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Botanical name : Vitis vinifera
Family : Vitaceae
Origin : Armenia near Caspian Sea
Chromosome No. : n=19 and n=20
Viticulture - Growing of Grapes, Resveratrol - key nutrient in grapes
Production technology of Grapes
Dr. M. Kumaresan (Hort.)
Department of Horticulture
Vels Institute of Science, Technology &
Advanced Studies (VISTAS)
Pallavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu -600117
Introduction
• Grape is an important sub-tropical fruit crop in India
• Average productivity of grape in India is 16.95 t/ha, the highest in the world
• Grape aroma is due to Methyl anthranilate
• Resveratrol natural antioxidant found in red grape and red wine
• Red colour in grape due to anthocyanins (Malvin 40 -60%)
• Type of parthenocarpy- Stenospermocarpy
• Fresh fruits or processed into wine, raisins, juice, with some cultivars adapted for
the canning industry
• Grape seeds contain 6 - 20% oil, used for edible purposes, soaps, and as a linseed
substitute
Origin and Distribution
• Asia minor- it is between Caspian & black sea
• Major world producers of grape are Spain, Italy and France
• Genus vitis is sub-divided into two sub-Genera, Muscadinia and Euvitis
• Muscadina have 40 chromosomes while that of Euvitis have 38
• Vitis vinifera is the most popular species of grapes grown in the world
• Venifera grapes have forked tendrils and shiny leaves
• Vitiis riparia, rupestries, berlandieri, candicans, rufotomentosa and solanis are
popular rootstocks for phylloxera and nematode resistance
Uses
(1) Table purpose
• Table grapes are meant for fresh fruit consumption
• Most of the varieties grown in India are table fruits
• The important table grape varieties are Muscat Humburg, Cardinal, Perlette,
Thompson seedless (Sultanina), Tokay, Concord, anab-e-shahi, pusa seedless,
Delware, Catawba, Ohanez, Red Malaga, Emperor, Italia, Muscat of Alexandria,
etc.
Uses
(2) Raisin making
• Grapes intended for making dried grapes
• Raisin variety of grapes should have soft texture, selflessness with good sugar
content, flavour, large or very small size; and little tendency to become sticky in
storage
• Varieties most extensively used in raisin making Thompson seedless (Sultania,
Oal Kishmish), Seedless sultana, Red Corinth, Cape Currant and Black
Monukha
Uses
(3) Juice making
• Varieties of sweet juice grapes - beverages
• Fuice should retain the natural fresh grape flavour throughout clarification and
preservation
• In United States of America the Concord grapes are in general for Juice
• Varieties White Riesling and Chasslas Dore are used for juice in the central
Europe
• Varieties Aramon and Carignan are utilized for sweet juice in France
Uses
(4) Wine making and canning
• Most of the vineyards in Europe, North Africa, South Africa, and South America,
Australia and United States of America produce wine grapes
• Wines are classified as table wines and desert wines
• Table wines contain less than 14 per cent alcohol while the desert wines have more
than 14 per cent alcohol, usually 17 to 20% sugar acid ratio, total acidity and tannin
content etc., will determine the wine quality
• Varieties such as White Rieslin, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Tinta Maderi
and Muscat Blanc (Muscat canelli) produce wines of high quality and flavour
Uses
(5) Canning Grapes
• Seedless varieties like Thompson Seedless and canner are generally canned in
combination with other fruits.
• The varieties grown in Tamil Nadu belong to table grapes
• Pachadraksha, Muscat (Panneer), Anab-e-shahi & Bangalore Blueare the main
varieties
Climate and soil
• Sandy loam with good drainage, fairly fertile with good organic matter is best
• Optimum pH is 6.5-7.5
• Grape grows well in all areas with warm to hot dry summers and cool winters
• Showers or rain during flowering is very dangerous to grapes and reduces yield to a
greater extent
• Optimum temperature range is 28-320C
• 12 genera and 60 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics
• Genus Vitis is subdivided into two subgenera, Muscadinia and Euvitis
• Most important species is Vitis vinifera L.
• Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the
Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American
and Asian species such as:
• Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grape vines
• Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for wine making and for jam. It
is native to the entire Eastern U.S. and north to Quebec.
• Vitis rotundifolia, the muscadines, used for jams and wine, are native to the South Eastern
United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico.
• Vitis amurensis is the most important Asian species.
