 and uses only the digits 0 and 1. It shows how to write binary numbers and provides a table to demonstrate counting and place values in the binary system. The document explains two methods for converting between decimal and binary numbers - the division method to convert decimals to binary, and the expansion method to convert binary to decimal. It includes examples and practice problems for students to convert numbers between the two number systems.

Register transfer language

Register transfer language is used to describe micro-operation transfers between registers. It represents the sequence of micro-operations performed on binary information stored in registers and the control that initiates the sequences. A register is a group of flip-flops that store binary information. Information can be transferred between registers using replacement operators and control functions. Common bus systems using multiplexers or three-state buffers allow efficient information transfer between multiple registers by selecting one register at a time to connect to the shared bus lines. Memory transfers are represented by specifying the memory word selected by the address in a register and the data register involved in the transfer.

1's and 2's complement

This document discusses 1's and 2's complement in binary numbers. 1's complement involves flipping all the bits in a binary number to perform subtraction. 2's complement is obtained by adding 1 to the 1's complement. As an example, it shows subtracting 1010 from 1111 in binary using the 1's and 2's complement methods.

ADDRESSING MODES

The document discusses addressing modes in computers. It defines addressing modes as the different ways of specifying the location of an operand in an instruction. It describes 10 common addressing modes including implied, immediate, register, register indirect, auto increment/decrement, direct, indirect, relative, indexed, and base register addressing modes. It provides examples of instructions for each addressing mode and explains how the effective address is calculated. Addressing modes allow for versatility in programming through features like pointers, loop counters, data indexing, and program relocation while reducing the number of bits needed in instruction addresses.

Data representation

This document discusses different methods of representing data in a computer, including numeric data types, number systems, and encoding schemes. It covers binary, decimal, octal, and hexadecimal number systems. Methods for representing signed and unsigned integers are described, such as signed-magnitude, 1's complement, and 2's complement representations. Floating point number representation with a sign bit, exponent field, and significand is also summarized. Conversion between different number bases and data encodings like binary-coded decimal are explained through examples.

Instruction pipeline: Computer Architecture

Pipelining is an speed up technique where multiple instructions are overlapped in execution on a processor. It is an important topic in Computer Architecture.
This slide try to relate the problem with real life scenario for easily understanding the concept and show the major inner mechanism.

Computer instructions

An instruction format consists of bits that specify an operation to perform on data in computer memory. The processor fetches instructions from memory and decodes the bits to execute them. Instruction formats have operation codes to define operations like addition and an address field to specify where data is located. Computers may have different instruction sets.

Number system conversion

This document introduces group members Md. Ilias Bappi and Md.Kawsar Hamid and presents information on number systems and conversions. It discusses the decimal number system and defines ones' complement and twos' complement in binary. It provides examples of converting between binary, decimal, octal, and hexadecimal systems using appropriate techniques like multiplying bit positions by powers of the base. Conversions include binary to decimal, octal to decimal, hexadecimal to decimal, decimal to binary, octal to binary, hexadecimal to binary, decimal to octal, octal to hexadecimal, and binary to decimal representations of fractions.

Complements of numbers

This document discusses different types of number complements that allow subtraction to be performed using addition. It explains that subtraction using borrowing is inefficient for computers, so instead subtraction is done by taking the complement of one of the numbers and then adding. For binary numbers, the 2's complement is commonly used, where the 2's complement of a number is found by flipping all the bits and adding 1. The document provides examples of calculating 1's, 2's, and other bases' complements.

Instruction format

Instruction format

Computer Number system

Computer Number system

1.1.2 HEXADECIMAL

1.1.2 HEXADECIMAL

Number System

Number System

Data representation

Data representation

Signed Binary Numbers

Signed Binary Numbers

Number system

Number system

Floating point representation

Floating point representation

Binary codes

Binary codes

Digital Logic circuit

Digital Logic circuit

Instruction codes

Instruction codes

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

Register transfer language

Register transfer language

1's and 2's complement

1's and 2's complement

ADDRESSING MODES

ADDRESSING MODES

Data representation

Data representation

Instruction pipeline: Computer Architecture

Instruction pipeline: Computer Architecture

Computer instructions

Computer instructions

Number system conversion

Number system conversion

Complements of numbers

Complements of numbers

[1] Data Representation

The document discusses how computers represent data using binary numbers (1s and 0s). It explains that binary is used because it provides an easy way to represent two states (on/off) in storage devices. It then discusses how different numbers of bits (binary digits) can be used to represent different numbers in binary, and provides examples of converting between binary and decimal numbers. Finally, it briefly introduces the concept of data compression for reducing the size of files.

Topic 1 Data Representation

The document discusses different methods of representing data in computers, including:
1. Binary representation of numbers using 0s and 1s. This allows integers and floating point numbers to be stored.
2. Text representation using character encoding standards like ASCII and Unicode which assign binary codes to letters, numbers and symbols.
3. Graphic representations including bitmapped images and vector graphics. Bitmaps store color values for each pixel while vectors store mathematical descriptions of shapes.

data representation

This document provides an overview of data representation in computers. It discusses binary, decimal, hexadecimal, and floating point number systems. Binary numbers use only two digits, 0 and 1, and can represent values as sums of powers of two. Decimal uses ten digits from 0-9. Hexadecimal uses sixteen values from 0-9 and A-F. Negative binary integers can be represented using ones' complement or twos' complement methods. Twos' complement avoids multiple representations of zero and is commonly used in computers. Converting between number bases involves expressing the value in one base using the digits of another.

