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BIOPESTICIDES IN INTEGRATED CROP
MANAGEMENT
MSc Jesus Yañez CEO & Founder (2006)
GREENCORP GROUP
Pioneers of Biological Products for Plant Protection, Biostimulants,
Biofertilizers & Bioenhancers in Mexico & LATAM
GLOBAL POPULATION & FOOD SECURITY
The impact of increasing
human population, rising
food demand, and adverse
effects of climate change,
has tremendously affected
global food security.
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
THE GREEN REVOLUTION IMPACT
Agricultural strategies to feed all of individuals are an
important challenge in XXI century.
The green revolution has led to intensified
agriculture to meet the continuous increasing
demands for food and fiber globally.
Plant protection with chemical treatments has
caused technical, environmental , health and
economic problems.
These limits of chemical control and the high
concern for the preservation of the environment are
the major reasons for the increased interest in the
use of biological control.
The key innovations led by GREEN REVOLUTION are:
Multiple Cropping, use of chemical Fertilizers and synthetic pesticides,
intensive plant breeding and institutional research coalitions
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
PEST AND DISEASES IN AGRICULTURE
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
PLANT PEST AND DISEASES
• Plant pests and diseases cause
significant losses to farmers and
threaten the food and nutritional
security of millions of people.
• Transboundary plant pests and
diseases can easily spread to several
countries and reach epidemic
proportions.
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
There are approximately 70 000 pest
species and diseases that damage
agricultural crops worldwide
PLANT PESTS AND DISEASES
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
There are about 1 million species
of known insects
only around 7% - 10% of insects are
scientifically described.
Many insect species are not yet identified,
estimates of all world insects are around
a mean of 5.5 million
There are over 20,000 different species of fungi
that can cause harm to crops and plants.
About 85% of plant diseases are classified
as fungal infections.
PLANT PEST AND DISEASES
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
Pest control is an inevitability in agriculture.
Predatory insects contribute significant
ecosystem functions by controlling pest
insects in cultivated crops.
It was indicated in 75% of field studies that
generalist predators reduce pest populations
in arable farmland significantly , with ground
beetles being dominant generalist predators
in arable crops and effectively reducing
population sizes of economically significant
agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, root
feeding flies and phytophagous beetles.
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
CHEMICAL CONTROL AND CONSEQUENCES
• Decrease in beneficial insects
due to alteration in their
metabolism
• Extensive groundwater
contamination
• Potentially threatening
human and environmental
health
• Evolution of resistance to
pesticides in pest populations
• Decrease in nutrient cycling
due to the rhizosphere
microbiome decreasing.
Effects of chemical products on beneficial insects and microbiome
(Daisley et al., 2022)
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
NUMBER OF PESTICIDE-RESISTANT SPECIES
The last century the
number of pesticide-
resistant species has
grown exponentially
since the start of
widespread use of
insecticides and
herbicides in the middle
of the last century
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Number
of
resistant
species
year
arthropods plant pathogens weeds nematodes
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
FROM CHEMICAL TO BIORATIONAL TRANSITION
Over the past 60 years, crop protection has relied
heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their
availability is now declining as a result of new
legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest
populations. Therefore, alternative pest management
tactics are needed.
The European order 2009/128/CE, which advances
the decrease of pesticide use by creating non-
chemical techniques for disease and pest
management in agriculture including physical,
mechanical and biological control.
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
ORGANIC PRODUCTS MARKET
20% de crecimiento anual hasta 2005; se predice del 9 al 16% hasta el 2010
EU: Growth of organic área and retail sales
2000-2022
Source: FiBL-AMI survey 2021
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025
Cumulative
growth
in
%
Year
organic retail sales organic area
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
GLOBAL LOSSES BY PLANT PESTS AND DISEASES
Losses associated with 137 pathogens and
pests associated with wheat, rice, maize,
potato and soybean worldwide. Yield loss
(range) estimates at a global level and per
hotspot for:
Wheat ---- 21.5% (10.1–28.1%)
Rice ------- 30.0% (24.6–40.9%)
Maize ----- 22.5% (19.5–41.1%)
Potato ---- 17.2% (8.1–21.0%)
Soybean-- 21.4% (11.0–32.4%)
The global burden of pathogens and pests on major
food crops
Nature Ecology & Evolution volume 3, pages430–439
(2019)
New research, published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, by a collaboration between the French National Institute for Agricultural Research
(INRA), Cornell University, Penn State University, University of California, Davis and the University of Twente
FAO estimates that
annually up to 40 percent
of global crop production is
lost to pests.
