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This document provides an overview of basics of electrical engineering including AC and DC meters and Kirchhoff's Laws. It discusses various types of meters such as PMMC, moving iron, electrodynamometer, electrostatic, and thermocouple meters. It also explains the working principles of DC and AC meters, DC and AC voltmeters, and Wheatstone bridge circuit. Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws are introduced along with examples of their applications in circuit analysis. Resistance and its dependence on various factors are also covered.

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Ammeter

This report discusses the features and applications of ammeters. An ammeter is used to measure electric current through a circuit by connecting it in series. There are several types of ammeters including moving-coil, electrodynamic, moving-iron, hot wire, integrating, and pico ammeters. Ammeters have low resistance and are used to measure current in various applications.

Presentation on Ohm's Law

This document discusses Ohm's Law and its history. It provides:
1. A summary of Georg Ohm's discovery and definition of the fundamental relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in the early 19th century.
2. An overview of Ohm's experimental setup and the mathematical equation he derived from his experiments, which later became known as Ohm's Law.
3. Some examples of how Ohm's Law is applied in electric circuits and devices like DC power supplies, electric heaters, mobile phone chargers, and alternators.

Voltmeter

A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure voltage in an electrical circuit. It can measure alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) between two points. There are two main types - analog voltmeters display readings on a scale, while digital voltmeters show readings numerically on an LCD or LED display. Voltmeters work based on Ohm's law, measuring the potential difference in volts across a circuit when connected to two points between which a voltage appears.

AC & DC

Electric current is the flow of electric charge through a conducting material. It is measured in amperes and defined as the rate of flow of positive charge from high to low electric potential. Resistance is a material property that impedes current flow and depends on resistivity, area, and length. Ohm's law states that current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. Direct current flows in one direction from positive to negative, while alternating current periodically reverses direction.

ppt Ohm's law

1) Ohm's Law states that the current through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage applied across it. It is represented by the equation V=IR, where V is the voltage, I is the current, and R is the resistance.
2) In a series circuit, the current is the same through all components as there is only one path for current to flow. The total resistance is the sum of the individual resistances.
3) In a parallel circuit, the voltage is the same across all branches as there are multiple paths for current to flow forming closed loops. The total resistance is lower than any single resistance.

Voltmeter

A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure voltage between two points in a circuit. Analog voltmeters use a moving coil and pointer to display voltage proportionally, while digital voltmeters (DVM) use an analog-to-digital converter to provide a numeric readout. Before DVMs, potentiometers were commonly used to measure voltage by balancing the voltage drop across a known resistor against an unknown voltage. Potentiometers work on the principle that voltage drop is proportional to distance in a uniform wire.

Ac fundamentals

AC fundamentals, waveforms, phasors concept of resistance, reactance, simple series circuits, three phase power, star-delta connections

Magnetic circuits

This document discusses magnetic circuits and electromagnetic induction. It defines key terms like magnetic flux, magnetomotive force, reluctance, self-inductance, and mutual inductance. Faraday's laws of induction state that an electromotive force (EMF) is induced in a coil when the magnetic flux through the coil changes. Lenz's law specifies that the induced EMF will oppose the change that created it. Magnetic circuits can be modeled similarly to electric circuits, with magnetomotive force, magnetic flux, and reluctance analogous to voltage, current, and resistance.

Ammeter

This report discusses the features and applications of ammeters. An ammeter is used to measure electric current through a circuit by connecting it in series. There are several types of ammeters including moving-coil, electrodynamic, moving-iron, hot wire, integrating, and pico ammeters. Ammeters have low resistance and are used to measure current in various applications.

Presentation on Ohm's Law

This document discusses Ohm's Law and its history. It provides:
1. A summary of Georg Ohm's discovery and definition of the fundamental relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in the early 19th century.
2. An overview of Ohm's experimental setup and the mathematical equation he derived from his experiments, which later became known as Ohm's Law.
3. Some examples of how Ohm's Law is applied in electric circuits and devices like DC power supplies, electric heaters, mobile phone chargers, and alternators.

Voltmeter

A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure voltage in an electrical circuit. It can measure alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) between two points. There are two main types - analog voltmeters display readings on a scale, while digital voltmeters show readings numerically on an LCD or LED display. Voltmeters work based on Ohm's law, measuring the potential difference in volts across a circuit when connected to two points between which a voltage appears.

AC & DC

Electric current is the flow of electric charge through a conducting material. It is measured in amperes and defined as the rate of flow of positive charge from high to low electric potential. Resistance is a material property that impedes current flow and depends on resistivity, area, and length. Ohm's law states that current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. Direct current flows in one direction from positive to negative, while alternating current periodically reverses direction.

ppt Ohm's law

1) Ohm's Law states that the current through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage applied across it. It is represented by the equation V=IR, where V is the voltage, I is the current, and R is the resistance.
2) In a series circuit, the current is the same through all components as there is only one path for current to flow. The total resistance is the sum of the individual resistances.
3) In a parallel circuit, the voltage is the same across all branches as there are multiple paths for current to flow forming closed loops. The total resistance is lower than any single resistance.

Voltmeter

A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure voltage between two points in a circuit. Analog voltmeters use a moving coil and pointer to display voltage proportionally, while digital voltmeters (DVM) use an analog-to-digital converter to provide a numeric readout. Before DVMs, potentiometers were commonly used to measure voltage by balancing the voltage drop across a known resistor against an unknown voltage. Potentiometers work on the principle that voltage drop is proportional to distance in a uniform wire.

Ac fundamentals

AC fundamentals, waveforms, phasors concept of resistance, reactance, simple series circuits, three phase power, star-delta connections

Magnetic circuits

This document discusses magnetic circuits and electromagnetic induction. It defines key terms like magnetic flux, magnetomotive force, reluctance, self-inductance, and mutual inductance. Faraday's laws of induction state that an electromotive force (EMF) is induced in a coil when the magnetic flux through the coil changes. Lenz's law specifies that the induced EMF will oppose the change that created it. Magnetic circuits can be modeled similarly to electric circuits, with magnetomotive force, magnetic flux, and reluctance analogous to voltage, current, and resistance.

Alternating Current and Direct Current

This document discusses alternating current (AC) and how it is generated, transmitted, and used. It explains that in an AC generator, the direction of the output current reverses each time the coil passes the vertical position. Transformers are used to increase or decrease AC voltages by using two coils with a different number of turns. Common devices like homes, offices, and large appliances use AC power from the electric grid, while devices like flashlights and laptops run on direct current from batteries.

Diode

Diodes are semiconductor components that allow current to flow in only one direction. They have two terminals called the anode and cathode. Current can flow from the anode to the cathode but not in the reverse direction. When a forward bias is applied, the depletion region collapses and current can flow through the diode. When a reverse bias is applied, the depletion region expands and blocks current flow. Diodes are used in applications such as rectifiers, reverse current protection, logic gates, and voltage spike suppression.

Rectifier and Filter circuits (chapter14)

The three types of rectifiers in just 18 slides. Learn and enjoy the concepts. This PowerPoint presentation not only tells about the working and principles of rectifiers but also determines the disadvantages and advantages of different rectifiers. This PowerPoint presentation also has circuit diagrams that suit your necessities. This PPT can be written as an answer for a long type of question too.

Diode ,its types & its Application

1. The document discusses diodes, their structure and types including PN junction diode, LED, photodiode, and Zener diode.
2. It explains how diodes allow current to flow in one direction during forward bias when positive voltage is applied to the p-type side, and restricts current in reverse bias.
3. Applications of diodes discussed include different types of rectifiers (half wave, full wave, bridge) which convert AC to DC, and clippers which shape input waveforms.