Data representation in computers

Computers represent data using binary digits (bits) that can have a value of 0 or 1. Data is stored digitally as patterns of bits. Different numbering systems like binary, decimal, and hexadecimal use different symbols but the same positional notation approach. Converting between numbering systems involves repeatedly dividing the number by the base and recording the remainders as the digits of the new number.

Data Representation

This document discusses number systems and data representation in computers. It covers topics like binary, decimal, hexadecimal, and ASCII number systems. Some key points covered include:
- Computers use the binary number system and positional notation to represent data precisely.
- Different number systems have different bases (like binary base-2, decimal base-10, hexadecimal base-16).
- Methods for converting between number systems like binary to decimal and hexadecimal to decimal.
- Signed and unsigned integers, ones' complement, twos' complement representation of negative numbers.
- ASCII encoding of characters and how to convert between character and numeric representations.

The internet

The document provides an overview of the history and development of the Internet, how it works, and how people use it. It discusses key people like Leonard Kleinrock, Vint Cerf, and Tim Berners-Lee who contributed to its creation. It also outlines different connection methods like dial-up, DSL, and cable, factors that affect connection speed, and security measures like firewalls and encryption that help protect users' privacy and data online.

Internet

The document defines the internet as a global system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data via packets. It then outlines the evolution of the internet from its origins as the ARPANET in the 1960s developed by US military researchers, to the creation of TCP/IP in the 1970s which allowed different networks to communicate, and the introduction of the world wide web in the 1990s. Finally, it lists some common internet applications including email, file transfer, remote login, news, hypertext, chat, and online shopping.

GCE O/L ICT

This document provides a sample of 200 model questions for the G.C.E O/L exam in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). It covers a range of topics in ICT, including data vs. information, computer components and functions, generations of technology, input/output devices, and communication modes. The questions are multiple choice format with explanations provided for the answers. The document is authored by Mahesh Kodituwakku and Pramuka Kusalasiri, who have technology qualifications and teaching experience.

Chap 2 network models

The document provides an overview of the OSI reference model and TCP/IP model for networking. It discusses:
1. The 7 layers of the OSI model and their functions, from the physical layer to the application layer.
2. The principles used to arrive at the 7 layers of the OSI model, including dividing complex tasks into simpler sub-tasks and minimizing information flow across interfaces.
3. An overview of the TCP/IP model and its 4 layers, and a comparison between OSI and TCP/IP.

Standard Deviation its coefficient and Variance by Ghulam MUstafa 13TE89

The document discusses statistical concepts of mean, standard deviation, variance, and coefficient of mean deviation. It provides definitions and formulas for calculating each measure. An example is shown to demonstrate calculating the mean deviation, coefficient of mean deviation, variance, and standard deviation for a sample data set. The mean deviation measures the average absolute deviation from the mean or median, while the coefficient of mean deviation normalizes this value. Variance and standard deviation quantify the spread of values around the mean, with variance being the average squared deviation and standard deviation taking the square root of variance.

Ch1 introducing computer systems

This document provides an overview of computer systems by discussing:
1) The basic parts of a computer system including hardware, software, data, and users.
2) The information processing cycle that computers follow of input, processing, output, and storage.
3) The different types of computers including personal computers like desktops, notebooks, tablets, and smartphones as well as organizational computers like servers, mainframes, and supercomputers.

Integer Representation

The document discusses different methods for representing integers and fractional numbers in binary, including sign and modulus representation, one's complement, two's complement, fixed point representation, and floating point representation. It provides examples and activities to help understand how to convert between decimal and binary representations using these methods.

Arpanet.53

ARPANet was the first wide-area network created by the US Defense Department in 1969. It served as a testbed for new networking technologies and evolved into the modern Internet. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet using browsers. It allows users to view web pages that contain text, images, videos and other multimedia. Each web page is made up of HTML code and can contain links to other pages located on different servers around the world.

Networks classification

This presentation deals with the network classifications based on topologies, scale, architecture and transmission technology.

co relation and regression

This document discusses correlation and regression analysis. It defines correlation as the statistical technique used to determine how strongly two variables are related. Correlation can be positive if the variables increase together, or negative if one variable decreases as the other increases. Regression analysis models the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. Regression equations and different types of regression models like simple linear and non-linear regression are presented. Examples of applying regression to forecast sales trends over time and determine the effect of price changes on demand are provided.

Measures of variability

This document discusses different measures of variability in data sets. It outlines that variability measures the spread of a data set and identifies the most common measures as range, variance, and standard deviation. Variance is calculated as the mean of the squared deviations from the mean. Standard deviation takes the square root of the variance and provides a measure of how far data points typically are from the average.

Security Culture from Concept to Maintenance: Secure Software Development Lif...

The document discusses implementing a Secure Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) to help organizations build more secure software. It describes the key steps in the SDL process, including requirements, design, implementation, verification, release and response. Implementing an SDL can help minimize security issues and related costs through practices like threat modeling, secure coding and security testing throughout the development cycle. The challenges of adoption and ways to build a security culture are also addressed.

Network Devices

understand basics of Most common network devices.