Each year,
plant diseases cost
the global economy
over $ 220 billion,
and invasive insects
at least $ 70 billion.
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
GLOBAL LOSSES BY PLANT PESTS AND DISEASES
FROM THIS APPROACH:
Insect pests cause an average
annual loss of 7.7% in production
in Brazil, which is a reduction of
approximately 25 million tons of
food, fiber, and biofuels.
The total annual economic losses
reach approximately US $ 17.7
billion.
In addition to the economic losses
caused by the direct action of insect
pests that damage crops, the
measures taken to control these
organisms can also cause indirect
economic losses related to the
purchase and application of
insecticides, to expenses related to
medical treatment for people poisoned
by insecticides, and to damage
caused by environmental
contamination.
LOSSES BY INSECT PESTS IN BRAZIL
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
LOSSES BY PLANT DISEASES
“Fungal infections are threatening
some of our most important crops,
from FRUITS & VEGETABLES to
CEREAL, GRAINS AND OTHER
INDUSTRIAL CROPS.
Worldwide, growers lose between:
10 -23 % of their crops
to fungal infection each year,
despite widespread use of
antifungals.
An additional 10-20 per cent is lost
in post-harvest.
GLOBAL LOSSES BY PLANT PEST AND DISEASES
Annual Review of Virology
Vol. 6:387-409 (Volume publication date September 2019)
Agricultural globalization and
international trade are spreading
viruses and their vectors to new
geographical regions with
unexpected consequences for food
production and natural
ecosystems.
Viruses constitute a major cause of
plant disease and have an
estimated economic impact of
> $30 billion annually
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
 Fungal Diseases: Black spot, Rust, Botrytis blight
Powdery mildew, Phytophtora
late blight.
 Bacterial Diseases: Black rot, Bacterial canker,
Soft rot, Leaf spot wilt, Blight.
 Viral diseases: Mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt
virus, Potato virus, Tomato
yellow, leaf curl virus, Cucumber
mosaic virus.
What are the common plant diseases? What are the common pests of vegetables?
 InsectsAphids
 Caterpillars
 Cutworms
 Grasshoppers and locusts
 Thrips
 Weevils
 Whiteflies
 Mites
 Russet mite on tomatoes
 Two-spotted mite or red spider mite
 Snails
 slugs Slaters
GLOBAL LOSSES BY PLANT PEST AND DISEASES
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
THE FUTURE OF CROP PROTECTION IN EUROPE (2021)
POLICY OPTIONS
 Focus public investments on large groups of farmers,
such as family farmers who have substantial pesticide
use, limited farm income but future perspective to
make their Crop protection sustainable.
 Develop tools to distinguish subsistence farmers, who
are largely or totally dependent on farming for their
income, from hobby farmers. Pay targeted attention
to this specific group of small farmers, especially in
Eastern and southern parts of EU.
 Consider the Synergy between several alternative
practices. a), b) and c)...... (see next part)
a). Precision Agriculture (PA), and mechanical weeding have a
synergy. The availability of the basic PA-equipment
on machinery will open application options for advanced
mechanical weeding. These machinery and devices have
large investment cost and are therefore more aplicable
in situation with larger farms and higher margin crops. As
a consequence such investments cannot be advised
to small farmer with relatively low revenues.
b). Biocontrol, induced resistance and applying ecological
principles to increase biodiversity have synergy as well.
these three crop protection options strengthen each other
by providing a system with fewer chemical inputs.
c). Plant breeding and alternative plant protection products
ares aplicable in both anual and permanente crops. However,
in permanente crops, it will take more time before effects in
crop protection and sustainability can be measured at farm
level.
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
PESTICIDE COSTS FOR PLANT PROTECTION
Annals PAAAE • 2022 • Vol. XXIV • No. (1)
STANISŁAW ŚWITEK, MICHAŁ GAZDECKI, ZUZANNA SAWINSKA,
ELŻBIETA GORYŃSKA-GOLDMANNPoznań University of Life Sciences, Poland
36.32%
60.79%
2.89%
COST OF CHEMICAL CROP PROTECTION (PPPs) Weighted average
AVERAGE in EU & MAIN COUNTRIES(2015-2019) Cost/ Ha (euros)
Luxembourg 932
Netherland 730
Belgium 351
Malta 333
France 202
Portugal 179
Ireland 171
Germany 160
Slovenia 153
Greece 152
Czechia 136
Cyprus 134
European region average 128
Rest of countries under the average (44 to 120)
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON PEST MANAGEMENT
CLIMATE CHANGE IS SPREADING PESTS AND DISEASES
Climate change will increase the risk of
pests spreading in agricultural and
forestry ecosystems, especially in cooler
Arctic, boreal, temperate and subtropical
regions.
