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A Seminar… on

Ashwathy Babu Paul
S1S2CSB

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Ashwathy Babu Paul
3
What is Remote Sensing?

Remote sensing is a method of obtaining
information about the properties of an object
without coming into physical contact with it.
Remote Sensing is a technology for sampling
electromagnetic radiation to acquire and interpret
non-immediate geospatial data from which to extract
information about features and objects on the Earth's
land surface, oceans, and atmosphere
- Dr. Nicholas Short

5
Remote Sensing




RS System capture radiation in different
wavelength reflected/ emitted by the earth’s
surface features and recorded it either directly
on the film as in case of aerial photography or
in digital medium used for generating the
images
RS provides valuable data over vast area in a
short time about resources, meteorology and
environment leading to better resource
management and accelerating national
development
6
Advantages of remote sensing








Provides a regional view (large areas)
Provides repetitive looks at the same area
Remote sensors "see" over a broader portion
of the spectrum than the human eye
Sensors can focus in on a very specific
bandwidth in an image or a number of
bandwidths simultaneously
Provides geo-referenced, digital, data
Some remote sensors operate in all seasons,
at night, and in bad weather
Ashwathy Babu Paul
8
Elements involved in Remote
sensing
1. Energy Source or Illumination (A)
2. Radiation and the Atmosphere (B)
3. Interaction with the Object (C)
4. Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D)
5. Transmission, Reception and
Processing (E)
6. Interpretation and Analysis (F)
7. Application (G)

9
Sensors
Passive sensors
•Landsat
•ASTER
•Quickbard
•Ikonos

Active Sensors
•LIDAR
•RADAR

11
Ashwathy Babu Paul
15
Why use Satellites to Study the
Earth?


Consistent, routine, global measurements



Overview of information on the hemispheric,
regional, national, and local scales – the “big
picture”



Provide information in areas where there are no
ground-based measurements



Advance warning of impending environmental
events and disasters



Visual appeal: a picture is worth
a thousand words
Satellites Provide a Global View

Satellite data are used for many applications, including
monitoring global weather, studying climate change, and
observing the environment.
A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words!

Satellites provide consistent, routine, global coverage of
environmental events
Satellite Images
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Advantages
Covers large areas
Cost effective
Time efficient
Multi-temporal
Multi-sensor
Multi-spectral
Overcomes inaccessibility
Faster extraction of GISready data

•
•
•
•

Disadvantages
Needs ground verification
Doesn’t offer details
Not the best tool for small areas
Needs expert system to extract
data

19
Application of Remote sensing

20
Application of Remote sensing


Urbanization & Transportation
 Updating road maps
 Asphalt conditions
 Wetland delineation
 Urban Planning

 Agriculture
 Crop health analysis
 Precision agriculture
 Compliance mapping
 Yield estimation
 Forest application

21
Application of Remote sensing


Natural Resource
Management
Habitat analysis
Environmental assessment
Pest/disease outbreaks
Impervious surface
mapping
Lake monitoring
Hydrology
Landuse-Landcover
monitoring
Mineral province
Geomorphology
Geology
22
Application of Remote sensing
• National Security
-Targeting
-Disaster mapping and monitoring
-Damage assessment
-Weapons monitoring
-Homeland security
-Navigation
-Policy
-Telecommunication planning
-Coastal mapping

23
Science Of Geology
Meteorological Application
Medical Applications of Remote Sensing
Exploration Of Terrestrial Bodies
Astronomy & Cosmology
Applications
Remote sensing basic processes






Data acquisition (energy propagation, platforms)
Processing (conversion of energy pattern to
images)
Analysis (quantitative and qualitative analysis)
Accuracy assessment (radiometric and
geometric correction)
Information distribution to users (hard copy,
CCT, CD-ROM, X-BYTE)
Types of Satellites

38
Geostationary Satellites
• In high altitude orbit (~35,800 km)
• Orbital period of satellite matches
rotational speed of Earth
• Continuously observe same area
on Earth
• Very high temporal resolution
(minutes – hours)
• Usually used to monitor
meteorological conditions and
severe storm development,
including hurricanes, tornadoes,
and floods
Polar-Orbiting Satellites
• In low altitude orbit (~700-800 km)
• Orbit around North and South Poles
• Earth rotates under satellite as it orbits, so
each time satellite makes a pass over Earth,
it observes a new area
• Polar-orbiting satellites observe same area
on Earth once per day (or less)
• Low temporal resolution
• Global coverage!
• Used for a variety of applications, including
air quality, land cover, water quality, and
vegetation studies
How Do Satellites Make
Measurements?