Generas and Species
Wild relatives
Common name Scientific name Specific features
Progenitor of grape Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris -
Edible grape species Vitis and muscadinia -
American grapes /fox grape Vitis labrusca -
European grape/wine
grape/table grape
Vitis vinifera
Natural origin from V. labrusca
x V. vulpina, susceptible to pest
phylloxera, world leading
grapes 90%
Muscadine grapes Vitis rotundifolia
Dioecious sp, resistant to
powdery mildew
Summer grape Vitis aestivalis
Winter grape Vitis berlandieri Tolerant to high pH
Sand grape Vitis rupestris
Suitable for sweet preparation
(jam, jelly, preserve)
River bank grape /frost grape Vitis riparia
Seeded varieties
• Anab-e-Shahi, Bangalore blue (V. vinifera x V. labrusca), Chemma Sahebi , Paccha
Draksha (best adopted for tropical climate of Tamil Nadu), Champion, Early
Muscat, Gulabi
• Arka Kanchan: Anab-E-Shahi x Queen of Vineyard-suitable for table and wine
purpose, late maturing
• Arka Hans: Bangalore Blue x Anab-e-Shahi - suitable for wine purpose
• Arka Shyam : Bangalore Blue x Black Champa – suitable for juice and wine
making
Seedless cultivars
• Crimson seedless- coloured seedless
• Thompson seedless, Pusa Seedless, Perlette, Delight, Beauty seedless
• Arka Vati: Black champa x Thompson
• Seedless- suitable for table and raisin purpose
• Arka Neelmani: Black champa x Thompson Seedless- Table purpose
IIHR varieties
• Arka Shweta: Anab-e-Shahi x Thompson Seedless- suitable for table and raisin purpose
• Arka majestic: Anab-e-Shahi x Black Champa (Table purpose) - suitable for head
system of pruning
• Arka Chitra : Angoor Kalan x Anab-e-Shahi Table purpose
• Arka Soma: Anab-e-Shahi x Queen of Vine Yard–wine making
• Arka Trishna :Bangalore Blue x Queen of Vineyard (wine)
• Arka Krishna: Bangalore Blue x Convent large Black (juice)-beverage industry
• Pusa Urvashi: Hur x Beauty seedless – Tolerant to anthracnose
• Pusa Navrang: Madeline Angavie x Ruby red- Tenturier
Thompson seedless (Sultana)
• The grapes are pale green, shape is
oval, mild sweetness.
• High sugar content.
• Famous for producing raisins
• Vine has dark green foliage with
escorted edgings
Anab-e-Shahi (Table grapes)
• Grapes are elongated shape with white
seeds.
• Fruits mature late but bear in bulk.
• Variety is cultivated in Harayana,
Punjab, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Andhra
Pradesh, Hyderabad.
Banglore blue
• Variety is delicious, sweetberries
• Used for wine preparation
• Grapes are juicy, purple colour, ovoid
shape, multiple seeds
• It cultivated in Karnataka, Banglore,
Chikkaballapur, kolar
Sharad seedless
• Seedless, black- purple berries.
• Grapes has crisp textured in an oval shape,
growing abundantly in bunch
• It cultivated in Maharashtra, India
Dilkhush
• Variety is a clone of Anab-e-
Shahi
• Produces pale green, white
seeded grapes with tangy flavour.
• Variety is cultivated in Karnataka
in large amount.
• Variety is for raw consumption
and table purposes.
Gulabi
• They are small, spherical, seeded
beries, with pink purple colour,
delicious taste and juicy.
• Cultivated in Maharashtra,
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh.
Perlette
• Seedless, spherical to oval shape, green
yellow colour
• It has flavourful pulp, juicy, that lingers a
mix of tart flavour.
• Cultivated in Harayana, Punjab, Delhi,
Western Uttar Pradesh.
Bhokri
• Medium size, golden yellow,
Produces berries in bunch.
• They has thick skin.
• Cultivated in Maharashtra,
Karnataka, Telangana, Tamilnadu.
Arka Kanchan
• This species is the cross between
Anab-E-Shahi and Queen of
vineyard’s grape
• They are golden green with full of
flavour.
• It is useful in wine production and
table purposes.
Arka Shweta
• Variety is the cross between Anab-E-
Shahi and Thompson
• They are ovate, pale yellow colour and
seedless.
• It has significant demand in
international market.
• It is useful for the direct consumption
and table purpose.
Propagation
• Propagation by Hard wood stem cuttings, Treating cuttings with IBA improves rooting
• Single bud cuttings also can be rooted by keeping the base of the cutting at a constant
temperature of 18-200C for 2-3 weeks
• While, using root stocks, grape can be propagated by chip budding or grafting.