Elevated concentrations of atmospheric
CO2 can affect the distribution,
abundance, and performance of
herbivorous insects. Such increases can
affect consumption rates, growth rates,
fecundity, and population densities of
insect pests.
Half of all emerging plant diseases
are spread by global travel and trade,
which have tripled in volume over the
last decade, while weather is the
second most important factor.
Global warming as a “perfect storm”
is causing fungal infections to spread
rapidly. Fungal infections are steadily
moving pole-wards, with airborne
spores that can travel between
continents.
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
Critical components and data analytics needed for an emerging plant disease surveillance
network.
These data can be used to model spread of plant diseases and predict future spread.
New outbreaks can be
predicted with disease
surveillance systems and
data can be used to
determine the origin of
outbreak strains and
calculate rates of spread.
Global hot spots of new
emerging diseases can be
identified .
This information will be
useful to deploy resistant
germplasm, fungicides,
or other eradication
methods at the landscape
level.
PLANT DISEASE SURVEILLANCE NETWORK
Insects 2021, 12(5), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050440
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON PESTS
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
CLIMATE CHANGE IS SPREADING PESTS AND DISEASES
INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
Topics within plant pathology where multidisciplinary approaches in
research have been developed but need further implementation
CO2 –RAIN & DROUGTH AFFECTS PESTS POPULATION AND LIFE CYCLE
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON PEST MANAGEMENT
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
MICROBIAL AND BOTANICAL PESTICIDES: AN ALTERNATIVE
CURRENT TREND IN THE PESTICIDE INDUSTRY
Effects with minimum environmental, resistance, and human health impact
Sustainable agriculture
Biological and natural control of diseases
Use living organisms or compounds synthesized by these within their metabolism for disease control, to reduce the
population of the pathogens, and restore the balance of microorganism populations in the agroecosystem
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
GLOBAL DEMAND AND DRIVERS FOR
INCREASING USE OF BIOPESTICIDES
The demand of Biopesticides is driven by several factors,including :
 1.- Consumer demand for chemical-free
food and sustainable agricultural
practices.
 2.- Biopesticides offer a safer and more
sustainable pest and disease control in
agriculture.
 3.-Increased resistance of pests to
chemical pesticides.
 4.-Increasing adoption of organic
farming practices.
 5.- Significant technological advances
in the area of biochemical and microbial
pesticides, with the development of more
efficient formulations and longer shelf life.
 6.-The high cost of developing a new
Synthetic chemical and the limited supply
of new molecules by formulators.
 7.-Governmental and Regulatory bodies
in developed countries are imposing
stricter regulations, or taxes on the use of
synthetic pesticides, due to their potential
adverse effects.
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
GLOBAL DEMAND AND DRIVERS FOR
INCREASING USE OF BIOPESTICIDES
The development of biological technologies
for pest & disease control in LATAM MARKETS
It has been growing at an impressive rate over the last few years.
As demand for healthier foods increases, so does organic farming, and
biorational sustainable an IPM programs are being implemented
especially in those farms producing and exporting to international
markets.
The government in some countries, actively supports the use of
biological pesticides by inducing growers through programs offering a
direct economical support or by purchasing directly from suppliers to
lower product prices.
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
Mexican Government has
established a 5-10% tax to the
Commercialization of Chemical
Pesticides trying to lower their
use and for Inducing growers
and driving to the application of
Biopesticides and some other
sustainable practices.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an
effective and environmentally sensitive
approach to pest management that relies
on a combination of common-sense
practices.
IPM programs use current, comprehensive
information on the life cycles of pests and
their interaction with the environment.
This information, in combination with
available pest control methods, is used to
manage pest damage by the most
economical means, and with the least
possible hazard to people, property, and the
environment.
 IPM is not a single pest control method
but, rather, a series of pest
management evaluations, decisions
and controls.
