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Poriferans and Placozoans
Poriferans (sponges)
•   ‘pore bearing’
•   Spongocoel
•   Choanocytes or Collar cells
•   Archeocytes
•   Epidermal cells
•   Has Mesophyl sandwiched between two thin layers
    of cells.
Defining Characteristics
• Microvillar collars
  surround flagella, with
  units arising from
  either single cells or
  syncytia.
• Lack nerves and no
  true musculature.
Skeleton
• Sponges are either radially symmetrical or
  asymmetrical.
• Mesohyl=Endoskeleton
• Spicules=Sclerocytes
• Spongin=Spongocytes
Food Capture and Digestion
• detritus particles, plankton, bacteria

• Choanocytes

• Food items are taken into individual cells by
  phagocytosis, and digestion occurs within individual
  cells.
Excretion and Water Balance
• A sponge has carbon dioxide and other wastes
  removed as the water moves in and out through the
  pores.
Respiration and internal Transport

• Diffusion of gases through the help of water
• Archeocytes remove mineral particles that
  threaten to block the ostia.
Nervous System
• A sponge has a very low level reaction to the world
  around it and does not have a brain per se.
Reproductive system
• Asexual
     +fragmentation
     +buds
           *external buds
           *internal buds or gemmules
• Sexual (mesohyl)
     +eggs and sperms
     +hermaphroditic
           *External and internal fertilization
Development
• Hollow blastula or Coeloblastula
• Amphiblastula-the hollow sponge larvae
• Some species, from coeloblastula to
  stereoblastula
• Larvae are incapable to feeding and swim
  for less than 24 hours before
  metamorphosing.
Ecology and Evolution
• 98% in marine
• 2% in water and mostly with spongin fiber
• Many in tropics
• Sponges have strong structures that are able
  to handle the high volume of water that
  flows through them each day
• release toxic substances into the
  environment
PLACOZOANS (Flat plate)
• They were discovered in the late 1880's
  living on the glass walls of an aquarium in a
  European laboratory.
• Single species
Defining Characteristic
• Multicellular
• Amorphous
• Mobile
• flagellated animals lacking a body cavity, digestive
  system and nervous system
• composed of 2 layers of epithelial cells.
• 2 distinct layers of epithelial cells
  +ventral- columnar cells w/ flagellum
            - Glandular cells with enzymes
            - Endodermal
  +Dorsal- Flat, thinner and No gland cells.
           -Ectodermal
  +In between- fluid
              -Contractile fibrous cells.
Movement
2 Ways;
 • gliding on their cilia
 • changing their shape like an amoeba.
Digestion
• Atops the food using the Ventral surface
• No sign of phagocytosis
• Extracellular digestion
Reproduction
• Sexual
  + generally, produces one oocyte.
  +developed embryos
• Asexual
   +Budding
   +Fragmentation
   +Binary fission

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Poriferans and Placozoans

  • 2. Poriferans (sponges) • ‘pore bearing’ • Spongocoel • Choanocytes or Collar cells • Archeocytes • Epidermal cells • Has Mesophyl sandwiched between two thin layers of cells.
  • 3. Defining Characteristics • Microvillar collars surround flagella, with units arising from either single cells or syncytia. • Lack nerves and no true musculature.
  • 4. Skeleton • Sponges are either radially symmetrical or asymmetrical. • Mesohyl=Endoskeleton • Spicules=Sclerocytes • Spongin=Spongocytes
  • 5. Food Capture and Digestion • detritus particles, plankton, bacteria • Choanocytes • Food items are taken into individual cells by phagocytosis, and digestion occurs within individual cells.
  • 6. Excretion and Water Balance • A sponge has carbon dioxide and other wastes removed as the water moves in and out through the pores.
  • 7. Respiration and internal Transport • Diffusion of gases through the help of water • Archeocytes remove mineral particles that threaten to block the ostia.
  • 8. Nervous System • A sponge has a very low level reaction to the world around it and does not have a brain per se.
  • 9. Reproductive system • Asexual +fragmentation +buds *external buds *internal buds or gemmules • Sexual (mesohyl) +eggs and sperms +hermaphroditic *External and internal fertilization
  • 10. Development • Hollow blastula or Coeloblastula • Amphiblastula-the hollow sponge larvae • Some species, from coeloblastula to stereoblastula • Larvae are incapable to feeding and swim for less than 24 hours before metamorphosing.
  • 11. Ecology and Evolution • 98% in marine • 2% in water and mostly with spongin fiber • Many in tropics • Sponges have strong structures that are able to handle the high volume of water that flows through them each day • release toxic substances into the environment
  • 12. PLACOZOANS (Flat plate) • They were discovered in the late 1880's living on the glass walls of an aquarium in a European laboratory. • Single species
  • 13. Defining Characteristic • Multicellular • Amorphous • Mobile • flagellated animals lacking a body cavity, digestive system and nervous system • composed of 2 layers of epithelial cells.
  • 14. • 2 distinct layers of epithelial cells +ventral- columnar cells w/ flagellum - Glandular cells with enzymes - Endodermal +Dorsal- Flat, thinner and No gland cells. -Ectodermal +In between- fluid -Contractile fibrous cells.
  • 15. Movement 2 Ways; • gliding on their cilia • changing their shape like an amoeba.
  • 16. Digestion • Atops the food using the Ventral surface • No sign of phagocytosis • Extracellular digestion
  • 17. Reproduction • Sexual + generally, produces one oocyte. +developed embryos • Asexual +Budding +Fragmentation +Binary fission