Data Collection and Presentation

This document discusses research methods, including sources of data, methods of collecting data, and sampling techniques. It describes primary and secondary sources of data, as well as direct/interview, indirect/questionnaire, registration, observation, and experimentation as methods of collecting data. The document also explains probability sampling techniques like simple random sampling, systematic random sampling, stratified random sampling, and cluster sampling. It provides Slovin's formula for determining sample size and discusses margin of error. Non-probability sampling techniques such as convenience, quota, and purposive sampling are also outlined.

ICT G.C.E O/L 2016 Model Paper

Try before the Exam

[1] Data Representation

[1] Data Representation

Topic 1 Data Representation

Topic 1 Data Representation

data representation

data representation

Data representation in computers

Data representation in computers

Data Representation

Data Representation

The internet

The internet

Internet

Internet

GCE O/L ICT

GCE O/L ICT

Chap 2 network models

Chap 2 network models

Standard Deviation its coefficient and Variance by Ghulam MUstafa 13TE89

Standard Deviation its coefficient and Variance by Ghulam MUstafa 13TE89

Ch1 introducing computer systems

Ch1 introducing computer systems

Integer Representation

Integer Representation

Arpanet.53

Arpanet.53

Networks classification

Networks classification

co relation and regression

co relation and regression

Measures of variability

Measures of variability

Security Culture from Concept to Maintenance: Secure Software Development Lif...

Security Culture from Concept to Maintenance: Secure Software Development Lif...

Network Devices

Network Devices

Data Collection and Presentation

Data Collection and Presentation

ICT G.C.E O/L 2016 Model Paper

ICT G.C.E O/L 2016 Model Paper

Number system and codes

The document discusses different number systems including binary, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal. It explains that number systems have a radix or base, which determines the set of symbols used and their positional values. The key representations for binary numbers discussed are sign-magnitude, one's complement, and two's complement, which provide different methods for representing positive and negative numbers. The document provides examples of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division operations in binary.

Module 1 number systems and code1

Number systems - Efficiency of number system, Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimalconversion
from one to another- Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and division,
representation of signed numbers, addition and subtraction using 2’s complement and I’s
complement.
Binary codes - BCD code, Excess 3 code, Gray code, Alphanumeric code, Error detection
codes, Error correcting code.Deepak john,SJCET-Pala

DLD_Lecture_notes2.ppt

The document describes the syllabus for the course EEE365 Digital Electronics. The course covers topics such as number systems, Boolean algebra, combinational and sequential logic circuit design, memory devices, and digital signal conversion. Reference books for the course include titles on digital logic, digital systems, and digital design principles.

International Journal of Engineering Research and Development

Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering,
Information Engineering and Technology,
Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering,
Automation and Mechatronics Engineering,
Material and Chemical Engineering,
Civil and Architecture Engineering,
Biotechnology and Bio Engineering,
Environmental Engineering,
Petroleum and Mining Engineering,
Marine and Agriculture engineering,
Aerospace Engineering.

Logic Circuits Design - "Chapter 1: Digital Systems and Information"

Logic Circuits Design: This material is based on chapter 1 of “Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals” by M. Morris Mano, Charles R. Kime and Tom Martin

Lecture 1 PPT Number systems & conversions part.pptx

This document provides an overview of different number systems including non-positional and positional systems. It describes the characteristics of decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal number systems. The key aspects covered include the radix/base, value of each digit, and how the position of a digit determines its value. The document also discusses conversions between these number systems using methods like division and multiplication. It includes examples and exercises for converting numbers between decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal representations.

Finite word length effects

1) The document discusses finite word length effects in digital filters. It covers fixed point and floating point number representations, different number systems including binary, decimal, octal and hexadecimal.
2) It describes various number representation techniques for digital systems including fixed point representation, floating point representation, and block floating point representation. Fixed point representation uses a fixed binary point position while floating point representation allows the binary point to vary.
3) It also discusses signed number representations including sign-magnitude, one's complement, and two's complement forms. Arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction and multiplication are covered for fixed point numbers along with issues like overflow.

Ee 202 chapter 1 number and code system

This document provides an overview of number systems used in digital electronics. It discusses decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems. It describes how to convert between these different number systems, including binary to decimal and decimal to binary conversions. Binary addition and subtraction are also covered. The document introduces signed binary numbers to represent positive and negative values. Overall, the document aims to explain the fundamental concepts of number representation in digital circuits and computers.

Digital electronics

Digital electronics
Lesson 1: Number System and Representation
Content: Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal,
1‘s and 2‘s complements,
Codes – Binary, BCD, Excess 3, Gray, Alphanumeric codes

Chapter_1_Digital_Systems_and_Binary_Numbers2.ppt

The document outlines key concepts in digital logic design and binary numbers, including:
- Digital systems represent information using discrete binary values of 0 and 1, unlike analog systems which use continuous values.
- Binary, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems are examined, including how to convert between them.
- Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and complements are explained through examples.
- 1's complement, 2's complement and radix complement operations are defined for binary numbers, allowing subtraction to be performed by addition of complements.

Digital Electronics Notes

This document provides an introduction to digital electronics and digital signals. It discusses the basics of analog and digital signals, with digital signals taking on discrete voltage levels compared to the continuous variation of analog signals. The advantages of digital techniques are explained, such as increased noise immunity and reliability. Common number systems are introduced, including binary, octal, hexadecimal and decimal, along with methods for converting between them. The key concepts of bytes, coding and voltage assignments in digital circuits are also covered at a high level.