 In practicing IPM, growers who are
aware of the potential for pest
infestation follow a four-tiered
approach. The four steps include:
 SET ACTION TRESHOLDS
 MONITOR AND IDENTIFY PESTS
 PREVENTION
 CONTROL
https://www.epa.gov/safepestcontrol/integrated-pest-management-ipm-principles
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
Predation/Parasitism Occupying the higher trophic levels as
secondary or tertiary consumers, predators and parasites help
control the population increase of primary consumers or
phytophagous organisms below a threshold.
Herbivorous insects with the potential of becoming pests are
under natural control by insect predators and parasitoids .
In the insect orders:
Odonata (dragon flies) /Neuroptera (lacewings and ant lions)
Hemiptera (bugs)/Coleoptera (beetles)/ Diptera (flies) and
Hymenoptera (wasps, bees and ants) are predators, either as
larvae or in both larval and adult stages.
Parisitoids in the order Hymenoptera parasitizes either adults,
larvae or eggs of other insects. For instance:
Aphytis lingnanensis parasitizes scale insects
Trichogramma parasitic wasps attack Lepidopteran eggs
Around 72% of the world’s crops
are dependent on insects for
pollination. Pollinating insects
improve or stabilize the yield of
three-quarters of all crop types
globally—one-third of global crop
production by volume .
The most important pollinators are
bees, beetles, butterflies and flies.
Insects therefore contribute to
plant diversity and affects animal
biodiversity-
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
Venn diagram representing the
multidisciplinary challenges
faced as plant pathology
addresses burgeoning issues of
food security and environmental
stewardship in the twenty-first
century.
The ring represents the first
challenge: the interface between
plant pathology, crop protection
and other disciplines.
Each of the surrounding seven
circles represents one of the
remaining major challenge
Monitor, detect, and inform farmers about possible changes in
insect pest distribution, population ecology, damage assessment,
losses of yield, and impact assessment.
A key factor for successful insect pest management are:
 Biological control of their populations.
 Release and establish natural enemies (Parasitoids and
Predators)
 Intercropping, as viable practice to reduce insecticide use.
 Well-designed rotation system.
 Considering crop sowing date.
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT
BIOPESTICIDES GLOBAL DEFINITIONS
The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) Definition
Biopesticides are certain types of
pesticides derived from such natural
materials as animals, plants,
bacteria, and certain minerals.
The European Environmental Agency (EEA),
defines a biopesticide “as a pesticide in which the
active ingredient is a virus, fungus, or bacteria, or a
natural product derived from a plant source.
A biopesticide's mechanism of action is based on
specific biological effects and not on chemical
poisons.
Also defines a biopesticide as a pesticide made
from biological sources, that is from toxins which
occur naturally. - naturally occurring biological
agents used to kill pests by causing specific
biological effects rather than by inducing chemical
poisoning.”
https://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides https://ec.europa.eu/food/plants/pesticides/sustainable-use-pesticides/farm-fork-targets-progress_en
SECTION 1
BIOPESTICIDES
BIOPESTICIDES OTHER TERMS
BIOPROTECTANTS have their origin in nature and
should cause no harm to humans and have minimal impact in
the environment. Bioprotectants include, in particular, macro-
organisms (Invertebrate Biocontrol Agents) and plant protection
products containing micro-organisms, semiochemicals
(chemical mediators such as pheromones and kairomones),
and Natural Substances of plant, animal or mineral origin.
The IBMA’s defines Natural Substances as: “Substances that consist of one
or more components that originate from nature, including but not limited to:
plants, algae/micro algae, animals, minerals, bacteria, fungi, protozoans,
viruses, viroids and mycoplasmas.
They can either be sourced from nature or are nature identical if synthetized.
https://ibma-global.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/ibmadefinitionleafletweb.pdf
SECTION 1
BIOPESTICIDES
CATEGORIES OF BIOPESTICIDES
BIOPESTICIDES ARE CLASSIFIED IN THREE MAJOR CLASSES:
BIOCHEMICAL PESTICIDES MICROBIAL BIOPESTICIDES
PLANT-INCORPORATED
PROTECTANTS (PIPs)
Biochemical pesticides are
naturally occurring products that
are used to control pests through
nontoxic mechanisms.
1.- Plant extracts/Oils
2.-Semiochemicals (Pheromones)
3.- Natural Insect Growth
regulators
4.- Others like some Salts,
minerals, organic acids.