Phylloxera resistant rootstocks
• Riparia Gloire- Selection from V. riparia
• St. George - Cultivar of V. rupestris
Nematode resistant rootstocks
• Dogride- cultivars of V. champin
• Salt creek - (V. solonis x V. paria)
Planting
• Pits can be of 1 m3 and filled with mixture of soil and manure
• Spacing varies according to the method of training and variety from 1.2 to 5.0 m x
2.5 to 6.6m
• The adopted spacing is 3 x 2 m for Muscat and 4 x 3 m for other varieties.
• Pandal system requires maximum spacing
• Best time for planting is Jan-Feb for rooted cuttings and October for un rooted
in situ planting
• Application of fertilizers should be done starting from 1 month after pruning only
as the roots will not be active till such time
• Foliar application of micronutrients specially Iron, Zinc, Boron, Manganese at
Pre-bloom and bloom stage were reported to improve quality and quantity of yield
Fertilizer
April Pruning October Pruning
Anab-e-Shahi 200:300:300kg / ha 300:200:700 kg/ha
Thompson Seedless 100:300:300 kg/ha 200:200:700 kg/ha
Training
• The training of the vine depends on two fundamental factors viz., the growth
characteristics of a variety and the influence of the local climate on the growth
of the variety
• The reduction, in yield may also be due to the failure to utilize properly the full
vigour of the vines
• Tamil Nadu, grape is trained in overhead arbours or Pendals system
• Overhead canopy is made of either thin bamboos (2 to 2.5 cm) or G.I. wires of different
thickness, (8 to16 in guage)
• Wires are spaced (30 x 45 cm) or 30 x 30 cm. apart forming a network
• Rooted cutting planted in the field reaches a height of 180 cm in about three months
• When the main stem is pinched at the top that is about 15 cm below bower
• Side shoots or main arms as they are allowed to reach the periphery of the pandal and they are
then tipped
• On these arms secondaries are produced and allowed to grow on the main arms at intervals of
45 cm from each other alternately in opposite directions
• These secondaries in turn give rise to 'tertiaries' on which canes develop and produce the
shoots carrying, bunches
Bower systems
Bower systems
Bower systems
Bower systems
Single-stake system
• A single shoot is allowed to develop from the vine of rooted cuttings and is
trained vertically by staking to a support.
• When this shoot reaches a height of 120 cm it is tipped and allowed to produce 4
to 5 secondary branches or canes, which are pruned after every bearing season.
• The main stem and the primary laterals are supported by a bamboo post
planted nearby.
Single-stake system
• In this method, single shoot which is trained erect and tipped at a height of about 45 cm
• Only three shoots are allowed to grow from this point, all others being removed.
• Two shoots are trained horizontally and the remaining is trained vertically to a height of
another 60 cm.
• All the four horizontal arms are supported by bamboo poles or wire tied horizontally to posts
fixed at regular intervals of 3 metres.
• Primary laterals are allowed to develop from these four main arms at fairly regular
intervals and these are pruned to produce the crop every season
• For every fruiting cane, a renewal spur of 2 to3 buds is left
• Normally only four canes are allowed in the 4-cane kniffin system
• Under tropical conditions it is possible to have doubled the number
Four-arm kniffin system
Four-arm kniffin system
Two-arm kniffin system
Two-arm kniffin system
Wire trellis system
• In this system two or three wires are strung in rows from vertical posts.
• A single stem is trained as far as the top of the wire 2.1 m and two arms are allowed to develop along
the wire on either side.
• The spurs on the fruit bearing shoots growing on these canes are seasonally pruned for fruit every
year
• This is called as Telephone Trellis system
• The horizontal cross is 120 to 150 cm wide
• The vines are trained along the wire in the direction of the row
• Steel angle iron and the cross arm is welded to the upright
• The disadvantage in this system is that there are no cross-supports to the rows to withstand strong
winds
• Cultivation and movement is limited tone direction.
Wire trellis system
Tatura trellis of ‘V’ / ‘Y’- trellis system
• This is suitable for vigorous vines
• Here, trellis are fixed in rows at a distance of 25 cm
• Length of ‘Y’ is 1.2 m
• Angle between two arms of ‘Y’ is 100 - 1100 and length of arm is 90 – 120 cm
• Here, two rows of cordon wires are developed with a gap of 50 cm
• Number of cordon can be one/two as per the choice of the grower and vigour of the vines
• It is better to provide two rows of cordon in vigorous vines
• Three foliage wires are run across the each sloping arm with a gap of 30 – 35 cm
• Rows of sloping arms are interconnected by a thick wire, across which run two more wires to
support the foliage
• Hence, under this system between the two rows, a narrow bower is formed
Tatura trellis of ‘V’ / ‘Y’- trellis system
Tatura trellis of ‘V’ / ‘Y’- trellis system
Single Cordon
Pruning
• Grapevine is naturally a deciduous type woody climbing vine, regular annual
pruning is mandatory.