Chapter 1 Digital Systems and Binary Numbers.ppt

Digital Systems and Binary Numbers
- Digital systems manipulate discrete elements of information represented in binary form.
- The binary number system uses only two digits, 0 and 1, with place values that are powers of two.
- Conversions can be made between decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal number systems through arithmetic operations and grouping bits.

Unit 1 PDF.pptx

The document discusses digital and analog systems. It explains that digital systems represent information as discrete values using bits, whereas analog systems represent information as continuous values. It provides examples of digital and analog signals and discusses how a continuous analog signal can be converted to a discrete digital signal through sampling and quantization. It also covers binary, octal, and hexadecimal number systems and how to convert between them. Finally, it discusses binary addition and subtraction using complement representations.

DLD-Introduction.pptx

The document provides information about digital electronics and digital systems. It introduces digital logic and how digital systems represent information using discrete binary values of 0 and 1. Digital computers are able to manipulate this discrete digital data through programs. Common number systems like binary, octal, hexadecimal and their conversions to decimal are explained. Signed and unsigned binary numbers are also discussed.

Switching circuits and logic design

This document discusses number systems and binary logic. It begins by explaining the decimal number system and its positional weighting. It then introduces the binary number system, which uses only two symbols, 0 and 1, and also uses positional weighting. Key binary operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are covered. Methods for converting between decimal and binary are provided. The document also discusses representing signed numbers in binary for computer arithmetic.

Module 4

This document outlines the key topics covered in Chapter 1 of a course on digital systems and computer design fundamentals. It includes:
- An introduction to digital systems and information representation.
- Details on number systems like binary, octal, and hexadecimal, along with arithmetic operations and base conversion between these systems.
- Overviews of topics like binary coded decimal, Gray codes, alphanumeric codes, and parity bits.
- Explanations of binary addition, subtraction, multiplication, and the conversion between decimal and binary numbers.
- Information on the course instructor, textbook, grading policy, exam dates, and course content which includes topics on combinational logic circuits, sequential circuits, and computer architecture.

Physics investigatory project for class 12 logic gates

This document provides an overview of digital electronics and Boolean algebra. It discusses digital and analog signals, different number systems including binary, and basic logic gates. Boolean algebra rules are also covered, including commutative, associative, distributive, AND, and OR laws. Common digital applications are listed such as industrial controls, medical equipment, and communications systems. The key advantages of digital systems are accuracy, versatility, less noise and distortion.

Number system

The document discusses different number systems used in digital technologies, including decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal systems. It provides details on how each system works, such as having 10 symbols in decimal, 2 symbols in binary, 8 symbols in octal, and 16 symbols in hexadecimal. The document also covers error detection codes like parity and checksums that are used to detect errors in digital data transmission and storage.

Computer organiztion2

This document discusses various methods of data representation in digital computers. It begins by explaining that data is stored in binary form in computer memory and registers. It then describes different data types like numbers, letters, and codes.
The document goes on to explain different number systems like decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal. It provides examples of converting between these number systems. It also discusses fixed point and floating point representation of numeric data. Fixed point representation keeps the binary point in a fixed position, while floating point uses two registers, one for the mantissa and one for the exponent.
The document concludes by covering other binary codes like Gray code for analog to digital conversion and various decimal codes. It also discusses error detection

DCF QNA edited

The document provides information about different number systems used in computers, including binary, octal, hexadecimal, and decimal. It explains the characteristics of each system such as the base and digits used. Methods for converting between number systems like binary to decimal and vice versa are presented. Shortcut methods for direct conversions between binary, octal, and hexadecimal are also described. Binary arithmetic and binary-coded decimal number representation are discussed.

Number system and codes

Number system and codes

Module 1 number systems and code1

Module 1 number systems and code1

DLD_Lecture_notes2.ppt

DLD_Lecture_notes2.ppt

International Journal of Engineering Research and Development

International Journal of Engineering Research and Development

Logic Circuits Design - "Chapter 1: Digital Systems and Information"

Logic Circuits Design - "Chapter 1: Digital Systems and Information"

Lecture 1 PPT Number systems & conversions part.pptx

Lecture 1 PPT Number systems & conversions part.pptx

Finite word length effects

Finite word length effects

Ee 202 chapter 1 number and code system

Ee 202 chapter 1 number and code system

Digital electronics

Digital electronics

Chapter_1_Digital_Systems_and_Binary_Numbers2.ppt

Chapter_1_Digital_Systems_and_Binary_Numbers2.ppt

Digital Electronics Notes

Digital Electronics Notes

Chapter 1 Digital Systems and Binary Numbers.ppt

Chapter 1 Digital Systems and Binary Numbers.ppt

Unit 1 PDF.pptx

Unit 1 PDF.pptx

DLD-Introduction.pptx

DLD-Introduction.pptx

Switching circuits and logic design

Switching circuits and logic design

Module 4

Module 4

Physics investigatory project for class 12 logic gates

Physics investigatory project for class 12 logic gates

Number system

Number system

Computer organiztion2

Computer organiztion2

DCF QNA edited

DCF QNA edited

Introduction to Machine Learning

Introduction to Machine Learning
Association Analysis
Supervised (inductive) learning
Training data includes desired outputs
Classification
Regression/Prediction
Unsupervised learning
Training data does not include desired outputs
Semi-supervised learning
Training data includes a few desired outputs
Reinforcement learning
Rewards from sequence of actions

Time Series Analysis and Forecasting in Practice

This document discusses time series analysis and forecasting. It covers the components of time series including trends, seasonality, cyclical patterns and irregular components. It then describes several approaches to forecasting including qualitative judgmental methods, statistical time series models and explanatory causal models. Specific statistical time series forecasting techniques are explained such as simple and exponential smoothing, linear regression models, and Holt-Winters seasonal models. The importance of evaluating forecast accuracy is also highlighted.