Ohmmeter

An ohmmeter measures resistance by using an internal voltage source to create a current through the resistance being measured and a meter movement. The meter indicates the resistance reading based on the current. An analog ohmmeter's scale runs from 0 ohms at one end to infinity at the other end, and its half-scale reading is equal to the internal resistance of the meter. It is important to remove a resistor from its circuit before measuring it with an ohmmeter to avoid an inaccurate reading.

Transistor

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CAPACITANCE

This document defines and explains capacitance and capacitors. It discusses that capacitance is the ability of a system to store electric charge, and is measured in Farads. A capacitor is made of two conductive plates separated by a dielectric material. The capacitance of a capacitor depends on the plate area, distance between plates, and dielectric material. Capacitors are used to temporarily store electric energy and have various applications in electronics.

Ac meters-part-1

This document discusses using a d'Arsonval meter movement to measure alternating current (AC) by adding a diode rectifier. A half-wave rectifier converts the AC waveform into a pulsating DC signal, allowing the meter to respond. However, the sensitivity is reduced to approximately 45% compared to DC measurement due to only measuring the positive half of the AC cycle. Multiplier resistors can be adjusted to restore full-scale deflection at the original voltage range when measuring AC instead of DC.

Transistor , NPN & PNP Transistor

A transistor is a small electronic device that controls the flow of electric current. It acts like a switch that can open and close many times per second. There are two main types of transistors - NPN and PNP - which differ in how they allow or block the flow of electric current between three terminals: the base, collector, and emitter. The base terminal controls the flow of current between the collector and emitter terminals.

Rectifier

A rectifier converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). There are single-phase and multi-phase rectifiers. Single-phase rectifiers include half-wave and full-wave circuits. Full-wave rectifiers use either a center-tap transformer or a bridge configuration to produce twice as many output pulses as a half-wave rectifier. Multi-phase rectifiers like three-phase circuits have even less ripple and higher efficiency due to utilizing all phases of input. Three-phase rectifiers can be half-wave or full-wave designs using three or six diodes respectively.

basic electronics

The document provides an overview of basic electrical and electronics concepts and components. It begins with definitions of key terms like electricity, voltage, current and atomic structure. It then explains components like resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors and how they work. Different circuit applications using these components are discussed, including rectifiers, amplifiers and oscillators. The document serves as training material for an introductory workshop on circuit design and analysis.

Ammeter and voltmeter

Ammeter is a low resistance galvanometer
It is used to measure the current in a circuit in amperes
Galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter by using a low resistance wire in parallel with the galvanometer
the resistance of the wire depends upon the range of the ammeter
As shunt resistance is small the combined resistance of the galvanometer & the shunt is very low hence the ammeter has much lower resistance than galvanometer
An ideal ammeter has zero resistance
It is the most common instrument used to measure voltage
It measure either AC or DC voltage
It is a measure of the voltage between two points of an electrical current

Theory of AC and DC Meter Testing

Take a look at the history of AC and DC power distributions, the differences between the two, and usage today.

Digital multimeter

The digital multimeter is a versatile instrument that contains three different meters - a voltmeter to measure voltage, an ammeter to measure current, and an ohmmeter to measure resistance. It has a digital readout display and a function switch dial below to select the meter's function, such as voltage, current, or resistance. There are eight functions on the dial including off, AC and DC voltage, resistance, and current. The document provides instructions for using the different functions to measure voltage, resistance, and current, including selecting the appropriate range on the function dial based on the expected measurement value.

Electrical Measurement & Instruments

Electrical and electronic measuring equipment. Ammeter. Capacitance meter. Distortionmeter. Electricity meter. Frequency counter. Galvanometer. LCR meter. Microwave power meter.

ohm's law

This document summarizes key concepts from Ohm's law, Gauss' law, and Faraday's law. It begins with an introduction to Ohm's law, relating current, voltage, and resistance. It then discusses Gauss' law and its applications to point charges and charge distributions. Finally, it covers Faraday's law, explaining magnetic flux, Lenz's law, and how changing magnetic flux induces an electromotive force. Key equations for each law are also provided.

Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation

This course is electronics based course dealing with measurements and instrumentation designed for students in Physics Electronics, Electrical and Electronics Engineering and allied disciplines. It is a theory course based on the use of electrical and electronics instruments for measurements. The course deals with topics such as Principle of measurements, Errors, Accuracy, Units of measurements and electrical standards, , introduction to the design of electronic equipment’s for temperature, pressure, level, flow measurement, speed etc

DIGITAL MULTIMETER PPT

A multimeter is a laboratory instrument that can measure AC/DC voltages, currents, and resistance with a digital display. It has three main parts: a display, a selection knob to choose the measurement function, and ports to connect probes. To measure voltage, the probes are connected to the circuit and the knob is set to the voltage setting. To measure resistance, the knob is set to the resistance setting and the probes are connected across a resistor. Multimeters provide accurate digital readings and can measure several circuit parameters with one device.

Capacitor

Capacitors are electrical components that can store electric charge. They consist of two conductors separated by an insulator. The amount of charge a capacitor can store depends on its capacitance, which is determined by the size, number, and distance between the conductors and the dielectric material between them. When voltage is applied across a capacitor's plates, electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite polarity build up on each plate. Capacitors are used widely in electrical circuits to filter signals or store energy. They can be connected in series or parallel configurations, which affects how voltage and charge are distributed across the capacitors.

Ohm's Law

1. Ohm's law defines the linear relationship between voltage and current in a circuit, where the resistor's resistance and voltage drop determine the current flow through the resistor.
2. The resistor's current is equal to the voltage divided by the resistance according to the equation I=V/R, where I is current, V is voltage, and R is resistance.
3. Ohm's law can also be used to calculate voltage or resistance when two variables are known, as shown in the equations V=IR and R=V/I.

2 dc meter

Here are the key details about the voltmeter and circuit:
- Voltmeter has sensitivities of 20 kΩ/V
- It has ranges of 5 V, 10 V, and 50 V
- It is connected across resistor RA in the circuit
The question is asking to calculate:
1) The voltage reading on the 5 V range
2) The voltage reading on the 10 V range
3) The voltage reading on the 50 V range
4) The percentage loading error for each reading
Given these details, the appropriate calculations using the voltmeter loading effects equations can be done to solve the problem.

PMMC instruments, Galvanometer, DC Voltmeter, DC Ammeter

The Presentation covers, PMMC instrument construction and working, Galvanometer, DC ammeter, DC voltmeter, series ohm meter,

Alternating Current and Direct Current

This document discusses alternating current (AC) and how it is generated, transmitted, and used. It explains that in an AC generator, the direction of the output current reverses each time the coil passes the vertical position. Transformers are used to increase or decrease AC voltages by using two coils with a different number of turns. Common devices like homes, offices, and large appliances use AC power from the electric grid, while devices like flashlights and laptops run on direct current from batteries.

Diode

Diodes are semiconductor components that allow current to flow in only one direction. They have two terminals called the anode and cathode. Current can flow from the anode to the cathode but not in the reverse direction. When a forward bias is applied, the depletion region collapses and current can flow through the diode. When a reverse bias is applied, the depletion region expands and blocks current flow. Diodes are used in applications such as rectifiers, reverse current protection, logic gates, and voltage spike suppression.

Rectifier and Filter circuits (chapter14)

The three types of rectifiers in just 18 slides. Learn and enjoy the concepts. This PowerPoint presentation not only tells about the working and principles of rectifiers but also determines the disadvantages and advantages of different rectifiers. This PowerPoint presentation also has circuit diagrams that suit your necessities. This PPT can be written as an answer for a long type of question too.