• During the process of pruning, almost 50 % of the shoots developed in a year are
removed
• Cane pruning is done retaining 3 – 4 buds/cane and is termed as fruiting canes.
The objectives of pruning are as follows
1. To reduce the amount of old wood in order to keep the vine within manageable
limits
2. To secure fruit bearing branches in predetermined places
3. To expose the fruiting branches to sufficient sunshine
4. To reduce the excessive vegetative growth
Following are some of the terminologies are
being used in grape cultivation
1. Cane: A well mature and ripened shoot of the past season
2. Shoot: Young growth of green stem of the current season, which bears the grape in
cluster
3. Spur: A portion of the cane or ripened shoot left behind on the plant after pruning.
4. Fruiting spur: A cane or well ripened shoot leaving 304 buds, producing a bunch
after pruning
5. Trunk: Main stem of the plant
6. Long spur: A ripe shoot, carrying more than five buds. Normally it is 25-30 cm long
with about 5-10 buds on it
7. Medium spur: It is a cane cut back keeping 3-5 buds
8. Spur: It is cane pruned to 1-2 buds
Morphology
Morphology
Pruning
(i) Single Pruning- Single cropping
• This system is prevalent in North India
• Since only one growing season is available, grapevines are pruned with the onset
of spring or during late winter (mostly January-February)
• Floral differentiation on the current shoots and the fruit set take place
simultaneously.
Double pruning – Single cropping
• This system is predominantly followed in Maharashtra, north interior Karnataka in case
of Thompson Seedless, and Andhra Pradesh on Thompson Seedless and Anab-e- Shahi grapes
• All the fruiting canes are pruned back to spurs retaining only one basal node. This is
called as back pruning or foundation pruning or summer pruning
• Buds on the shoots growing from these spurs differentiate into floral primordial and the
shoots mature in about five months
• These mature shoots are pruned for fruiting before the onset of winter (September-
October). This pruning is called forward pruning or fruit pruning or winter pruning
• All the mature shoots are subjected to fruit pruning. Thus, in this system of pruning, a cycle of
two pruning's resulting in one crop is practiced
Pruning
Double pruning – Double cropping
• This system is in Anab-e-shahi and Bangalore Blue grapes in the south interior
Karnataka and in Anab-e- Shahi, Bhokri and Gulabi in Tamil Nadu
• Mature shoots are pruned to canes of 7-8 buds after harvesting the crop in summer.
• The mature shoots arising from these 3-4 buds along spurs are pruned for fruiting
canes in the next winter.
• In the Madurai region and other parts of Tamil Nadu, pruning is done during
November-December for summer crop harvested during March-April, and during
May-June for the second crop harvested during August-September.
Pruning
Cluster and flower bud thinning
• Large bunches and uniform berry size, maintenance of 75 % crop load (80 – 90
bunches/vine) is important
• Thinning of flower clusters leaving 80 – 90 clusters per vine should be done just
after bunch emergence
• In varieties that produce compact bunches, thinning of flower buds leaving 100 –
120 flower buds per panicle is retained and the rest is removed
(a) Flower cluster ready for flower bud
thinning
(b) Brush used for thinning
(a) (b)
Most of the commercial grape varieties used
these day are self-pollinated
• Nipping is done at terminal buds at 12-15 node stage
• Cluster or berry thinning: GA3 @ 50 ppm at calyptras stage
• Pruning time north India: December to January
• Pruning time in Tamil Nadu: December to January and May to June
• Dormancy breaking chemical :Dormex
• Bud breaking in North India: hydrogen cyanamide (HCN) 1.5%
• Bud breaking in Tamil Nadu: Thiourea @ 4%
Special operations
Growth regulators
• Spraying with CCC at 500ppm at five leaf stage after back pruning increases
fruitfulness
• 22-25 days after pruning spray with GA3 at 10ppm will elongate the clusters
• Dipping of clusters in 60ppm GA3 increases berry size
• Treating clusters with AVG (2 Aminoethyl Vinyl Glycine) 50-300 ppm 1-3 weeks before
anthesis improves berry set
• GA3 (40ppm) used for improving yield and quality.