Microbial Pesticides.
contain microorganisms:
1.- Bacteria
2.- Fungi
3.- Actinomycetes
4.- Protozoa
5.- Nematodes
6.- Insect-Viruses
Plant-Incorporated Protectants are
Pesticidal substances produced by
Plants that contain genetic material
added to the plant often through
Genetic engineering.
1.- Insect killing Proteins.
2.- Virus resistant coats.
This is most a matter of EPA-
regulation on the genetic material.
Because those are not really
Biopesticides.
SECTION 1
BIOPESTICIDES
CATEGORIES OF BIOPESTICIDES
https://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides https://ec.europa.eu/food/plants/pesticides/sustainable-use-pesticides/farm-fork-targets-progress_en
SECTION 1
BIOPESTICIDES
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx

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S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx

  • 1. BIOPESTICIDES IN INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT MSc Jesus Yañez CEO & Founder (2006) GREENCORP GROUP Pioneers of Biological Products for Plant Protection, Biostimulants, Biofertilizers & Bioenhancers in Mexico & LATAM
  • 2. GLOBAL POPULATION & FOOD SECURITY The impact of increasing human population, rising food demand, and adverse effects of climate change, has tremendously affected global food security. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3. THE GREEN REVOLUTION IMPACT Agricultural strategies to feed all of individuals are an important challenge in XXI century. The green revolution has led to intensified agriculture to meet the continuous increasing demands for food and fiber globally. Plant protection with chemical treatments has caused technical, environmental , health and economic problems. These limits of chemical control and the high concern for the preservation of the environment are the major reasons for the increased interest in the use of biological control. The key innovations led by GREEN REVOLUTION are: Multiple Cropping, use of chemical Fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, intensive plant breeding and institutional research coalitions SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4. PEST AND DISEASES IN AGRICULTURE SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5. PLANT PEST AND DISEASES • Plant pests and diseases cause significant losses to farmers and threaten the food and nutritional security of millions of people. • Transboundary plant pests and diseases can easily spread to several countries and reach epidemic proportions. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION There are approximately 70 000 pest species and diseases that damage agricultural crops worldwide
  • 6. PLANT PESTS AND DISEASES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION There are about 1 million species of known insects only around 7% - 10% of insects are scientifically described. Many insect species are not yet identified, estimates of all world insects are around a mean of 5.5 million There are over 20,000 different species of fungi that can cause harm to crops and plants. About 85% of plant diseases are classified as fungal infections.
  • 7. PLANT PEST AND DISEASES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION Pest control is an inevitability in agriculture. Predatory insects contribute significant ecosystem functions by controlling pest insects in cultivated crops. It was indicated in 75% of field studies that generalist predators reduce pest populations in arable farmland significantly , with ground beetles being dominant generalist predators in arable crops and effectively reducing population sizes of economically significant agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, root feeding flies and phytophagous beetles.
  • 9. CHEMICAL CONTROL AND CONSEQUENCES • Decrease in beneficial insects due to alteration in their metabolism • Extensive groundwater contamination • Potentially threatening human and environmental health • Evolution of resistance to pesticides in pest populations • Decrease in nutrient cycling due to the rhizosphere microbiome decreasing. Effects of chemical products on beneficial insects and microbiome (Daisley et al., 2022) SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10. NUMBER OF PESTICIDE-RESISTANT SPECIES The last century the number of pesticide- resistant species has grown exponentially since the start of widespread use of insecticides and herbicides in the middle of the last century 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Number of resistant species year arthropods plant pathogens weeds nematodes SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 11. FROM CHEMICAL TO BIORATIONAL TRANSITION Over the past 60 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. The European order 2009/128/CE, which advances the decrease of pesticide use by creating non- chemical techniques for disease and pest management in agriculture including physical, mechanical and biological control. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 12. ORGANIC PRODUCTS MARKET 20% de crecimiento anual hasta 2005; se predice del 9 al 16% hasta el 2010 EU: Growth of organic área and retail sales 2000-2022 Source: FiBL-AMI survey 2021 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 Cumulative growth in % Year organic retail sales organic area SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 13. GLOBAL LOSSES BY PLANT PESTS AND DISEASES Losses associated with 137 pathogens and pests associated with wheat, rice, maize, potato and soybean worldwide. Yield loss (range) estimates at a global level and per hotspot for: Wheat ---- 21.5% (10.1–28.1%) Rice ------- 30.0% (24.6–40.9%) Maize ----- 22.5% (19.5–41.1%) Potato ---- 17.2% (8.1–21.0%) Soybean-- 21.4% (11.0–32.4%) The global burden of pathogens and pests on major food crops Nature Ecology & Evolution volume 3, pages430–439 (2019) New research, published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, by a collaboration between the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), Cornell University, Penn State University, University of California, Davis and the University of Twente FAO estimates that annually up to 40 percent of global crop production is lost to pests. Each year, plant diseases cost the global economy over $ 220 billion, and invasive insects at least $ 70 billion. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 14. GLOBAL LOSSES BY PLANT PESTS AND DISEASES FROM THIS APPROACH: Insect pests cause an average annual loss of 7.7% in production in Brazil, which is a reduction of approximately 25 million tons of food, fiber, and biofuels. The total annual economic losses reach approximately US $ 17.7 billion. In addition to the economic losses caused by the direct action of insect pests that damage crops, the measures taken to control these organisms can also cause indirect economic losses related to the purchase and application of insecticides, to expenses related to medical treatment for people poisoned by insecticides, and to damage caused by environmental contamination. LOSSES BY INSECT PESTS IN BRAZIL SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 15. LOSSES BY PLANT DISEASES “Fungal infections are threatening some of our most important crops, from FRUITS & VEGETABLES to CEREAL, GRAINS AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL CROPS. Worldwide, growers lose between: 10 -23 % of their crops to fungal infection each year, despite widespread use of antifungals. An additional 10-20 per cent is lost in post-harvest. GLOBAL LOSSES BY PLANT PEST AND DISEASES Annual Review of Virology Vol. 6:387-409 (Volume publication date September 2019) Agricultural globalization and international trade are spreading viruses and their vectors to new geographical regions with unexpected consequences for food production and natural ecosystems. Viruses constitute a major cause of plant disease and have an estimated economic impact of > $30 billion annually SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 16. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION  Fungal Diseases: Black spot, Rust, Botrytis blight Powdery mildew, Phytophtora late blight.  Bacterial Diseases: Black rot, Bacterial canker, Soft rot, Leaf spot wilt, Blight.  Viral diseases: Mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Potato virus, Tomato yellow, leaf curl virus, Cucumber mosaic virus. What are the common plant diseases? What are the common pests of vegetables?  InsectsAphids  Caterpillars  Cutworms  Grasshoppers and locusts  Thrips  Weevils  Whiteflies  Mites  Russet mite on tomatoes  Two-spotted mite or red spider mite  Snails  slugs Slaters GLOBAL LOSSES BY PLANT PEST AND DISEASES
  • 17. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION THE FUTURE OF CROP PROTECTION IN EUROPE (2021) POLICY OPTIONS  Focus public investments on large groups of farmers, such as family farmers who have substantial pesticide use, limited farm income but future perspective to make their Crop protection sustainable.  Develop tools to distinguish subsistence farmers, who are largely or totally dependent on farming for their income, from hobby farmers. Pay targeted attention to this specific group of small farmers, especially in Eastern and southern parts of EU.  Consider the Synergy between several alternative practices. a), b) and c)...... (see next part) a). Precision Agriculture (PA), and mechanical weeding have a synergy. The availability of the basic PA-equipment on machinery will open application options for advanced mechanical weeding. These machinery and devices have large investment cost and are therefore more aplicable in situation with larger farms and higher margin crops. As a consequence such investments cannot be advised to small farmer with relatively low revenues. b). Biocontrol, induced resistance and applying ecological principles to increase biodiversity have synergy as well. these three crop protection options strengthen each other by providing a system with fewer chemical inputs. c). Plant breeding and alternative plant protection products ares aplicable in both anual and permanente crops. However, in permanente crops, it will take more time before effects in crop protection and sustainability can be measured at farm level.