Diode ,its types & its Application

1. The document discusses diodes, their structure and types including PN junction diode, LED, photodiode, and Zener diode.
2. It explains how diodes allow current to flow in one direction during forward bias when positive voltage is applied to the p-type side, and restricts current in reverse bias.
3. Applications of diodes discussed include different types of rectifiers (half wave, full wave, bridge) which convert AC to DC, and clippers which shape input waveforms.

Ohmmeter

An ohmmeter measures resistance by using an internal voltage source to create a current through the resistance being measured and a meter movement. The meter indicates the resistance reading based on the current. An analog ohmmeter's scale runs from 0 ohms at one end to infinity at the other end, and its half-scale reading is equal to the internal resistance of the meter. It is important to remove a resistor from its circuit before measuring it with an ohmmeter to avoid an inaccurate reading.

Transistor

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CAPACITANCE

This document defines and explains capacitance and capacitors. It discusses that capacitance is the ability of a system to store electric charge, and is measured in Farads. A capacitor is made of two conductive plates separated by a dielectric material. The capacitance of a capacitor depends on the plate area, distance between plates, and dielectric material. Capacitors are used to temporarily store electric energy and have various applications in electronics.

Ac meters-part-1

This document discusses using a d'Arsonval meter movement to measure alternating current (AC) by adding a diode rectifier. A half-wave rectifier converts the AC waveform into a pulsating DC signal, allowing the meter to respond. However, the sensitivity is reduced to approximately 45% compared to DC measurement due to only measuring the positive half of the AC cycle. Multiplier resistors can be adjusted to restore full-scale deflection at the original voltage range when measuring AC instead of DC.

Transistor , NPN & PNP Transistor

A transistor is a small electronic device that controls the flow of electric current. It acts like a switch that can open and close many times per second. There are two main types of transistors - NPN and PNP - which differ in how they allow or block the flow of electric current between three terminals: the base, collector, and emitter. The base terminal controls the flow of current between the collector and emitter terminals.

Rectifier

A rectifier converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). There are single-phase and multi-phase rectifiers. Single-phase rectifiers include half-wave and full-wave circuits. Full-wave rectifiers use either a center-tap transformer or a bridge configuration to produce twice as many output pulses as a half-wave rectifier. Multi-phase rectifiers like three-phase circuits have even less ripple and higher efficiency due to utilizing all phases of input. Three-phase rectifiers can be half-wave or full-wave designs using three or six diodes respectively.

basic electronics

The document provides an overview of basic electrical and electronics concepts and components. It begins with definitions of key terms like electricity, voltage, current and atomic structure. It then explains components like resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors and how they work. Different circuit applications using these components are discussed, including rectifiers, amplifiers and oscillators. The document serves as training material for an introductory workshop on circuit design and analysis.

Ammeter and voltmeter

Ammeter is a low resistance galvanometer
It is used to measure the current in a circuit in amperes
Galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter by using a low resistance wire in parallel with the galvanometer
the resistance of the wire depends upon the range of the ammeter
As shunt resistance is small the combined resistance of the galvanometer & the shunt is very low hence the ammeter has much lower resistance than galvanometer
An ideal ammeter has zero resistance
It is the most common instrument used to measure voltage
It measure either AC or DC voltage
It is a measure of the voltage between two points of an electrical current

Theory of AC and DC Meter Testing

Take a look at the history of AC and DC power distributions, the differences between the two, and usage today.

Digital multimeter

The digital multimeter is a versatile instrument that contains three different meters - a voltmeter to measure voltage, an ammeter to measure current, and an ohmmeter to measure resistance. It has a digital readout display and a function switch dial below to select the meter's function, such as voltage, current, or resistance. There are eight functions on the dial including off, AC and DC voltage, resistance, and current. The document provides instructions for using the different functions to measure voltage, resistance, and current, including selecting the appropriate range on the function dial based on the expected measurement value.

Electrical Measurement & Instruments

Electrical and electronic measuring equipment. Ammeter. Capacitance meter. Distortionmeter. Electricity meter. Frequency counter. Galvanometer. LCR meter. Microwave power meter.

ohm's law

This document summarizes key concepts from Ohm's law, Gauss' law, and Faraday's law. It begins with an introduction to Ohm's law, relating current, voltage, and resistance. It then discusses Gauss' law and its applications to point charges and charge distributions. Finally, it covers Faraday's law, explaining magnetic flux, Lenz's law, and how changing magnetic flux induces an electromotive force. Key equations for each law are also provided.

Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation

This course is electronics based course dealing with measurements and instrumentation designed for students in Physics Electronics, Electrical and Electronics Engineering and allied disciplines. It is a theory course based on the use of electrical and electronics instruments for measurements. The course deals with topics such as Principle of measurements, Errors, Accuracy, Units of measurements and electrical standards, , introduction to the design of electronic equipment’s for temperature, pressure, level, flow measurement, speed etc

DIGITAL MULTIMETER PPT

A multimeter is a laboratory instrument that can measure AC/DC voltages, currents, and resistance with a digital display. It has three main parts: a display, a selection knob to choose the measurement function, and ports to connect probes. To measure voltage, the probes are connected to the circuit and the knob is set to the voltage setting. To measure resistance, the knob is set to the resistance setting and the probes are connected across a resistor. Multimeters provide accurate digital readings and can measure several circuit parameters with one device.

Capacitor

Capacitors are electrical components that can store electric charge. They consist of two conductors separated by an insulator. The amount of charge a capacitor can store depends on its capacitance, which is determined by the size, number, and distance between the conductors and the dielectric material between them. When voltage is applied across a capacitor's plates, electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite polarity build up on each plate. Capacitors are used widely in electrical circuits to filter signals or store energy. They can be connected in series or parallel configurations, which affects how voltage and charge are distributed across the capacitors.

Ohm's Law

1. Ohm's law defines the linear relationship between voltage and current in a circuit, where the resistor's resistance and voltage drop determine the current flow through the resistor.
2. The resistor's current is equal to the voltage divided by the resistance according to the equation I=V/R, where I is current, V is voltage, and R is resistance.
3. Ohm's law can also be used to calculate voltage or resistance when two variables are known, as shown in the equations V=IR and R=V/I.

Alternating Current and Direct Current

Alternating Current and Direct Current

Diode

Diode

Rectifier and Filter circuits (chapter14)

Rectifier and Filter circuits (chapter14)

Diode ,its types & its Application

Diode ,its types & its Application

Ohmmeter

Ohmmeter

Transistor

Transistor

CAPACITANCE

CAPACITANCE

Ac meters-part-1

Ac meters-part-1

Transistor , NPN & PNP Transistor

Transistor , NPN & PNP Transistor

Rectifier

Rectifier

basic electronics

basic electronics

Ammeter and voltmeter

Ammeter and voltmeter

Theory of AC and DC Meter Testing

Theory of AC and DC Meter Testing

Digital multimeter

Digital multimeter

Electrical Measurement & Instruments

Electrical Measurement & Instruments

ohm's law

ohm's law

Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation

Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation

DIGITAL MULTIMETER PPT

DIGITAL MULTIMETER PPT

Capacitor

Capacitor

Ohm's Law

Ohm's Law

2 dc meter

Here are the key details about the voltmeter and circuit:
- Voltmeter has sensitivities of 20 kΩ/V
- It has ranges of 5 V, 10 V, and 50 V
- It is connected across resistor RA in the circuit
The question is asking to calculate:
1) The voltage reading on the 5 V range
2) The voltage reading on the 10 V range
3) The voltage reading on the 50 V range
4) The percentage loading error for each reading
Given these details, the appropriate calculations using the voltmeter loading effects equations can be done to solve the problem.