Satellites do not make direct
measurements of the Earth’s
geophysical parameters.



Instead, satellites measure solar
and/or terrestrial radiance (light)
in a vertical column of the
atmosphere.



Radiance data are converted into
geophysical parameters using
science-based algorithms.
Remote Sensing : Challenges
Satellites are very expensive to build and launch.
 No direct measurements – radiance (light)
measurements must be converted to geophysical
parameters, such as temperature or pollutant
concentration.
 Tradeoffs between spatial and temporal
resolution.

Conclusion

43
Conclusion


Radars, Laser Range finders, UAV
based Reconnaissance and
Satellite Imagery are widely used in
Defense forces



Advantages of Remote Sensing far
outweigh the challenges

44
Thank you
for
your kind attention!!!

45
History of remote sensing



1783: The Marquis d’Arlandes and Pilatre made a voyage near Paris using a balloon.
Photography using balloon, pigeon
1860: Aerial photos in Russia and the USA
1914-19: The first World War and the second World War (1939-45) had seen
tremendous development in photography
1927: Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket.
1955: Work began on the Baikonur launch site in central Asia.
1957: Sputnik 1 launched from Baikonur (first satellite)
1961: Yuri Gagarin launched in the Vostok 1 capsule, becoming the first human in
space.
1969: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the Moon.
1971: The first Space Station in history, the Russian Salyut 1
1972: (US Landsat1) the concept of imaging from satellites is introduced
1986: France launched the first stereo-image satellite (SPOT1)
1992: The space year (the maturity of remote sensing - 20 years of operation)
1995 The Shuttle-Mir Program (1st phase of the International Space Station (ISS).



2000 The first 3 astronauts (2 Russian and one American) start to live in the















ISS
Remote Sensing Organizations


ISPRS- International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote
Sensing










IGARSS- International Geosciences And Remote Sensing

Symposium
NASA -National Aeronautic and Space Administration (USA)

ESA- European Space Agency (Europe)
NASDA- National Space Development Agency (Japan)
CNES- Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (France )
DARA- German Space Agency
CSA - Canadian Space Agency
NRSA- National Remote Sensing Agency of India
Remote sensing web sites
















http://ftp.geog.ucl.ac.be/~patrick/geogr/Eteledetec.html - remote sensing
index
http:// www.esrin.esa.it - Eurpopean Space Agency
http://geo.arc.nasa.gov - NASA program http://www.spot.com
http://www.nasda.go.jp/ - Japan space agency
http://www.rka.ru./ Russian Space Agency (RSA)
http://www.coresw.com - Russian imagery source
http://www.space.gc.ca/ Canadian Space Agency (CSA)
http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ccrs/ -Canada Center for Remote Sensing
http://www.inpe.br/ National Institute for Space Research (Brazil)

http://www.asprs.org
- American Society
http://www.man.ac.uk
- Manshester Univ.
http://www.idrisi.clarku.edu - Idrisi site
http://www.amazon.com
- Bookstore
http://www.brevard.cc.fl.us/BTR_Labs/bober/martin/rs/overview.htm
Dr. Martin McClinton,
Remote sensing literatureJ ournal/Conferences







Photogrammetric Engineering and
Remote sensing (PE & RS)
Photogrammetric Record
International Journal of Remote Sensing
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and
Remote Sensing
ISPRS conference proceedings
IGARSS conference proceedings
Remote sensing literature -B ooks












Askne, J. (1995). Sensors and Environmental applications of
remote sensing, Balkema, Rotterdam, NL
Campbell, J. B. , 1996. Introduction to Remote Sensing. 2nd
ed.,Taylor and Francis, London
Dengre, J. (1994). Thematic Mapping from satellite imagery: Guide
book, Elsevier ltd, Boulevard
Lillesand, T. M. and R. W. Kiefer, 2000. Remote Sensing and Image
Interpretation. 4th ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York
Simonette, D. S. (ed) (1983) Manual of remote sensing, the
Sheridan Press, Falls church
Lillesand Thomas M. & Kiefer Ralph 2003 : Remote Sensing and
Image Interpretation Third Edition John Villey
Campbell John B. 1996 : Introduction to Remote Sensing, Taylor &
Francis
Floyd F. Sabins : Remote Sensing and Principles and Image
Interpretation(1987)
Manual of Remote Sensing IIIrd Edition : American Society of
Photogrammtery and Remote Sensing 210, Little Falls Street, Falls
Church, Virginia-22046 USA
George Joseph. 1996: Imaging Sensors ; Remote Sensing Reviews,
vol 13,Number 3-4.
P.J. Curran, 1985. Physical aspects of Remote Sensing Longman
Group UR Ltd, England.