Introduction to Dimension Reduction with PCA

Dimension reduction techniques simplify complex datasets by identifying underlying patterns or structures in the data. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a common dimension reduction method that defines new axes (principal components) to maximize variance in the data. PCA examines correlations between these principal components and the original variables to identify sets of highly correlated variables and reduce them to a few representative components. Eigenvalues measure the amount of variance explained by each principal component, and scree plots can help determine how many components to retain by balancing information loss and simplification of the data.

Introduction to Descriptive & Predictive Analytics

This document provides an introduction to descriptive and predictive analytics. It discusses key concepts including descriptive analytics which uses data aggregation and mining to provide insights into past data, predictive analytics which uses statistical models and forecasts to understand the future, and prescriptive analytics which uses optimization and simulation to advise on possible outcomes. The document also reviews basic statistical concepts such as measures of location, dispersion, shape, and association that are important for data analytics. These concepts include mean, median, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and correlation.

Introduction to Concurrent Data Structures

Blocking and nonblocking Techniques: Combining Tree, Compare-and-Swap (CaS)
Linked Lists, Queues, & Stacks: Bounded and unbounded

Hard to Paralelize Problems: Matrix-Vector and Matrix-Matrix

The document discusses several problems that are hard to parallelize, including matrix-vector multiplication and matrix-matrix multiplication. It describes 1D and 2D assignment approaches to parallelizing matrix-vector multiplication across multiple processors. 1D assignment distributes the rows of the matrix and vector across processors, while 2D assignment distributes them in a 2D grid. It also outlines map-reduce approaches to parallelizing vector-matrix and matrix-matrix multiplication, breaking the problems into mapping and reducing stages.

Introduction to Map-Reduce Programming with Hadoop

This document provides an overview of MapReduce programming with Hadoop, including descriptions of HDFS architecture, examples of common MapReduce algorithms (word count, mean, sorting, inverted index, distributed grep), and how to write MapReduce clients and customize parts of the MapReduce job like input/output formats, partitioners, and distributed caching of files.

Embarrassingly/Delightfully Parallel Problems

This document discusses embarrassingly parallel problems and the MapReduce programming model. It provides examples of MapReduce functions and how they work. Key points include:
- Embarrassingly parallel problems can be easily split into independent parts that can be solved simultaneously without much communication. MapReduce is well-suited for these types of problems.
- MapReduce involves two functions - map and reduce. Map processes a key-value pair to generate intermediate key-value pairs, while reduce merges all intermediate values associated with the same intermediate key.
- Implementations like Hadoop handle distributed execution, parallelization, data partitioning, and fault tolerance. Users just provide map and reduce functions.

Introduction to Warehouse-Scale Computers

Warehouse-Scale Computers and their programming model and workloads. Architectures and cloud computing

Introduction to Thread Level Parallelism

Multi-processors, Shared-memory architectures, Memory synchronization
Symmetric Multiprocessors (SMP)
Distributed Shared Memory (DSM)
Aspects of cache coherence - Coherence and Consistency
Shared-memory architectures - Snooping and Directory based
Memory synchronization

CPU Memory Hierarchy and Caching Techniques

COU Memory Hierarchy. Widening processor-memory performance Gap. Cache replacement options. Basic Cache Optimization Techniques

Data-Level Parallelism in Microprocessors

1. The document discusses data-level parallelism and summarizes vector architectures, SIMD instruction sets, and graphics processing units (GPUs). 2. It describes vector architectures like VMIPS that can perform operations on sets of data elements via vector registers. 3. It also explains how SIMD extensions like SSE exploit fine-grained data parallelism and how GPUs are optimized for data-parallel applications through a multithreaded SIMD execution model.

Instruction Level Parallelism – Hardware Techniques

Instruction Level Parallelism – Hardware Techniques such as Branch prediction (Static and Dynamic Branch Prediction).
Tomasulo Algorithm and Multithreading.

Instruction Level Parallelism – Compiler Techniques

Instruction Level Parallelism (ILP). Compiler techniques to increase ILP such as Loop Unrolling and Static Branch Prediction.
Dynamic Branch Prediction
Tomasulo Algorithm
Multithreading

CPU Pipelining and Hazards - An Introduction

Pipelining is a technique used in computer architecture to overlap the execution of instructions to increase throughput. It works by breaking down instruction execution into a series of steps and allowing subsequent instructions to begin execution before previous ones complete. This allows multiple instructions to be in various stages of completion simultaneously. Pipelining improves performance but introduces hazards such as structural, data, and control hazards that can reduce the ideal speedup if not addressed properly. Control hazards due to branches are particularly challenging to handle efficiently.