PMMC instruments, Galvanometer, DC Voltmeter, DC Ammeter

The Presentation covers, PMMC instrument construction and working, Galvanometer, DC ammeter, DC voltmeter, series ohm meter,

Pmmc instrument

The document describes the construction and working of a permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC) instrument. It has a rectangular coil wound with copper wire that is mounted on a pivoted aluminum former and moves freely in the field of a permanent magnet. The coil is controlled by springs and damped using eddy currents produced in an aluminum cylinder. Current passing through the coil experiences an unbalanced magnetic field that produces a torque proportional to the current.

Measuring instruments ppt

This presentation by Hooria Shahzad is about measuring instruments in which we study metre rule, measuring tape, vernier callipers and screw gauge ; construction of vernier callipers and screw gauge.

WORKING OF PMMC INSTRUMENTS

This document describes the construction and working of a permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC) instrument. It consists of a fixed magnet and a movable coil mounted on a frame. Current passing through the coil experiences a torque due to the magnetic field, causing it to deflect. The coil is connected to a pointer and scale to display measurements. PMMC instruments can be used as ammeters or voltmeters and have advantages like high accuracy, uniform scale, and efficient damping. Their main disadvantage is that they can only be used for DC circuits.

type of ohmmeter

An ohmmeter is used to measure resistance and check continuity in electrical circuits. There are two main types - series and shunt. A series ohmmeter passes current through the internal battery and unknown resistor in series, while a shunt ohmmeter connects the meter movement and unknown resistor in parallel. Ohmmeters also differ in their display - analog ohmmeters show a continuous analog reading while digital ohmmeters provide an exact digital resistance value. Common applications include determining approximate resistances, sorting resistors, and checking diodes.

Bridge circuits

The document discusses different types of bridge circuits. It describes the Wheatstone bridge, which converts variations in resistance into variations in voltage. When balanced, the output voltage is zero, but any change in a resistive element results in an unbalanced condition and a non-zero output voltage. It also discusses AC bridges for detecting changes in inductance and capacitance. Examples are provided for calculating voltage offset in a Wheatstone bridge and determining constants of an arm in an AC bridge. Finally, it briefly mentions comparison bridges for measuring unknown capacitance or inductance compared to known values, and the Maxwell bridge for measuring inductance in terms of a known capacitance.

Types of ammeter

This document discusses different types of ammeters. It begins with an introduction on what an ammeter is and provides a brief history on their development. It then outlines the main types of ammeters which include moving-coil ammeters, electrodynamic ammeters, moving-iron ammeters, hot-wire ammeters, digital ammeters, and integrating ammeters. Each type is then described in 1-2 sentences on their basic operating mechanism.

Measuring instruments

1. Indicating instruments measure electrical quantities by deflecting a pointer on a calibrated scale. They use a deflection system to produce a force proportional to the measured value, a control system to limit deflection, and a damping system to prevent oscillations.
2. Permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC) instruments have a coil mounted between magnet poles that deflects proportional to current. They are used as ammeters, voltmeters, and galvanometers. As an ammeter, the coil is connected across a low resistance shunt; as a voltmeter, it is connected in series with a high resistance.
3. Moving iron instruments can measure AC using an iron core acted on by a coil

Electronic DC Voltmeter using PMMC

Transistor DC voltmeter circuits, Emitter follower DC voltmeter, Op-Amp voltage follower DC Voltmeter, Amplifier based DC voltmeter for low voltage measurement, Op-Amp amplifier DC Voltmeter

Voltmeter & Transformers: Types and Applications.

This presentation gives an insight into the various types of voltmeters and transformers that exist. The are both electronic measuring instruments. All the types of voltmeters and transformers have been discussed alogwith numerical examples and their solutions.

Nuclear power plants

The document discusses nuclear fuels used in nuclear power plants such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239, how nuclear fission produces energy through a self-sustaining chain reaction, and the key components of nuclear reactors including the reactor core, control rods, moderator, coolant, and safety measures. It also covers different types of nuclear reactors like pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, as well as waste disposal and the future prospects of nuclear power.

Bridge ckt eim

Bridge circuits operate by comparing a known value to an unknown value to determine the unknown. The document discusses several types of bridge circuits including Wheatstone bridges, Kelvin double bridges, mega ohm bridges, and Schering bridges. The Wheatstone bridge is used to measure low resistances from 1 ohm to 10 megohms by balancing the bridge. The Kelvin double bridge eliminates errors from lead resistance and is used to measure very low resistances from 1 ohm to 0.00001 ohms. The mega ohm bridge measures very high resistances from 0.1 megohms to 10,000 megohms. The Schering bridge measures capacitance and dissipation factor by balancing the bridge circuit.

Combined operation of power plants

Combined operation of power plants, steam and gas, steam and diesel, nuclear and steam, base load plants, peak load plants.

on a wheston brige

The Wheatstone Bridge was invented in 1833 to measure electrical resistance using a ratio of three known resistors and one unknown resistor. By balancing the bridge, the unknown resistance can be calculated mathematically. It is widely used to this day to monitor sensors and locate breaks in power lines due to its simple, inexpensive, and accurate design.

Indicating instruments

This document discusses electrical and electronics measurements. It describes the process of measurement by comparing unknown values to known standards. It then discusses key characteristics of instruments used for measurement, including calibration, accuracy, precision, repeatability, reproducibility, drift, span, sensitivity, resolution, and dead zone. The document also covers types of errors in measurement, including static, mistakes, systematic, and random errors. It lists sources of error and types of instruments, including absolute, secondary, indicating, recording, and integrating instruments. Finally, it provides details on permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC) and moving iron (MI) types of indicating instruments.

Hydro electric power plant

This document provides an overview of hydroelectric power and hydroelectric power plants. It discusses:
1. Hydroelectric power harnesses the kinetic energy of flowing water and is considered a renewable energy source.
2. The essential elements of a hydroelectric power plant include a catchment area, reservoir, dam, spillways, conduits, surge tanks, prime movers, draft tubes, and powerhouse.
3. Dams come in various types including earth/fill dams, rockfill dams, masonry dams (gravity, buttress, arch dams), and timber dams. Site selection factors and each dam type are described.

Galvanometer,wheatstone bridge,ohm law,

Meter bridge Post office box Potentiometer Carey Foster's bridge Callendar bridge Griffith's bridge,EXPRESSION FOR BALANCED BRIDGE

WHEATSTONE BRIDGE CIRCUIT DESIGN AND SIMULATION FOR TEMPERATURE SENSOR

WHEATSTONE BRIDGE CIRCUIT DESIGN AND SIMULATION FOR TEMPERATURE SENSORTechnische Universität Chemnitz

Temperature plays an important role in many industries both electrical & non-electrical for analyzing properties and behavior of various objects.
Industrial Instrumentations.
Hot Wire Anemometers.
Lab Quality Measurements.
Introduction to measuring instruments (ALIV - Bangladesh)

This document provides an introduction to various types of measuring instruments, including ammeters, voltmeters, multimeters, oscilloscopes, wattmeters, tachometers, signal generators, and LCR meters. Ammeters measure electrical current, voltmeters measure potential difference, and multimeters can measure voltage, current, and resistance. Oscilloscopes observe exact wave shapes, wattmeters measure electrical power, and tachometers measure rotational speed. Signal generators create electronic signals, and LCR meters measure inductance, capacitance, and resistance of components.

2 dc meter

2 dc meter

PMMC instruments, Galvanometer, DC Voltmeter, DC Ammeter

PMMC instruments, Galvanometer, DC Voltmeter, DC Ammeter

Pmmc instrument

Pmmc instrument

Measuring instruments ppt

Measuring instruments ppt

WORKING OF PMMC INSTRUMENTS

WORKING OF PMMC INSTRUMENTS

type of ohmmeter

type of ohmmeter

Bridge circuits

Bridge circuits

Types of ammeter

Types of ammeter

Measuring instruments

Measuring instruments

Electronic DC Voltmeter using PMMC

Electronic DC Voltmeter using PMMC

Voltmeter & Transformers: Types and Applications.