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Remote Sensing PPT

  • 1. A Seminar… on Ashwathy Babu Paul S1S2CSB 1
  • 2. 2
  • 4. What is Remote Sensing? Remote sensing is a method of obtaining information about the properties of an object without coming into physical contact with it.
  • 5. Remote Sensing is a technology for sampling electromagnetic radiation to acquire and interpret non-immediate geospatial data from which to extract information about features and objects on the Earth's land surface, oceans, and atmosphere - Dr. Nicholas Short 5
  • 6. Remote Sensing   RS System capture radiation in different wavelength reflected/ emitted by the earth’s surface features and recorded it either directly on the film as in case of aerial photography or in digital medium used for generating the images RS provides valuable data over vast area in a short time about resources, meteorology and environment leading to better resource management and accelerating national development 6
  • 7. Advantages of remote sensing       Provides a regional view (large areas) Provides repetitive looks at the same area Remote sensors "see" over a broader portion of the spectrum than the human eye Sensors can focus in on a very specific bandwidth in an image or a number of bandwidths simultaneously Provides geo-referenced, digital, data Some remote sensors operate in all seasons, at night, and in bad weather
  • 9. Elements involved in Remote sensing 1. Energy Source or Illumination (A) 2. Radiation and the Atmosphere (B) 3. Interaction with the Object (C) 4. Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D) 5. Transmission, Reception and Processing (E) 6. Interpretation and Analysis (F) 7. Application (G) 9
  • 12. Why use Satellites to Study the Earth?  Consistent, routine, global measurements  Overview of information on the hemispheric, regional, national, and local scales – the “big picture”  Provide information in areas where there are no ground-based measurements  Advance warning of impending environmental events and disasters  Visual appeal: a picture is worth a thousand words
  • 13. Satellites Provide a Global View Satellite data are used for many applications, including monitoring global weather, studying climate change, and observing the environment.
  • 14. A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words! Satellites provide consistent, routine, global coverage of environmental events
  • 15. Satellite Images • • • • • • • • Advantages Covers large areas Cost effective Time efficient Multi-temporal Multi-sensor Multi-spectral Overcomes inaccessibility Faster extraction of GISready data • • • • Disadvantages Needs ground verification Doesn’t offer details Not the best tool for small areas Needs expert system to extract data 19
  • 16. Application of Remote sensing 20
  • 17. Application of Remote sensing  Urbanization & Transportation  Updating road maps  Asphalt conditions  Wetland delineation  Urban Planning  Agriculture  Crop health analysis  Precision agriculture  Compliance mapping  Yield estimation  Forest application 21
  • 18. Application of Remote sensing  Natural Resource Management Habitat analysis Environmental assessment Pest/disease outbreaks Impervious surface mapping Lake monitoring Hydrology Landuse-Landcover monitoring Mineral province Geomorphology Geology 22
  • 19. Application of Remote sensing • National Security -Targeting -Disaster mapping and monitoring -Damage assessment -Weapons monitoring -Homeland security -Navigation -Policy -Telecommunication planning -Coastal mapping 23
  • 22. Medical Applications of Remote Sensing
  • 25. Remote sensing basic processes      Data acquisition (energy propagation, platforms) Processing (conversion of energy pattern to images) Analysis (quantitative and qualitative analysis) Accuracy assessment (radiometric and geometric correction) Information distribution to users (hard copy, CCT, CD-ROM, X-BYTE)
  • 27. Geostationary Satellites • In high altitude orbit (~35,800 km) • Orbital period of satellite matches rotational speed of Earth • Continuously observe same area on Earth • Very high temporal resolution (minutes – hours) • Usually used to monitor meteorological conditions and severe storm development, including hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods
  • 28. Polar-Orbiting Satellites • In low altitude orbit (~700-800 km) • Orbit around North and South Poles • Earth rotates under satellite as it orbits, so each time satellite makes a pass over Earth, it observes a new area • Polar-orbiting satellites observe same area on Earth once per day (or less) • Low temporal resolution • Global coverage! • Used for a variety of applications, including air quality, land cover, water quality, and vegetation studies