Advanced Computer Architecture – An Introduction

Introduction to advanced computer architecture, including classes of computers,
Instruction set architecture, Trends, Technology, Power and energy
Cost
Principles of computer design

High Performance Networking with Advanced TCP

High Performance Networking with TCP. TCP properties, UDP, flow control, Congestion Avoidance & Control, slow start, Congestion Control Review, TCP Tahoe & Reno

Introduction to Content Delivery Networks

Introduction to Content Delivery Networks.
CDN design options such as HTTP Redirects, DNS Based, Application Based, Name Based

Peer-to-Peer Networking Systems and Streaming

Introduction to P2P networking, including P2P systems, Unstructured vs. structured overlays, and P2P streaming, distributed hash table

Mobile Services

Introduction to mobile services like mobile IPTV, mobile social networking, and location-based services

Introduction to Machine Learning

Introduction to Machine Learning

Time Series Analysis and Forecasting in Practice

Time Series Analysis and Forecasting in Practice

Introduction to Dimension Reduction with PCA

Introduction to Dimension Reduction with PCA

Introduction to Descriptive & Predictive Analytics

Introduction to Descriptive & Predictive Analytics

Introduction to Concurrent Data Structures

Introduction to Concurrent Data Structures

Hard to Paralelize Problems: Matrix-Vector and Matrix-Matrix

Hard to Paralelize Problems: Matrix-Vector and Matrix-Matrix

Introduction to Map-Reduce Programming with Hadoop

Introduction to Map-Reduce Programming with Hadoop

Embarrassingly/Delightfully Parallel Problems

Embarrassingly/Delightfully Parallel Problems

Introduction to Warehouse-Scale Computers

Introduction to Warehouse-Scale Computers

Introduction to Thread Level Parallelism

Introduction to Thread Level Parallelism

CPU Memory Hierarchy and Caching Techniques

CPU Memory Hierarchy and Caching Techniques

Data-Level Parallelism in Microprocessors

Data-Level Parallelism in Microprocessors

Instruction Level Parallelism – Hardware Techniques

Instruction Level Parallelism – Hardware Techniques

Instruction Level Parallelism – Compiler Techniques

Instruction Level Parallelism – Compiler Techniques

CPU Pipelining and Hazards - An Introduction

CPU Pipelining and Hazards - An Introduction

Advanced Computer Architecture – An Introduction

Advanced Computer Architecture – An Introduction

High Performance Networking with Advanced TCP

High Performance Networking with Advanced TCP

Introduction to Content Delivery Networks

Introduction to Content Delivery Networks

Peer-to-Peer Networking Systems and Streaming

Peer-to-Peer Networking Systems and Streaming

Mobile Services

Mobile Services

This study Examines the Effectiveness of Talent Procurement through the Imple...

In the world with high technology and fast
forward mindset recruiters are walking/showing interest
towards E-Recruitment. Present most of the HRs of
many companies are choosing E-Recruitment as the best
choice for recruitment. E-Recruitment is being done
through many online platforms like Linkedin, Naukri,
Instagram , Facebook etc. Now with high technology E-
Recruitment has gone through next level by using
Artificial Intelligence too.
Key Words : Talent Management, Talent Acquisition , E-
Recruitment , Artificial Intelligence Introduction
Effectiveness of Talent Acquisition through E-
Recruitment in this topic we will discuss about 4important
and interlinked topics which are

A high-Speed Communication System is based on the Design of a Bi-NoC Router, ...

The Network on Chip (NoC) has emerged as an effective
solution for intercommunication infrastructure within System on
Chip (SoC) designs, overcoming the limitations of traditional
methods that face significant bottlenecks. However, the complexity
of NoC design presents numerous challenges related to
performance metrics such as scalability, latency, power
consumption, and signal integrity. This project addresses the
issues within the router's memory unit and proposes an enhanced
memory structure. To achieve efficient data transfer, FIFO buffers
are implemented in distributed RAM and virtual channels for
FPGA-based NoC. The project introduces advanced FIFO-based
memory units within the NoC router, assessing their performance
in a Bi-directional NoC (Bi-NoC) configuration. The primary
objective is to reduce the router's workload while enhancing the
FIFO internal structure. To further improve data transfer speed,
a Bi-NoC with a self-configurable intercommunication channel is
suggested. Simulation and synthesis results demonstrate
guaranteed throughput, predictable latency, and equitable
network access, showing significant improvement over previous
designs

OOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming language

This manual contains programs on object oriented programming concepts using C++ language.

DELTA V MES EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES ENGINEER

EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES
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EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES
EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES
EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES
EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES
EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES
EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES
EMERSON EDUARDO RODRIGUES

Beckhoff Programmable Logic Control Overview Presentation

This presentation is to describe the overview of PLC Beckhoff for beginners

一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理

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办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
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校名:学校英文全称
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Call Girls Chennai +91-8824825030 Vip Call Girls Chennai

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Digital Twins Computer Networking Paper Presentation.pptx

A Digital Twin in computer networking is a virtual representation of a physical network, used to simulate, analyze, and optimize network performance and reliability. It leverages real-time data to enhance network management, predict issues, and improve decision-making processes.

ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx

ITSM Integration with mulesoft

Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement

Properties of Fluids: Density, viscosity, surface tension, compressibility, and specific gravity define fluid behavior.
Fluid Statics: Studies pressure, hydrostatic pressure, buoyancy, and fluid forces on surfaces.
Pressure at a Point: In a static fluid, the pressure at any point is the same in all directions. This is known as Pascal's principle. The pressure increases with depth due to the weight of the fluid above.
Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure exerted by a fluid at rest due to the force of gravity. It can be calculated using the formula P=ρghP=ρgh, where PP is the pressure, ρρ is the fluid density, gg is the acceleration due to gravity, and hh is the height of the fluid column above the point in question.
Buoyancy: The upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged or partially submerged object. This force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object, as described by Archimedes' principle. Buoyancy explains why objects float or sink in fluids.
Fluid Pressure on Surfaces: The analysis of pressure forces on surfaces submerged in fluids. This includes calculating the total force and the center of pressure, which is the point where the resultant pressure force acts.
Pressure Measurement: Manometers, barometers, pressure gauges, and differential pressure transducers measure fluid pressure.

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二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
办理(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】外观非常简单，由纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

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- 1. Data Representation CS2052 Computer Architecture Computer Science & Engineering University of Moratuwa Dilum Bandara Dilum.Bandara@uom.lk
- 2. Outline Representing numbers Unsigned Signed Floating point Representing characters & symbols ASCII Unicode 2
- 3. Data Representation in Computers Data are stored in Registers Registers are limited in number & size With a n-bit register Min value 0 Max value 2n-1 3 n-1 n-2 ...… ... 2 01 n-bits
- 4. 4 Data Representation Data Representation • Represents quality or characteristics • Not proportional to a value • Name, NIC no, index no, Address Qualitative Quantitative • Quantifiable • Proportional to value α • No of students, marks for CS2052, GPA
- 6. Number Systems Decimal number system 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Binary number system 0, 1 Octal number system 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Hexadecimal number system 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F 6
- 7. Quantitative Numbers Integers Unsigned 20 Signed +20, -20 Non-integers Floating point numbers - 10.25, 3.33333…, 1/8 = 0.125 7
- 8. Signed Integers We need a way to represent negative values 3 representations Sign & Magnitude representation (S&M) Complement method Bias notation or Excess notation 8
- 9. 1. Sign & Magnitude Representation n-bit unsigned magnitude & sign bit (S) If S 0 – Integer is positive or zero 1 – Integer is negative or zero Range –(2n-1) to +(2n-1) 9 sign n-1 ...n-2 ... 2 01 Magnitude (n-bits)
- 10. Example – Sign & Magnitude If 8-bit register is used what are min & max numbers? What are 0000 0000 and 1000 0000 in decimal? Representation of zero is not unique 10
- 11. Sign & Magnitude (Cont.) Advantages Sign reversal Finding absolute value |a| Flip sign bit Disadvantage Adding a negative of a number is not the same as subtraction e.g., add 2 and -3 Need different operations Zero is not unique 11
- 12. 2. Complement Method Base = Radix Radix r system means r number of symbols e.g., binary numbers have symbols 0, 1 2 types r’s complement (r – 1)’s complement Where r is radix (base) of number system Examples Decimal 9’s & 10’s complement Binary 1’s & 2’s complement 12
- 13. Complement Method – Definition Given a number m in base/radix r & having n digits (r – 1)’s complement of m is (rn – 1) – m r ’s complement of n is (rn – 1) – m + 1 = rn – m 13
- 14. Example – Complement Method If m = 5982 & n = 4 digits 9’s complement is 9 9 9 9 - maximum representable no 5 9 8 2 – 4 0 1 7 10’s complement 9 9 9 9 or 1 0 0 0 0 5 9 8 2 – 5 9 8 2 – 4 0 1 7 4 0 1 8 1 + 4 0 1 8 14
- 15. Example – Complement Method If m = 382 & n = 3 -n = -382 = 9 9 9 9 9 9 3 8 2 – 3 8 2 - 6 1 7 6 1 7 1 + 6 1 8 -382 = 617 or 618 Depending on which complement we use These are called complementary pair 15
- 16. 1’s complement Calculated by (2n – 1) – m If m = 0101 1’s complement of m on a 4-bit system 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 – 1 0 1 0 This represents -5 in 1’s complement 16
- 17. Finding 1’s Complement – Short Cut Invert each bit of m Example m = 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1’s complement of m = 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 m = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 0 1’s complement of m = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = -0 Values range from -127 to +127 17
- 18. Addition with 1’s Complement If results has a carry add it to LSB (Least Significant Bit) Example Add 6 and -3 on a 3-bit system 6 = 1 1 0 -3 = 1 0 0 + = 1 0 1 0 1 + 0 1 1 18
- 19. 2’s Complement Doesn’t require end-around carry operation as in 1’s complement 2’s complement is formed by Finding 1’s complement Add 1 to LSB New range is from -128 to +127 -128 because of +1 to negative value 19