Voltmeter & Transformers: Types and Applications.

Nuclear power plants

Nuclear power plants

Bridge ckt eim

Bridge ckt eim

Combined operation of power plants

Combined operation of power plants

on a wheston brige

on a wheston brige

Indicating instruments

Indicating instruments

Hydro electric power plant

Hydro electric power plant

Galvanometer,wheatstone bridge,ohm law,

Galvanometer,wheatstone bridge,ohm law,

WHEATSTONE BRIDGE CIRCUIT DESIGN AND SIMULATION FOR TEMPERATURE SENSOR

WHEATSTONE BRIDGE CIRCUIT DESIGN AND SIMULATION FOR TEMPERATURE SENSOR

Introduction to measuring instruments (ALIV - Bangladesh)

Introduction to measuring instruments (ALIV - Bangladesh)

BEDEC.pptx

Here are the steps to solve this problem:
1. Apply KVL around the loop containing V1, R1, and R2:
V1 - I1R1 - I1R2 = 0
2. Apply Ohm's law at R1 and R2 to substitute for I1:
V1 - (V1/R1)R1 - (V1/R1)R2 = 0
3. Simplify the equation:
V1 - V1 - V1(R2/R1) = 0
4. Solve for V1:
V1(1 + R2/R1) = 0
V1 = 0

Ac circuits

Okay, let's think through this step-by-step:
* When just the resistor is connected, power is 1.000 W
* When the capacitor is added, power is 0.500 W
* When the inductor is added (without the capacitor), power is 0.250 W
* Power delivered is proportional to the square of the current. As impedance increases, current decreases.
* With just the resistor, impedance is lowest so current is highest and power is 1.000 W
* Adding the capacitor increases impedance, so current decreases and power is 0.500 W
* Adding the inductor further increases impedance, so current decreases more and power is 0.250 W

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Here are the key steps to solve this problem:
1) Draw the circuit diagram showing R, L, C in series with the AC voltage source.
2) Write the impedance equation:
Z = √(R2 + (XL - XC)2)
3) Calculate the individual reactances:
XL = 2πfL
XC = 1/(2πfC)
4) Calculate the net reactance:
Xnet = XL - XC
5) Calculate the impedance Z by plugging values into the impedance equation.
6) Use Ohm's law to calculate the current:
Irms = Vrms/Z

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Okay, let's think through this step-by-step:
* When just the resistor is connected, power is 1.000 W
* When the capacitor is added, power is 0.500 W
* When the inductor is added (without the capacitor), power is 0.250 W
* Power delivered depends on the impedance of the circuit. Adding more reactive elements (capacitor, inductor) increases the total impedance.
* When both the capacitor and inductor are added, they will combine to further increase the total impedance compared to having just one of them.
* Using the power formula P = V2/Z, as Z (impedance) increases, power delivered decreases.

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Okay, let's think through this step-by-step:
* When just the resistor is connected, power is 1.000 W
* When the capacitor is added, power is 0.500 W
* When the inductor is added (without the capacitor), power is 0.250 W
* Power delivered depends on the impedance of the circuit. Adding more reactive elements increases the total impedance.
* With just the resistor, impedance is minimum, so power is maximum.
* With resistor + capacitor, impedance increases, so power decreases to 0.500 W.
* With resistor + inductor, impedance increases further, so power decreases more to 0.250 W

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Okay, let's think through this step-by-step:
* When just the resistor is connected, power is 1.000 W
* When the capacitor is added, power is 0.500 W
* When the inductor is added (without the capacitor), power is 0.250 W
* Power delivered depends on the impedance of the circuit. Adding more reactive elements (capacitor, inductor) increases the total impedance.
* When both the capacitor and inductor are added, they will combine to further increase the total impedance compared to having just one of them.
* Based on the trend so far, we can infer that adding both reactive elements will deliver even less power than having just one.

Current Electricity and Effects of Current

Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity,
Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors,
parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric
current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R

Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering.pptx

This document provides an overview of the topics covered in the Basic Electrical Engineering course at Rajeev Gandhi Memorial College of Engineering & Technology. The syllabus includes DC and AC circuits. Key concepts covered are electrical circuit elements like resistors, inductors and capacitors. Kirchhoff's laws for analyzing circuits are also introduced. The document defines various electrical terms and provides expressions for power, energy, resistance and other circuit parameters.

VCE Physics Unit 3: Electronics & Photonics Base notes

This document provides an overview of key concepts in electronics and photonics covered in a VCE Physics Unit 3 topic. It discusses:
- Applying concepts such as current, resistance, voltage and power to electronic circuits including diodes, resistors, thermistors, light dependent resistors, photodiodes and LEDs.
- Calculating effective resistance of parallel and series circuits and voltage dividers.
- Describing energy transfers in opto-electronic devices and information transfer using light intensity modulation and demodulation.
- Designing, analyzing and investigating circuits for specific purposes using specifications for electronic components.
- Analyzing voltage characteristics of amplifiers and identifying safe practices for electrical and photonic equipment.

Mesh and nodal

This document provides information on different electrical concepts including:
- Voltage, current, and resistance definitions.
- Electric power formula using voltage, current, energy, and time.
- Active and passive electronic components and their definitions.
- Ohm's law relating voltage, current, and resistance.
- Current and voltage division rules for circuits with parallel and series resistors.
- Ideal and non-ideal voltage and current sources and their characteristics.
- Examples of calculations using the concepts covered.

ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

1) The document discusses how to generate sinusoidal voltage through rotating a coil in a stationary magnetic field or rotating the magnetic field with a stationary coil based on Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.
2) It provides the mathematical descriptions and formulas for calculating RMS values, average values, phase angle, and form factor of sinusoidal voltages.
3) These concepts are important because RMS values are used to determine the effective value of alternating current, while other metrics like average value and form factor are used in applications involving measuring and comparing AC waveforms.

Ekeeda backlinks

Ekeeda Provides Online Video Lectures, Tutorials & Engineering Courses Available for Top-Tier Universities in India. Lectures from Highly Trained & Experienced Faculty!

Ekeeda - First Year Enginering - Basic Electrical Engineering

The First Year engineering course seems more like an extension of the subjects that students have learned in their 12th class. Subjects like Engineering Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics, are incorporated into the curriculum. Students will learn about some of the engineering subjects in this first year, and these subjects are similar to all the branches. Everyone will learn some basics related to the other streams in their first year. Ekeeda offers Online First Year Engineering Courses for all the Subjects as per the Syllabus.

lecture note AC fundamental LESSON 2.pptx

leture short note

Electricity,.pdf

This document discusses various electrical concepts including static electricity, conductors and insulators, magnetic fields, direct and alternating current, capacitance, resistance, impedance, and skin impedance. Some key points:
- Static electricity is caused by an excess or deficit of electrons on objects and can cause sparks. Conductors readily allow electron flow, insulators do not, and semiconductors have intermediate conductivity.
- A changing magnetic field induces electric current in a conductor. Electromagnets have stronger magnetic fields than normal magnets.
- Direct current flows one way, alternating current oscillates. The volt measures potential difference based on power and current.
- Capacitors store electric charge between conducting plates

Basic Electrical Engineering Module 1 Part 1

This document provides an overview of basic electrical engineering concepts including Ohm's Law, series and parallel circuits, and Kirchhoff's Laws. It defines Ohm's Law as stating that current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. Kirchhoff's Current Law and Voltage Law are introduced as the principles that the algebraic sum of currents at a junction is zero and the algebraic sum of voltages around a closed loop is also zero. An example circuit problem is worked through using these laws to solve for unknown currents.