• Ethrel (250ppm) can be used for uniform colour development (5 weeks after anthesis, 4
weeks after berry set for colour)
• For production of one gram of grape fruit 16-26 cm2 leaf area is requires
• Uniform ripening – ethrel @ 250 to500 ppm at berry starts ripening
Physiological Disorders
1. Blossom End Rot (BER)- due to Calcium deficiency –CaNo3 @ 1%
2. Uneven ripening – Bangalore Blue, Beauty Seedless are susceptible variety – Ethephon @ 250 ppm at colour break
stage
3. Post harvest berry drop – Anab –e- shahi, Beauty Seedless are susceptible variety- NAA @ 50 ppm
4. Interveinal chlorosis: Mn, Zn or Fe deficiency-0.2%
5. Stalk necrosis: Calcium deficiency
6. Bud, flower and berry drop: girdling 10 days before full bloom, 500PPM ethrel at ripening, NAA 100PPM at 10
days before ripening, Reducing irrigation during bloom, Benzyl adenine 200ppm, 4-CPA 20ppm-for thinning
7. Bud killing: Excessive nitrogen
8. Hen & Chicken - Only a few seeded berries set, most berries remain small and seedless - Due to boron deficiency
• Fe deficiency of grapes is most common in black soil
• Major nutrient deficiency in grapes growing area in world : Mg
Uneven ripening
Uneven ripening
Hen & Chicken
Pests and diseases
Pests
1. Flea beetles- Spraying Phosalone 35 EC (2ml/lit of water)
2. Thrips- spray Methyl demeton 25 EC or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/lit
3. Chaffer beetle- dusting any insectide in evenings
4. Mealy bugs- Quinalphos or Methyl parathion dust in the soil @ 20 kg/ha
5. Stem girdler - Swab the trunk with Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 gm/lit to control the pest.
6. Nematodes- Use nematode resistant root stocks - Carbofuran 3 G or Phorate 10 G granules per vine
Diseases
1. Anthracnose: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or any other copper fungicide at 0.25 % concentration
2. Downy mildew: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or any other copper fungicide at 0.25 % concentration
3. Powdery mildew: Spray 0.3% Wettable sulphur or dust Sulphur @ 6-12 Kg/ha
Colour and ripening enhancers
• Spraying of ethephon (an ethylene releasing compound – 2-chloroethyl phosphonic
acid) at a concentration of 400 mg/L at colour break stage has been established as
a routine cultural practice among viticulturists to hasten maturity and to get
uniform bunch colour - reduces fruit firmness
• Grape growing countries use abscisic acid (ABA) as an alternative to ethephon to
advance berry maturity and to promote uniform colouration, especially in red
table grapes.
Harvesting
• Grape is a non climacteric fruit and has to be harvested at correct stage of
maturity
• Degree days from full bloom give a correct indication of maturity
• Early cultivars require about 1600-2000 degree days and late cultivars about
3000 or more
• A cluster having under developed seedless berries known as ―shot barriers or
mummies
• These will be very sweet in taste
• Grape starts yielding from 2-3 years and continues for more than 20-25 years
Seedless : 15 t/ha/year
Muscat : 30 t/ha/year
Pachadraksha : 40 t/ha/year
Anab-e-Shahi and Arka hybrids : 20 t/ha/year
Yield
Average yield will be about 25-30 tonnes/ha but higher yields of 60-75
ton/ha also possible with good management
Packing and storage
• Grapes are packed in corrugated fibre board boxes having grape guard (craft
paper coated within layer of sodium bi-sulphate and a plastic polymer) improve
their storage life.
• Grapes can be stored grape guard or for 7-12 weeks under controlled atmosphere
with 15-25% Co2 and at 0-10C
Grape guard
Packaging in corrugated fibre board boxes with
polyethylene liner and a grape guard
Clusters packed in corrugated fibre
board (CFB) boxes of 4 kg
capacity for transportation to
distant markets
Pad contains sodium
metabisulphite as the active
ingredient
Sodium metabisulphite in the pads
reacts with available moisture to
release Sulfur dioxide gas.