- 20. Example – 2’s Complement Find 2’s complement of 0101011 m = 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 = 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 ________ 1 + 2’s = 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Short-cut 1. Search for the 1st bit with value 1 starting from LSB 2. Inver all bits after 1st one 20
- 21. Example – 2’s Complement (Cont.) Add 6 and -5 on a 4-bit system 5 = 0101 -5 = 1011 6 = 0 1 1 0 -5 = 1 0 1 1+ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 21 Discard
- 22. 1’s vs. 2’s Complement 1’s complement has 2 zeros (+0, -0) Value range is less than 2’s complement 2’s complement only has a single zero Value range is unequal No need of a separate subtract circuit Doing a NOT operation is much more cost effective interms of circuit design However, multiplication & division is slow 22
- 23. S&M, 1’s, & 2’s 23 Source: www3.ntu.edu.sg/home/ehchua/programming/java/DataRepresentation.html
- 24. 4-bit, 2’s Complement Adder Subtractor 24 Source: www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Build-an-8-Bit-Computer/step7/The-ALU/
- 25. Detecting Negative Numbers & Overflow Check for MSB To find magnitude 1’s complement Flip all bits 2’s complement Flip all bits + 1 Rules to detect overflows in 2’s complement If sum of 2 positive numbers yields a negative result, sum has overflowed If sum of 2 negative numbers yields a positive result, sum has overflowed Else, no overflow 25
- 26. 3. Bias Notation Number range to be represented is given a positive bias so that smallest unsigned value is equal to -B If bias is B Value B in number range becomes zero If bias is 127 for 8-bit number range is -127 (0 - 127) to 128 (255 - 127) 26 n i i i Bb 0 2
- 27. Bias Notation (Cont.) 27 Bit pattern Unsigned Biased-127 0000 0000 +0 -127 0000 0001 +1 -126 0000 0010 +2 -125 … … … 0111 1110 +126 -1 0111 1111 +127 +0 1000 0000 +128 +1 … … … 1111 1111 +255 +128
- 28. Floating Point Numbers We needed to represent fractional values & values beyond 2n – 1 +3207.23 = 3.20723x103 -0.000321 = -3.21x10-4 28 Sign Mantissa Radix (base) Exponent
- 29. Floating Point Numbers (Cont.) 29 es mN 2.)1( Sign Mantissa Radix Exponent sign en-1 ...… e0 … m0m1mn-1 …mn-2 MantissaExponent
- 30. IEEE Floating Point Standard (FPS) 2 standards 1. Single precision 32-bits 23-bit mantissa 8-bit exponent 1-bit sign 2. Double precision 64-bits 52-bit mantissa 11-bit exponent 1-bit sign 30 31 30 23 22 0 S Exponent Mantissa (bits 0-22) 63 62 52 51 0 S Exponent Mantissa (bits 0-51)
- 31. IEEE Floating Point Standard (Cont.) E – 127 = e E = e + 127 What is stored is E 31 s31 e30 ...… e23 … m0m1m22 …mn-2 MantissaExponent 127 2].1[)1( Es mN
- 32. Single Precision 23-bit mantissa m ranges from 1 to (2 – 2-23 ) 8-bit exponent E ranges from 1 to 254 0 & 255 reserved to represent -∞, +∞, NaN e ranges from -126 to +127 Maximum representable number 2 x 2127 = 2128 32
- 33. Review – Binary Fractions What is 101.11012 in decimal? 22 x 1 + 21 x 0 + 20 x 1 + 2-1 x 1 + 2-2 x 1 + 2-3 x 0 + 2-4 x 1 = 4 x 1 + 2 x 0 + 1 x 1 + 0.5 x 1 + 0.25 x 1 + 0.125 x 0 + 0.0625 x 1 = 4 + 1 + 0.5 + 0.25 + 0.0625 = 5.8125 What is 5.812510 in binary? Integer – 5 = 101 Fraction – Keep multiplying fraction until answer is 1 0.8125 x 2 = 1.625 0.625 x 2 = 1.25 0.25 x 2 = 0.5 0.5 x 2 = 1.0 0.812510 = .11012 33
- 34. Example – Single Precision IEEE Single Precision Representation of 17.1510 Find 17.1510 in binary 17.1510 = 10001.00100112 = 1.00010010011 x 24 E = e + 127 E = 4 + 127 = 131 34 0 1000 0011 0001 0010 0110 0000 …….. MantissaExponent
- 35. Character Representation Belong to category of qualitative data Represent quality or characteristics Includes Letters a-z, A-Z Digits 0-9 Symbols !, @ , *, /, &, #, $ Control characters <CR>, <BEL>, <ESC>, <LF> 35
- 36. Character Representation (Cont.) With a single byte (8-bits) 256 characters can be represented Standards ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange EBCDIC – Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code Unicode 36
- 37. ASCII De facto world-wide standard Used to represent Upper & lower-case Latin letters Numbers Punctuations Control characters There are 128 standard ASCII codes Can be represented by a 7 digit binary number 000 0000 through 111 1111 Plus parity bit 37
- 38. ASCII Hex Symbol 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F (space) ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . / 38 ASCII Table ASCII Hex Symbol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS TAB LF VT FF CR SO SI ASCII Hex Symbol 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
- 39. ASCII Hex Symbol 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ ] ^ _ 39 ASCII Table (Cont.) ASCII Hex Symbol 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O ASCII Hex Symbol 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 6A 6B 6C 6D 6E 6F ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
- 40. ASCII – Things to Note ASCII codes for digits aren’t equal to numeric value Uppercase & lowercase alphabetic codes differ by 0x20 Shift key clears bit 5 0x20 = 32 = 0010 0000 Example: A = 65 = 0100 0001 a = 97 = 0110 0001 Most languages need more than 128 characters 40
- 41. Unicode (www.unicode.org) Designed to overcome limitation of number of characters Assigns unique character codes to characters in a wide range of languages A 16-bit character set UCS-2 UCS-4 is 32-bit 65,536 (216) distinct Unicode characters Unicode provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language 41
- 43. Unicode – Sinhala & Tamil 43