  • 18. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION PESTICIDE COSTS FOR PLANT PROTECTION Annals PAAAE • 2022 • Vol. XXIV • No. (1) STANISŁAW ŚWITEK, MICHAŁ GAZDECKI, ZUZANNA SAWINSKA, ELŻBIETA GORYŃSKA-GOLDMANNPoznań University of Life Sciences, Poland 36.32% 60.79% 2.89% COST OF CHEMICAL CROP PROTECTION (PPPs) Weighted average AVERAGE in EU & MAIN COUNTRIES(2015-2019) Cost/ Ha (euros) Luxembourg 932 Netherland 730 Belgium 351 Malta 333 France 202 Portugal 179 Ireland 171 Germany 160 Slovenia 153 Greece 152 Czechia 136 Cyprus 134 European region average 128 Rest of countries under the average (44 to 120)
  • 19. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON PEST MANAGEMENT CLIMATE CHANGE IS SPREADING PESTS AND DISEASES Climate change will increase the risk of pests spreading in agricultural and forestry ecosystems, especially in cooler Arctic, boreal, temperate and subtropical regions. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can affect the distribution, abundance, and performance of herbivorous insects. Such increases can affect consumption rates, growth rates, fecundity, and population densities of insect pests. Half of all emerging plant diseases are spread by global travel and trade, which have tripled in volume over the last decade, while weather is the second most important factor. Global warming as a “perfect storm” is causing fungal infections to spread rapidly. Fungal infections are steadily moving pole-wards, with airborne spores that can travel between continents. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 20. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION Critical components and data analytics needed for an emerging plant disease surveillance network. These data can be used to model spread of plant diseases and predict future spread. New outbreaks can be predicted with disease surveillance systems and data can be used to determine the origin of outbreak strains and calculate rates of spread. Global hot spots of new emerging diseases can be identified . This information will be useful to deploy resistant germplasm, fungicides, or other eradication methods at the landscape level. PLANT DISEASE SURVEILLANCE NETWORK
  • 21. Insects 2021, 12(5), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050440 CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON PESTS SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION CLIMATE CHANGE IS SPREADING PESTS AND DISEASES
  • 22. INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION Topics within plant pathology where multidisciplinary approaches in research have been developed but need further implementation
  • 23. CO2 –RAIN & DROUGTH AFFECTS PESTS POPULATION AND LIFE CYCLE CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON PEST MANAGEMENT SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 24. MICROBIAL AND BOTANICAL PESTICIDES: AN ALTERNATIVE CURRENT TREND IN THE PESTICIDE INDUSTRY Effects with minimum environmental, resistance, and human health impact Sustainable agriculture Biological and natural control of diseases Use living organisms or compounds synthesized by these within their metabolism for disease control, to reduce the population of the pathogens, and restore the balance of microorganism populations in the agroecosystem SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 25. GLOBAL DEMAND AND DRIVERS FOR INCREASING USE OF BIOPESTICIDES The demand of Biopesticides is driven by several factors,including :  1.- Consumer demand for chemical-free food and sustainable agricultural practices.  2.- Biopesticides offer a safer and more sustainable pest and disease control in agriculture.  3.-Increased resistance of pests to chemical pesticides.  4.-Increasing adoption of organic farming practices.  5.- Significant technological advances in the area of biochemical and microbial pesticides, with the development of more efficient formulations and longer shelf life.  6.-The high cost of developing a new Synthetic chemical and the limited supply of new molecules by formulators.  7.-Governmental and Regulatory bodies in developed countries are imposing stricter regulations, or taxes on the use of synthetic pesticides, due to their potential adverse effects. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 26. GLOBAL DEMAND AND DRIVERS FOR INCREASING USE OF BIOPESTICIDES The development of biological technologies for pest & disease control in LATAM MARKETS It has been growing at an impressive rate over the last few years. As demand for healthier foods increases, so does organic farming, and biorational sustainable an IPM programs are being implemented especially in those farms producing and exporting to international markets. The government in some countries, actively supports the use of biological pesticides by inducing growers through programs offering a direct economical support or by purchasing directly from suppliers to lower product prices. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION Mexican Government has established a 5-10% tax to the Commercialization of Chemical Pesticides trying to lower their use and for Inducing growers and driving to the application of Biopesticides and some other sustainable practices.