Electricity1,corrected.pptx

This document summarizes key concepts in electricity and electromagnetism. It discusses static electricity, conductors and insulators, magnetic fields, direct and alternating current, current measurement using galvanometers, electromagnetic flowmeters, heat production from current flow, units like the volt and ampere, electrical burns, diathermy, capacitance and electric charge, and defibrillators. Key points include how rubbing amber produces static electricity, how conductors allow electron flow, how magnetic fields are produced by current flow and changed by ferromagnetic materials, and how alternating current oscillates direction while direct current flows one way. Measurement devices like galvanometers and flowmeters rely on the interaction of electric currents and magnetic fields. Safety concepts regarding

MODULE 1.ppt

This document provides an overview of key concepts in electric circuits including:
- Defining voltage, current, resistance, power and energy.
- Describing DC circuits and stating Ohm's law.
- Explaining series, parallel and combination connections of resistors.
- Describing Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction and Fleming's right hand rule.
- Explaining the working of single loop AC generators and terms related to AC circuits.
- Briefly explaining AC through resistance, inductance and capacitance.

Electric Current

The document discusses electric current and related concepts. It defines current as the flow of electric charge from one place to another, measured in amperes. Current can be direct or alternating. Resistance is a property that weakens current flow and is measured in ohms. Ohm's law states current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. Kirchhoff's laws govern the analysis of electric circuits.

Electric Current

The document discusses electric current and related concepts. It defines current as the flow of electric charge from one place to another, measured in amperes. Current can be direct or alternating. Resistance is a property that weakens current flow and is measured in ohms. Ohm's law states current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. Circuits can have one or more loops and resistors can be connected in series or parallel. Power is the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by a current.

BEDEC.pptx

BEDEC.pptx

Ac circuits

Ac circuits

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Ac circuits 15 april 2013(1)

Current Electricity and Effects of Current

Current Electricity and Effects of Current

Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering.pptx

Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering.pptx

VCE Physics Unit 3: Electronics & Photonics Base notes

VCE Physics Unit 3: Electronics & Photonics Base notes

Mesh and nodal

Mesh and nodal

ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Ekeeda backlinks

Ekeeda backlinks

Ekeeda - First Year Enginering - Basic Electrical Engineering

Ekeeda - First Year Enginering - Basic Electrical Engineering

lecture note AC fundamental LESSON 2.pptx

lecture note AC fundamental LESSON 2.pptx

Electricity,.pdf

Electricity,.pdf

Basic Electrical Engineering Module 1 Part 1

Basic Electrical Engineering Module 1 Part 1

Electricity1,corrected.pptx

Electricity1,corrected.pptx

MODULE 1.ppt

MODULE 1.ppt

Electric Current

Electric Current

Electric Current

Electric Current

The Punjabi Culture

Punjabi Culture, Elements of culture, Hofstede Dimensions, Punjabi Festivals , Punjabi Customs ,Culture's Use of Gender, Punjabi Values and Beliefs, Sikhism, Sikh Symbols

Cogeneration

Cogeneration involves the sequential conversion of fuel into multiple usable energy forms. It can produce both electrical and thermal energy, unlike conventional systems. There are two types of cogeneration systems - inplant power generation and reject heat utilization. Inplant power generation produces steam at a higher temperature than needed for manufacturing to also generate electricity using a turbine generator. Reject heat utilization uses excess steam from a power plant for manufacturing. Topping cycles produce electricity first while bottoming cycles produce heat first. Cogeneration provides benefits like fuel economy, lower capital costs, and protection from power outages. Common technologies are steam turbine, gas turbine, combined cycle, and diesel engine systems.

Gas turbine power plants

The document discusses gas turbine technology. It begins by defining a gas turbine as a machine that delivers mechanical power using a gaseous working fluid. It then discusses the main components of a gas turbine - the compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine. The document covers various gas turbine cycles including open and closed cycles. It also discusses ways to improve gas turbine efficiency such as intercooling, reheating, and regeneration. The document provides an overview of gas turbine applications and operating principles.

Steam power plant 2

The document discusses fluidized bed combustion, which involves suspending solid fuel particles in a gas stream to create a fluid-like mixture that allows for more efficient combustion. It then explains the working of fluidized bed combustion systems and their advantages over conventional combustion, such as lower emissions and the ability to burn fuels with higher ash content. Key components of steam power plants like boilers, turbines, and condensers are also described.

Diesel power plant

Diesel power plants produce electricity in the range of 2 to 50 MW and are commonly used as central power stations and backup generators. They have advantages over steam power plants such as occupying less space and being more efficient for capacities under 150 MW. However, diesel power plants also have higher operating and maintenance costs compared to steam plants. The key components of a diesel power plant include the diesel engine, air intake and exhaust systems, fuel supply system, starting system, lubrication system, and cooling system. Proper operation and maintenance such as regular engine running and filter servicing is required for good diesel power plant performance.

Steam power plant

Steam power plant, thermal power plant, coal handling plant, Ash handling plant, Feeders, Stokers, burners

Electric Motors

This document discusses different types of motors, including DC motors, AC motors, and servo motors. It describes the key components and characteristics of series, shunt, and compound DC motors. It also explains induction motors, synchronous motors, and the differences between squirrel cage and wound rotors. AC motors are divided into synchronous and induction types. Servo motors are described as incorporating a DC motor, gear train, potentiometer, and control circuit to enable precise angular positioning. Common applications of different motor types are also mentioned.

Magnets and magnetism

This document provides an overview of basics of electrical engineering, specifically focusing on magnets and magnetism. It defines different types of magnets including permanent magnets, temporary magnets, and electromagnets. It describes magnetic domains, magnetic dipoles, magnetic fields, flux, and various laws of magnetism including Biot-Savart law, Ampere's law, force law, and Faraday's law. It also discusses applications such as solenoids, transformers, and generators.

Electromagnetic induction

This document provides an overview of basics in electrical engineering including electromagnetic induction, Lenz's law, Ampere's rule, and eddy currents. It was authored by Ms. Nishkam Dhiman, an assistant professor in the electrical engineering department at Chitkara Institute of Engineering & Technology. Key concepts covered include how electromagnetic induction causes current to flow when magnetic flux changes, how to determine the direction of induced current and force using hand rules, and how eddy currents are induced in conductors by changing magnetic fields.

Basics of electrical engineering

This document provides an overview of basics of electrical engineering including wires, cables, types of wires, three core wire, cable structure, cable classification, cable grading, cable termination, cable safety, and electrical joints. It also discusses Ohm's law, electric circuits including series and parallel circuits, and mixed circuits. Key topics covered include that wire thickness must match power needs, common wire types like PVC and their uses, color coding in wiring, cable components, and calculating equivalent resistances in various circuit configurations.

The Punjabi Culture

The Punjabi Culture

Cogeneration

Cogeneration

Gas turbine power plants

Gas turbine power plants

Steam power plant 2

Steam power plant 2

Diesel power plant

Diesel power plant

Steam power plant

Steam power plant

Electric Motors

Electric Motors

Magnets and magnetism

Magnets and magnetism

Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic induction

Basics of electrical engineering

Basics of electrical engineering

বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf

বাংলাদেশের অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা ২০২৪ [Bangladesh Economic Review 2024 Bangla.pdf] কম্পিউটার , ট্যাব ও স্মার্ট ফোন ভার্সন সহ সম্পূর্ণ বাংলা ই-বুক বা pdf বই " সুচিপত্র ...বুকমার্ক মেনু 🔖 ও হাইপার লিংক মেনু 📝👆 যুক্ত ..
আমাদের সবার জন্য খুব খুব গুরুত্বপূর্ণ একটি বই ..বিসিএস, ব্যাংক, ইউনিভার্সিটি ভর্তি ও যে কোন প্রতিযোগিতা মূলক পরীক্ষার জন্য এর খুব ইম্পরট্যান্ট একটি বিষয় ...তাছাড়া বাংলাদেশের সাম্প্রতিক যে কোন ডাটা বা তথ্য এই বইতে পাবেন ...
তাই একজন নাগরিক হিসাবে এই তথ্য গুলো আপনার জানা প্রয়োজন ...।
বিসিএস ও ব্যাংক এর লিখিত পরীক্ষা ...+এছাড়া মাধ্যমিক ও উচ্চমাধ্যমিকের স্টুডেন্টদের জন্য অনেক কাজে আসবে ...

Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx

vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv

Constructing Your Course Container for Effective Communication

Communicating effectively and consistently with students can help them feel at ease during their learning experience and provide the instructor with a communication trail to track the course's progress. This workshop will take you through constructing an engaging course container to facilitate effective communication.

ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...

Denis is a dynamic and results-driven Chief Information Officer (CIO) with a distinguished career spanning information systems analysis and technical project management. With a proven track record of spearheading the design and delivery of cutting-edge Information Management solutions, he has consistently elevated business operations, streamlined reporting functions, and maximized process efficiency.
Certified as an ISO/IEC 27001: Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) Lead Implementer, Data Protection Officer, and Cyber Risks Analyst, Denis brings a heightened focus on data security, privacy, and cyber resilience to every endeavor.
His expertise extends across a diverse spectrum of reporting, database, and web development applications, underpinned by an exceptional grasp of data storage and virtualization technologies. His proficiency in application testing, database administration, and data cleansing ensures seamless execution of complex projects.
What sets Denis apart is his comprehensive understanding of Business and Systems Analysis technologies, honed through involvement in all phases of the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC). From meticulous requirements gathering to precise analysis, innovative design, rigorous development, thorough testing, and successful implementation, he has consistently delivered exceptional results.
Throughout his career, he has taken on multifaceted roles, from leading technical project management teams to owning solutions that drive operational excellence. His conscientious and proactive approach is unwavering, whether he is working independently or collaboratively within a team. His ability to connect with colleagues on a personal level underscores his commitment to fostering a harmonious and productive workplace environment.
Date: May 29, 2024
Tags: Information Security, ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, Artificial Intelligence, GDPR
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Training: ISO/IEC 27001 Information Security Management System - EN | PECB
ISO/IEC 42001 Artificial Intelligence Management System - EN | PECB
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) - Training Courses - EN | PECB
Webinars: https://pecb.com/webinars
Article: https://pecb.com/article
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Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx

Iván Bornacelly, Policy Analyst at the OECD Centre for Skills, OECD, presents at the webinar 'Tackling job market gaps with a skills-first approach' on 12 June 2024

Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf

हिंदी वर्णमाला पीपीटी, hindi alphabet PPT presentation, hindi varnamala PPT, Hindi Varnamala pdf, हिंदी स्वर, हिंदी व्यंजन, sikhiye hindi varnmala, dr. mulla adam ali, hindi language and literature, hindi alphabet with drawing, hindi alphabet pdf, hindi varnamala for childrens, hindi language, hindi varnamala practice for kids, https://www.drmullaadamali.com

Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum

(𝐓𝐋𝐄 𝟏𝟎𝟎) (𝐋𝐞𝐬𝐬𝐨𝐧 𝟏)-𝐏𝐫𝐞𝐥𝐢𝐦𝐬
𝐃𝐢𝐬𝐜𝐮𝐬𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐄𝐏𝐏 𝐂𝐮𝐫𝐫𝐢𝐜𝐮𝐥𝐮𝐦 𝐢𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐏𝐡𝐢𝐥𝐢𝐩𝐩𝐢𝐧𝐞𝐬:
- Understand the goals and objectives of the Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) curriculum, recognizing its importance in fostering practical life skills and values among students. Students will also be able to identify the key components and subjects covered, such as agriculture, home economics, industrial arts, and information and communication technology.
𝐄𝐱𝐩𝐥𝐚𝐢𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐍𝐚𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐒𝐜𝐨𝐩𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐚𝐧 𝐄𝐧𝐭𝐫𝐞𝐩𝐫𝐞𝐧𝐞𝐮𝐫:
-Define entrepreneurship, distinguishing it from general business activities by emphasizing its focus on innovation, risk-taking, and value creation. Students will describe the characteristics and traits of successful entrepreneurs, including their roles and responsibilities, and discuss the broader economic and social impacts of entrepreneurial activities on both local and global scales.

Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx

Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx

BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training

Qualitative research interview training by Professor Katrina Pritchard and Dr Helen Williams

Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx

This is part 1 of my Java Learning Journey. This Contains Custom methods, classes, constructors, packages, multithreading , try- catch block, finally block and more.

Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...

Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh

Bed Making ( Introduction, Purpose, Types, Articles, Scientific principles, N...

Topic : Bed making
Subject : Nursing Foundation

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Revision on Paper 1 - Question 1

writing about opinions about Australia the movie

writing about opinions about Australia the movie

Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf

"Learn about all the ways Walmart supports nonprofit organizations.
You will hear from Liz Willett, the Head of Nonprofits, and hear about what Walmart is doing to help nonprofits, including Walmart Business and Spark Good. Walmart Business+ is a new offer for nonprofits that offers discounts and also streamlines nonprofits order and expense tracking, saving time and money.
The webinar may also give some examples on how nonprofits can best leverage Walmart Business+.
The event will cover the following::
Walmart Business + (https://business.walmart.com/plus) is a new shopping experience for nonprofits, schools, and local business customers that connects an exclusive online shopping experience to stores. Benefits include free delivery and shipping, a 'Spend Analytics” feature, special discounts, deals and tax-exempt shopping.
Special TechSoup offer for a free 180 days membership, and up to $150 in discounts on eligible orders.
Spark Good (walmart.com/sparkgood) is a charitable platform that enables nonprofits to receive donations directly from customers and associates.
Answers about how you can do more with Walmart!"

math operations ued in python and all used

used to math operaions

Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx

Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering
Syllabus
Chapter-1
Introduction to objective, scope and outcome the subject
Chapter 2
Introduction: Scope and Specialization of Civil Engineering, Role of civil Engineer in Society, Impact of infrastructural development on economy of country.
Chapter 3
Surveying: Object Principles & Types of Surveying; Site Plans, Plans & Maps; Scales & Unit of different Measurements.
Linear Measurements: Instruments used. Linear Measurement by Tape, Ranging out Survey Lines and overcoming Obstructions; Measurements on sloping ground; Tape corrections, conventional symbols. Angular Measurements: Instruments used; Introduction to Compass Surveying, Bearings and Longitude & Latitude of a Line, Introduction to total station.
Levelling: Instrument used Object of levelling, Methods of levelling in brief, and Contour maps.
Chapter 4
Buildings: Selection of site for Buildings, Layout of Building Plan, Types of buildings, Plinth area, carpet area, floor space index, Introduction to building byelaws, concept of sun light & ventilation. Components of Buildings & their functions, Basic concept of R.C.C., Introduction to types of foundation
Chapter 5
Transportation: Introduction to Transportation Engineering; Traffic and Road Safety: Types and Characteristics of Various Modes of Transportation; Various Road Traffic Signs, Causes of Accidents and Road Safety Measures.
Chapter 6
Environmental Engineering: Environmental Pollution, Environmental Acts and Regulations, Functional Concepts of Ecology, Basics of Species, Biodiversity, Ecosystem, Hydrological Cycle; Chemical Cycles: Carbon, Nitrogen & Phosphorus; Energy Flow in Ecosystems.
Water Pollution: Water Quality standards, Introduction to Treatment & Disposal of Waste Water. Reuse and Saving of Water, Rain Water Harvesting. Solid Waste Management: Classification of Solid Waste, Collection, Transportation and Disposal of Solid. Recycling of Solid Waste: Energy Recovery, Sanitary Landfill, On-Site Sanitation. Air & Noise Pollution: Primary and Secondary air pollutants, Harmful effects of Air Pollution, Control of Air Pollution. . Noise Pollution Harmful Effects of noise pollution, control of noise pollution, Global warming & Climate Change, Ozone depletion, Greenhouse effect
Text Books:
1. Palancharmy, Basic Civil Engineering, McGraw Hill publishers.
2. Satheesh Gopi, Basic Civil Engineering, Pearson Publishers.
3. Ketki Rangwala Dalal, Essentials of Civil Engineering, Charotar Publishing House.
4. BCP, Surveying volume 1