This gas then protects the grapes
from fungal infection
Advances in production technology of Grapes.pdf

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Advances in production technology of Grapes.pdf

  • 1. Botanical name : Vitis vinifera Family : Vitaceae Origin : Armenia near Caspian Sea Chromosome No. : n=19 and n=20 Viticulture - Growing of Grapes, Resveratrol - key nutrient in grapes Production technology of Grapes Dr. M. Kumaresan (Hort.) Department of Horticulture Vels Institute of Science, Technology & Advanced Studies (VISTAS) Pallavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu -600117
  • 2. Introduction • Grape is an important sub-tropical fruit crop in India • Average productivity of grape in India is 16.95 t/ha, the highest in the world • Grape aroma is due to Methyl anthranilate • Resveratrol natural antioxidant found in red grape and red wine • Red colour in grape due to anthocyanins (Malvin 40 -60%) • Type of parthenocarpy- Stenospermocarpy • Fresh fruits or processed into wine, raisins, juice, with some cultivars adapted for the canning industry • Grape seeds contain 6 - 20% oil, used for edible purposes, soaps, and as a linseed substitute
  • 3. Origin and Distribution • Asia minor- it is between Caspian & black sea • Major world producers of grape are Spain, Italy and France • Genus vitis is sub-divided into two sub-Genera, Muscadinia and Euvitis • Muscadina have 40 chromosomes while that of Euvitis have 38 • Vitis vinifera is the most popular species of grapes grown in the world • Venifera grapes have forked tendrils and shiny leaves • Vitiis riparia, rupestries, berlandieri, candicans, rufotomentosa and solanis are popular rootstocks for phylloxera and nematode resistance
  • 4. Uses (1) Table purpose • Table grapes are meant for fresh fruit consumption • Most of the varieties grown in India are table fruits • The important table grape varieties are Muscat Humburg, Cardinal, Perlette, Thompson seedless (Sultanina), Tokay, Concord, anab-e-shahi, pusa seedless, Delware, Catawba, Ohanez, Red Malaga, Emperor, Italia, Muscat of Alexandria, etc.
  • 5. Uses (2) Raisin making • Grapes intended for making dried grapes • Raisin variety of grapes should have soft texture, selflessness with good sugar content, flavour, large or very small size; and little tendency to become sticky in storage • Varieties most extensively used in raisin making Thompson seedless (Sultania, Oal Kishmish), Seedless sultana, Red Corinth, Cape Currant and Black Monukha
  • 6. Uses (3) Juice making • Varieties of sweet juice grapes - beverages • Fuice should retain the natural fresh grape flavour throughout clarification and preservation • In United States of America the Concord grapes are in general for Juice • Varieties White Riesling and Chasslas Dore are used for juice in the central Europe • Varieties Aramon and Carignan are utilized for sweet juice in France
  • 7. Uses (4) Wine making and canning • Most of the vineyards in Europe, North Africa, South Africa, and South America, Australia and United States of America produce wine grapes • Wines are classified as table wines and desert wines • Table wines contain less than 14 per cent alcohol while the desert wines have more than 14 per cent alcohol, usually 17 to 20% sugar acid ratio, total acidity and tannin content etc., will determine the wine quality • Varieties such as White Rieslin, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Tinta Maderi and Muscat Blanc (Muscat canelli) produce wines of high quality and flavour
  • 8. Uses (5) Canning Grapes • Seedless varieties like Thompson Seedless and canner are generally canned in combination with other fruits. • The varieties grown in Tamil Nadu belong to table grapes • Pachadraksha, Muscat (Panneer), Anab-e-shahi & Bangalore Blueare the main varieties
  • 9. Climate and soil • Sandy loam with good drainage, fairly fertile with good organic matter is best • Optimum pH is 6.5-7.5 • Grape grows well in all areas with warm to hot dry summers and cool winters • Showers or rain during flowering is very dangerous to grapes and reduces yield to a greater extent • Optimum temperature range is 28-320C
  • 10. • 12 genera and 60 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics • Genus Vitis is subdivided into two subgenera, Muscadinia and Euvitis • Most important species is Vitis vinifera L. • Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: • Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grape vines • Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for wine making and for jam. It is native to the entire Eastern U.S. and north to Quebec. • Vitis rotundifolia, the muscadines, used for jams and wine, are native to the South Eastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. • Vitis amurensis is the most important Asian species. Generas and Species
  • 11. Wild relatives Common name Scientific name Specific features Progenitor of grape Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris - Edible grape species Vitis and muscadinia - American grapes /fox grape Vitis labrusca - European grape/wine grape/table grape Vitis vinifera Natural origin from V. labrusca x V. vulpina, susceptible to pest phylloxera, world leading grapes 90% Muscadine grapes Vitis rotundifolia Dioecious sp, resistant to powdery mildew Summer grape Vitis aestivalis Winter grape Vitis berlandieri Tolerant to high pH Sand grape Vitis rupestris Suitable for sweet preparation (jam, jelly, preserve) River bank grape /frost grape Vitis riparia