  • 27. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices. IPM programs use current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment. This information, in combination with available pest control methods, is used to manage pest damage by the most economical means, and with the least possible hazard to people, property, and the environment.  IPM is not a single pest control method but, rather, a series of pest management evaluations, decisions and controls.  In practicing IPM, growers who are aware of the potential for pest infestation follow a four-tiered approach. The four steps include:  SET ACTION TRESHOLDS  MONITOR AND IDENTIFY PESTS  PREVENTION  CONTROL https://www.epa.gov/safepestcontrol/integrated-pest-management-ipm-principles SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 28. Predation/Parasitism Occupying the higher trophic levels as secondary or tertiary consumers, predators and parasites help control the population increase of primary consumers or phytophagous organisms below a threshold. Herbivorous insects with the potential of becoming pests are under natural control by insect predators and parasitoids . In the insect orders: Odonata (dragon flies) /Neuroptera (lacewings and ant lions) Hemiptera (bugs)/Coleoptera (beetles)/ Diptera (flies) and Hymenoptera (wasps, bees and ants) are predators, either as larvae or in both larval and adult stages. Parisitoids in the order Hymenoptera parasitizes either adults, larvae or eggs of other insects. For instance: Aphytis lingnanensis parasitizes scale insects Trichogramma parasitic wasps attack Lepidopteran eggs Around 72% of the world’s crops are dependent on insects for pollination. Pollinating insects improve or stabilize the yield of three-quarters of all crop types globally—one-third of global crop production by volume . The most important pollinators are bees, beetles, butterflies and flies. Insects therefore contribute to plant diversity and affects animal biodiversity- SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 29. INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION Venn diagram representing the multidisciplinary challenges faced as plant pathology addresses burgeoning issues of food security and environmental stewardship in the twenty-first century. The ring represents the first challenge: the interface between plant pathology, crop protection and other disciplines. Each of the surrounding seven circles represents one of the remaining major challenge
  • 30. Monitor, detect, and inform farmers about possible changes in insect pest distribution, population ecology, damage assessment, losses of yield, and impact assessment. A key factor for successful insect pest management are:  Biological control of their populations.  Release and establish natural enemies (Parasitoids and Predators)  Intercropping, as viable practice to reduce insecticide use.  Well-designed rotation system.  Considering crop sowing date. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT
  • 31. BIOPESTICIDES GLOBAL DEFINITIONS The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Definition Biopesticides are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. The European Environmental Agency (EEA), defines a biopesticide “as a pesticide in which the active ingredient is a virus, fungus, or bacteria, or a natural product derived from a plant source. A biopesticide's mechanism of action is based on specific biological effects and not on chemical poisons. Also defines a biopesticide as a pesticide made from biological sources, that is from toxins which occur naturally. - naturally occurring biological agents used to kill pests by causing specific biological effects rather than by inducing chemical poisoning.” https://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides https://ec.europa.eu/food/plants/pesticides/sustainable-use-pesticides/farm-fork-targets-progress_en SECTION 1 BIOPESTICIDES
  • 32. BIOPESTICIDES OTHER TERMS BIOPROTECTANTS have their origin in nature and should cause no harm to humans and have minimal impact in the environment. Bioprotectants include, in particular, macro- organisms (Invertebrate Biocontrol Agents) and plant protection products containing micro-organisms, semiochemicals (chemical mediators such as pheromones and kairomones), and Natural Substances of plant, animal or mineral origin. The IBMA’s defines Natural Substances as: “Substances that consist of one or more components that originate from nature, including but not limited to: plants, algae/micro algae, animals, minerals, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, viruses, viroids and mycoplasmas. They can either be sourced from nature or are nature identical if synthetized. https://ibma-global.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/ibmadefinitionleafletweb.pdf SECTION 1 BIOPESTICIDES
  • 33. CATEGORIES OF BIOPESTICIDES BIOPESTICIDES ARE CLASSIFIED IN THREE MAJOR CLASSES: BIOCHEMICAL PESTICIDES MICROBIAL BIOPESTICIDES PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPs) Biochemical pesticides are naturally occurring products that are used to control pests through nontoxic mechanisms. 1.- Plant extracts/Oils 2.-Semiochemicals (Pheromones) 3.- Natural Insect Growth regulators 4.- Others like some Salts, minerals, organic acids. Microbial Pesticides. contain microorganisms: 1.- Bacteria 2.- Fungi 3.- Actinomycetes 4.- Protozoa 5.- Nematodes 6.- Insect-Viruses Plant-Incorporated Protectants are Pesticidal substances produced by Plants that contain genetic material added to the plant often through Genetic engineering. 1.- Insect killing Proteins. 2.- Virus resistant coats. This is most a matter of EPA- regulation on the genetic material. Because those are not really Biopesticides. SECTION 1 BIOPESTICIDES
  • 34. CATEGORIES OF BIOPESTICIDES https://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides https://ec.europa.eu/food/plants/pesticides/sustainable-use-pesticides/farm-fork-targets-progress_en SECTION 1 BIOPESTICIDES