Brain computer interface


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Brain computer interface

  1. 1. CE R FA N TE I T ER P U INES O MT MACH C EE INMANS M A R R E HUB HE W By:Pranav Kulkarni College: C.B.I.T (Hyd) 0209-5040
  2. 2. BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE Brain computer interface sometimes called as Brain Neural interface is a direct communication link between the functioning human brain and the outside world BCI uses brain activity to command,control,actuate and communicate with the world directly through brain integration with peripheral devices and systems
  3. 3. WHATS THE MAIN PRINCIPLE ?? Main principle behind this interface is the bio-electrical activity of nerves and muscles Brain is composed of millions of neurons .When the neuron fires, or activates there is a voltage change across the cell which generates signals on the surface of the brain. By monitoring and analysing these signals we can understand the working of our brain
  5. 5. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY(EEG) EEG is a recording of the electrical activity of the brain directly from the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain No EEG signal pattern is duplicated for any 2 distinct actions Pain less test Used to confirm brain death
  6. 6. HOW EEG WORKS ? Recorded by placing small metal discs called electrodes on the scalp in certain positions Each electrode is labelled with a letter and a number to indicate its position
  7. 7. HOW IS THE SIGNAL PRODUCED? EEG machines use differential amplifiers to produce each channel for trace of activity EEG signal itself is in the waveform so it is required that an adc be employed to produce the signal as a series of numeric values each representing voltage values of each channel at a certain time instance
  8. 8. STRUCTURE OF BRAIN-COMPUTERINTERFACEThe common structure of a Brain-Computer Interface is the following:Signal Acquisition: the EEG signals are obtained from the brain through invasive or non-invasive methods (for example, electrodes).Signal Pre-Processing: once the signals are acquired, it is necessary toclean them.Signal Classification: once the signals are cleaned, they will be processedand classified to find out which kind of mental task the subject isperforming.Computer Interaction: once the signals are classified, they will be used byan appropriate algorithm for the development of a certain application.
  9. 9. COMPONENTS OF A BCI IMPLANT DEVICE SIGNAL PROCESSING DEVICE  Spike Detection  Signal analysis  Multi-channel Acquisition Systems EXTERNAL DEVICE FEEDBACK SECTION
  11. 11. INVASIVE BCIs Electrodes are implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain Produces High quality of signals Prone to scar tissue build up Causes the signal to become weaker or even lost
  12. 12. PARTIALLY INVASIVE BCIS BCIs are implanted inside the skull Electrodes are placed on the surface of cortex The electrode picks up neural firing from the surface of the brain
  13. 13. NON-INVASIVE BCIS BCIs have electrodes carefully placed on a cap that the patient wears Has no complications of brain surgery Signals are very noisy and are often misunderstood by the computer
  14. 14. EXISTING BCI SYSTEMS The Brain Response Interface P3 Character Recognition ERS/ERD Cursor Control A steady state visual evoked potential BCI Mu rhythm Cursor control Thought Translation Device An Implanted BCI
  15. 15. PROS CONSCan help people with The brain is incrediblyinabilities to control wheel complexchairs or other devices with The signals are weak andbrain activity are prone to interferenceTo develop better sensing Surgery to brain might besystem risky and cause brain deathBCIs are linguistic There are chemicalindependent and can be used reactions involved in brainany where across the world which BCIdevices cannot pickThis has provided new area upof work for scientists and The equipment is less thanresearchers around the world portable
  16. 16. THE BIG CHALLENGES Getting the right codes for the desired action Avoiding brain damage Virus attacks Animal rights Extensive training required
  17. 17. APPLICATIONS Patients with conditions causing severe communication disorders Military uses Bioengineering applications Control of Brain-operated wheel-chair Multimedia and Virtual Reality applications Artificial vision
  18. 18. FUTURE SCOPE Wireless implants in brain Injectable implants Better interpretation of waves Decode non-motor brain signals Brain-to-Brain communication
  19. 19. CONCLUSIONSince the BCI enables people to communicate and control appliances withjust the use of brain signals it opens many gates for disabled people. Thepossible future applications are numerous. Even though this field ofscience has grown vastly in last few years we are still a few steps awayfrom the scene where people drive brain-operated wheelchairs on thestreets. New technologies need to be developed and people in theneuroscience field need also to take into account other brain imagingtechniques, such as MEG and fMRI, to develop the future BCI. As timepasses BCI might be a part of our every day lives.
  20. 20. QUERIES ?