  • 12. Seeded varieties • Anab-e-Shahi, Bangalore blue (V. vinifera x V. labrusca), Chemma Sahebi , Paccha Draksha (best adopted for tropical climate of Tamil Nadu), Champion, Early Muscat, Gulabi • Arka Kanchan: Anab-E-Shahi x Queen of Vineyard-suitable for table and wine purpose, late maturing • Arka Hans: Bangalore Blue x Anab-e-Shahi - suitable for wine purpose • Arka Shyam : Bangalore Blue x Black Champa – suitable for juice and wine making
  • 13. Seedless cultivars • Crimson seedless- coloured seedless • Thompson seedless, Pusa Seedless, Perlette, Delight, Beauty seedless • Arka Vati: Black champa x Thompson • Seedless- suitable for table and raisin purpose • Arka Neelmani: Black champa x Thompson Seedless- Table purpose
  • 14. IIHR varieties • Arka Shweta: Anab-e-Shahi x Thompson Seedless- suitable for table and raisin purpose • Arka majestic: Anab-e-Shahi x Black Champa (Table purpose) - suitable for head system of pruning • Arka Chitra : Angoor Kalan x Anab-e-Shahi Table purpose • Arka Soma: Anab-e-Shahi x Queen of Vine Yard–wine making • Arka Trishna :Bangalore Blue x Queen of Vineyard (wine) • Arka Krishna: Bangalore Blue x Convent large Black (juice)-beverage industry • Pusa Urvashi: Hur x Beauty seedless – Tolerant to anthracnose • Pusa Navrang: Madeline Angavie x Ruby red- Tenturier
  • 15. Thompson seedless (Sultana) • The grapes are pale green, shape is oval, mild sweetness. • High sugar content. • Famous for producing raisins • Vine has dark green foliage with escorted edgings
  • 16. Anab-e-Shahi (Table grapes) • Grapes are elongated shape with white seeds. • Fruits mature late but bear in bulk. • Variety is cultivated in Harayana, Punjab, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.
  • 17. Banglore blue • Variety is delicious, sweetberries • Used for wine preparation • Grapes are juicy, purple colour, ovoid shape, multiple seeds • It cultivated in Karnataka, Banglore, Chikkaballapur, kolar
  • 18. Sharad seedless • Seedless, black- purple berries. • Grapes has crisp textured in an oval shape, growing abundantly in bunch • It cultivated in Maharashtra, India
  • 19. Dilkhush • Variety is a clone of Anab-e- Shahi • Produces pale green, white seeded grapes with tangy flavour. • Variety is cultivated in Karnataka in large amount. • Variety is for raw consumption and table purposes.
  • 20. Gulabi • They are small, spherical, seeded beries, with pink purple colour, delicious taste and juicy. • Cultivated in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh.
  • 21. Perlette • Seedless, spherical to oval shape, green yellow colour • It has flavourful pulp, juicy, that lingers a mix of tart flavour. • Cultivated in Harayana, Punjab, Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh.
  • 22. Bhokri • Medium size, golden yellow, Produces berries in bunch. • They has thick skin. • Cultivated in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Tamilnadu.
  • 23. Arka Kanchan • This species is the cross between Anab-E-Shahi and Queen of vineyard’s grape • They are golden green with full of flavour. • It is useful in wine production and table purposes.
  • 24. Arka Shweta • Variety is the cross between Anab-E- Shahi and Thompson • They are ovate, pale yellow colour and seedless. • It has significant demand in international market. • It is useful for the direct consumption and table purpose.
  • 25. Propagation • Propagation by Hard wood stem cuttings, Treating cuttings with IBA improves rooting • Single bud cuttings also can be rooted by keeping the base of the cutting at a constant temperature of 18-200C for 2-3 weeks • While, using root stocks, grape can be propagated by chip budding or grafting. Phylloxera resistant rootstocks • Riparia Gloire- Selection from V. riparia • St. George - Cultivar of V. rupestris Nematode resistant rootstocks • Dogride- cultivars of V. champin • Salt creek - (V. solonis x V. paria)
  • 26. Planting • Pits can be of 1 m3 and filled with mixture of soil and manure • Spacing varies according to the method of training and variety from 1.2 to 5.0 m x 2.5 to 6.6m • The adopted spacing is 3 x 2 m for Muscat and 4 x 3 m for other varieties. • Pandal system requires maximum spacing • Best time for planting is Jan-Feb for rooted cuttings and October for un rooted in situ planting
  • 27. • Application of fertilizers should be done starting from 1 month after pruning only as the roots will not be active till such time • Foliar application of micronutrients specially Iron, Zinc, Boron, Manganese at Pre-bloom and bloom stage were reported to improve quality and quantity of yield Fertilizer April Pruning October Pruning Anab-e-Shahi 200:300:300kg / ha 300:200:700 kg/ha Thompson Seedless 100:300:300 kg/ha 200:200:700 kg/ha
  • 28. Training • The training of the vine depends on two fundamental factors viz., the growth characteristics of a variety and the influence of the local climate on the growth of the variety • The reduction, in yield may also be due to the failure to utilize properly the full vigour of the vines
  • 29. • Tamil Nadu, grape is trained in overhead arbours or Pendals system • Overhead canopy is made of either thin bamboos (2 to 2.5 cm) or G.I. wires of different thickness, (8 to16 in guage) • Wires are spaced (30 x 45 cm) or 30 x 30 cm. apart forming a network • Rooted cutting planted in the field reaches a height of 180 cm in about three months • When the main stem is pinched at the top that is about 15 cm below bower • Side shoots or main arms as they are allowed to reach the periphery of the pandal and they are then tipped • On these arms secondaries are produced and allowed to grow on the main arms at intervals of 45 cm from each other alternately in opposite directions • These secondaries in turn give rise to 'tertiaries' on which canes develop and produce the shoots carrying, bunches Bower systems
  • 32.