  • 29. How Do Satellites Make Measurements?  Satellites do not make direct measurements of the Earth’s geophysical parameters.  Instead, satellites measure solar and/or terrestrial radiance (light) in a vertical column of the atmosphere.  Radiance data are converted into geophysical parameters using science-based algorithms.
  • 30. Remote Sensing : Challenges Satellites are very expensive to build and launch.  No direct measurements – radiance (light) measurements must be converted to geophysical parameters, such as temperature or pollutant concentration.  Tradeoffs between spatial and temporal resolution. 
  • 32. Conclusion  Radars, Laser Range finders, UAV based Reconnaissance and Satellite Imagery are widely used in Defense forces  Advantages of Remote Sensing far outweigh the challenges 44
  • 33. Thank you for your kind attention!!! 45
  • 34. History of remote sensing  1783: The Marquis d’Arlandes and Pilatre made a voyage near Paris using a balloon. Photography using balloon, pigeon 1860: Aerial photos in Russia and the USA 1914-19: The first World War and the second World War (1939-45) had seen tremendous development in photography 1927: Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. 1955: Work began on the Baikonur launch site in central Asia. 1957: Sputnik 1 launched from Baikonur (first satellite) 1961: Yuri Gagarin launched in the Vostok 1 capsule, becoming the first human in space. 1969: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the Moon. 1971: The first Space Station in history, the Russian Salyut 1 1972: (US Landsat1) the concept of imaging from satellites is introduced 1986: France launched the first stereo-image satellite (SPOT1) 1992: The space year (the maturity of remote sensing - 20 years of operation) 1995 The Shuttle-Mir Program (1st phase of the International Space Station (ISS).  2000 The first 3 astronauts (2 Russian and one American) start to live in the              ISS
  • 35. Remote Sensing Organizations  ISPRS- International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing         IGARSS- International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium NASA -National Aeronautic and Space Administration (USA) ESA- European Space Agency (Europe) NASDA- National Space Development Agency (Japan) CNES- Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (France ) DARA- German Space Agency CSA - Canadian Space Agency NRSA- National Remote Sensing Agency of India
  • 36. Remote sensing web sites               http://ftp.geog.ucl.ac.be/~patrick/geogr/Eteledetec.html - remote sensing index http:// www.esrin.esa.it - Eurpopean Space Agency http://geo.arc.nasa.gov - NASA program http://www.spot.com http://www.nasda.go.jp/ - Japan space agency http://www.rka.ru./ Russian Space Agency (RSA) http://www.coresw.com - Russian imagery source http://www.space.gc.ca/ Canadian Space Agency (CSA) http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ccrs/ -Canada Center for Remote Sensing http://www.inpe.br/ National Institute for Space Research (Brazil) http://www.asprs.org - American Society http://www.man.ac.uk - Manshester Univ. http://www.idrisi.clarku.edu - Idrisi site http://www.amazon.com - Bookstore http://www.brevard.cc.fl.us/BTR_Labs/bober/martin/rs/overview.htm Dr. Martin McClinton,
  • 37. Remote sensing literatureJ ournal/Conferences       Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote sensing (PE & RS) Photogrammetric Record International Journal of Remote Sensing ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ISPRS conference proceedings IGARSS conference proceedings
  • 38. Remote sensing literature -B ooks            Askne, J. (1995). Sensors and Environmental applications of remote sensing, Balkema, Rotterdam, NL Campbell, J. B. , 1996. Introduction to Remote Sensing. 2nd ed.,Taylor and Francis, London Dengre, J. (1994). Thematic Mapping from satellite imagery: Guide book, Elsevier ltd, Boulevard Lillesand, T. M. and R. W. Kiefer, 2000. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. 4th ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York Simonette, D. S. (ed) (1983) Manual of remote sensing, the Sheridan Press, Falls church Lillesand Thomas M. & Kiefer Ralph 2003 : Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation Third Edition John Villey Campbell John B. 1996 : Introduction to Remote Sensing, Taylor & Francis Floyd F. Sabins : Remote Sensing and Principles and Image Interpretation(1987) Manual of Remote Sensing IIIrd Edition : American Society of Photogrammtery and Remote Sensing 210, Little Falls Street, Falls Church, Virginia-22046 USA George Joseph. 1996: Imaging Sensors ; Remote Sensing Reviews, vol 13,Number 3-4. P.J. Curran, 1985. Physical aspects of Remote Sensing Longman Group UR Ltd, England.