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- 1. Basics of Electrical Engineering AC and DC meters Kirchhoff's Laws By Ms. Nishkam Dhiman Assistant Professor -EEE Deptt. Chitkara Institute of Engg. & Technology
- 2. Types of instruments used as ammeters and voltmeters PMMC(permanent magnet moving coil) (Only D.C.) Moving Iron Electrodynamometer Electrostatic Thermocouple Induction (only A.C)
- 3. DC Meter PMMC The Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) galvanometer used for dc measurement only. The motor action is produced by the flow of a small current throught a moving coil which is positioned in the field of a permanent magnet The basic moving coil system-D’Arsonval galvonometer
- 5. Deflecting Torque Resulting from the effects of magnetic electrostatic. This torque causes the pointer moves from the zero position
- 6. Deflecting Torque Td = BANI (Nm) B= N= A= I = flux density in Wb/m2 or Tesla (T) number of coils Area cross-section (length (l) x coil diameter (d)m2 ) current flowing through the coil - Ampere
- 7. Damping Torque The torque which makes the pointer to come to a steady position without overshooting. Air friction damping Fluid friction damping Eddy current damping Electromagnetic damping
- 8. DC VOLTMETER The basic d’Arsonval meter can be converted to a dc voltmeter by connecting a multiplier Rs in series with it as shown in Figure . The purpose of the multiplier is to extend the range of the meter and to limit the current through the d’Arsonval meter to the maximum full-scale deflection current.
- 9. Ac Meters AC electromechanical meter movements come in two basic arrangements: those based on DC movement designs, and those engineered specifically for AC use. (measure RMS value) Permanent-magnet moving coil (PMMC) meter movements will not work correctly if directly connected to alternating current because the direction of needle movement will change with each half-cycle of the AC.
- 10. In order to use a DC-style meter movement such as the D'Arsonval design, the alternating current must be rectified into DC. This is most easily accomplished through the use of devices called diodes.
- 11. Moving Iron The simplest design is to use a non magnetized iron vane to move the needle against spring tension, the vane being attracted toward a stationary coil of wire energized by the AC quantity to be measured as in Figure
- 12. AC measurements are often cast in a scale of DC power equivalence, called RMS (Root-Mean-Square) for the sake of meaningful comparisons with DC and with other AC waveforms of varying shape. Meter movements relying on the motion of a mechanical needle (“rectified” D'Arsonval, iron-vane, and electrostatic) all tend to mechanically average the instantaneous values into an overall average value for the waveform. This average value is not necessarily the same as RMS, although many times it is mistaken as such. Average and RMS values rate against each other as such for these three common waveform shapes: (Figure below)
- 13. RMS an Average Values
- 14. Electrodynamometer The working principle of a basic electrodynamometer instrument is same as the PMMC instrument. The only difference in this case is that the permanent magnet is replaced with two fixed coils connected in series. The moving coil is also connected in series with the fixed coils. The two fixed coils are connected to electromagnets in such a manner that they form poles of opposite polarity. As the moving coil carries current through it and is being placed in the field of fixed coils, it experience a force due to which the moving coil rotates.
- 16. Thermocouple Type : One answer is to design the meter movement around the very definition of RMS: the effective heating value of an AC voltage/current as it powers a resistive load. Suppose that the AC source to be measured is connected across a resistor of known value, and the heat output of that resistor is measured with a device like a thermocouple. This would provide a far more direct measurement means of RMS than any conversion factor could, for it will work with ANY waveform shape whatsoever: (Figure below)
- 17. Identification of AC and DC meters DC meters are have uniform Scale where as AC meters are non-uniform Scale. As the force acting on pointer is directly proportional to current in DC and square of the current in AC. In the beginning the graduations are cramped and afterwards ,they go on becoming wider and wider.
- 18. Resistance and Laws of Resistance Electrical resistance may be defined as the basic property of any substance due to which it opposes the flow of electric current through it The laws of resistance state that, electrical resistance R of a conductor or wire is 1) directly proportional to its length, l i.e. R ∝ l 2) inversely proportional to its area of cross - section, a i.e. 3)depends upon nature of material 4)Depends on the temperature of the conductor.
- 19. Combining these first two laws we get, R= ρ.l/a Where ρ (rho) is the proportionality constant and known as resistivity or specific resistance of the material of the conductor or wire. Now if we put, l = 1m and a = 1square meter in the equation, We get, R = ρ. That means resistance of a material of unit length having unit cross - sectional area is equal to its resistivity or specific resistance. Units of resistivity The unit of resistivity can be easily determined form its equation ohm-m
- 20. Kirchhoff’s Current Law At any junction point in an electrical circuit, the total current into the junction equals the total current out of the junction. (“What goes in must come out.”) In the diagram at right, I1 + I2 = I3 OR N ∑i n =1 n =0 Where N is the total number of branches connected to a node. ∑i enter node = ∑i leave node
- 21. Example 1 (KCL) Determine I, the current flowing out of the voltage source. Use KCL 1.9 mA + 0.5 mA + I are entering the node. 3 mA is leaving the node. 1.9mA + 0.5mA + I = 3mA I = 3mA − (1.9mA + 0.5mA) I = 0.6mA V1 is generating power.
- 22. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law In any complete path in an electrical circuit, the sum of the potential increases equals the sum of the potential drops. (“What goes up must come down.”) M ∑ v= 0 m =1 Where M is the total number of branches in the loop. ∑ v drops = ∑ v rises
- 23. Example 2 (KVL) Find the voltage across R1. Note that the polarity of the voltage has been assigned in the circuit schematic. First, define a loop that include R1.
- 24. Example 2 (con’t) If the outer loop is used: Follow the loop clockwise.
- 25. Example 2 (con’t) By convention, voltage drops are added and voltage rises are subtracted in KVL. − 5V − VR1 + 3V = 0 VR1 = 2V
- 26. Summary The currents at a node can be calculated using Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL). The voltage dropped across components can be calculated using Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL). Ohm’s Law is used to find some of the needed currents and voltages to solve the problems.
- 28. In the above figure, Rx is the unknown resistance to be measured; , and R1,R2 and R3 are resistors of known resistance and the resistance of Rx is adjustable. If the ratio of the two resistances in the known leg R2/R1 is equal to the ratio of the two in the unknown leg Rx/R3 , then the voltage between the two midpoints (B and D) will be zero and no current will flow through the galvanometer . If the bridge is unbalanced, the direction of the current indicates whether R2 is too high or too low. R2 is varied until there is no current through the galvanometer, which then reads zero.
- 29. At the point of balance, the ratio of R2/R1 = Rx/R3 Rx = R2.R3/R1 Applications (1) to measure the value of an unknown resistor by comparison to standard resistors, and (2) to detect small changes in a resistance transducer (e.g. thermistor A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature, more so than in standard resistors.) The bridge is initially balanced to "zero the baseline", then any changes in the transducer's resistance (R3) are detected by recording the detector voltage as it varies from zero.
- 30. Thanks !