  • 34. Single-stake system • A single shoot is allowed to develop from the vine of rooted cuttings and is trained vertically by staking to a support. • When this shoot reaches a height of 120 cm it is tipped and allowed to produce 4 to 5 secondary branches or canes, which are pruned after every bearing season. • The main stem and the primary laterals are supported by a bamboo post planted nearby.
  • 36. • In this method, single shoot which is trained erect and tipped at a height of about 45 cm • Only three shoots are allowed to grow from this point, all others being removed. • Two shoots are trained horizontally and the remaining is trained vertically to a height of another 60 cm. • All the four horizontal arms are supported by bamboo poles or wire tied horizontally to posts fixed at regular intervals of 3 metres. • Primary laterals are allowed to develop from these four main arms at fairly regular intervals and these are pruned to produce the crop every season • For every fruiting cane, a renewal spur of 2 to3 buds is left • Normally only four canes are allowed in the 4-cane kniffin system • Under tropical conditions it is possible to have doubled the number Four-arm kniffin system
  • 40. Wire trellis system • In this system two or three wires are strung in rows from vertical posts. • A single stem is trained as far as the top of the wire 2.1 m and two arms are allowed to develop along the wire on either side. • The spurs on the fruit bearing shoots growing on these canes are seasonally pruned for fruit every year • This is called as Telephone Trellis system • The horizontal cross is 120 to 150 cm wide • The vines are trained along the wire in the direction of the row • Steel angle iron and the cross arm is welded to the upright • The disadvantage in this system is that there are no cross-supports to the rows to withstand strong winds • Cultivation and movement is limited tone direction.
  • 42. Tatura trellis of ‘V’ / ‘Y’- trellis system • This is suitable for vigorous vines • Here, trellis are fixed in rows at a distance of 25 cm • Length of ‘Y’ is 1.2 m • Angle between two arms of ‘Y’ is 100 - 1100 and length of arm is 90 – 120 cm • Here, two rows of cordon wires are developed with a gap of 50 cm • Number of cordon can be one/two as per the choice of the grower and vigour of the vines • It is better to provide two rows of cordon in vigorous vines • Three foliage wires are run across the each sloping arm with a gap of 30 – 35 cm • Rows of sloping arms are interconnected by a thick wire, across which run two more wires to support the foliage • Hence, under this system between the two rows, a narrow bower is formed
  • 43. Tatura trellis of ‘V’ / ‘Y’- trellis system
  • 44. Tatura trellis of ‘V’ / ‘Y’- trellis system
  • 46. Pruning • Grapevine is naturally a deciduous type woody climbing vine, regular annual pruning is mandatory. • During the process of pruning, almost 50 % of the shoots developed in a year are removed • Cane pruning is done retaining 3 – 4 buds/cane and is termed as fruiting canes. The objectives of pruning are as follows 1. To reduce the amount of old wood in order to keep the vine within manageable limits 2. To secure fruit bearing branches in predetermined places 3. To expose the fruiting branches to sufficient sunshine 4. To reduce the excessive vegetative growth
  • 47. Following are some of the terminologies are being used in grape cultivation 1. Cane: A well mature and ripened shoot of the past season 2. Shoot: Young growth of green stem of the current season, which bears the grape in cluster 3. Spur: A portion of the cane or ripened shoot left behind on the plant after pruning. 4. Fruiting spur: A cane or well ripened shoot leaving 304 buds, producing a bunch after pruning 5. Trunk: Main stem of the plant 6. Long spur: A ripe shoot, carrying more than five buds. Normally it is 25-30 cm long with about 5-10 buds on it 7. Medium spur: It is a cane cut back keeping 3-5 buds 8. Spur: It is cane pruned to 1-2 buds
  • 50. Pruning (i) Single Pruning- Single cropping • This system is prevalent in North India • Since only one growing season is available, grapevines are pruned with the onset of spring or during late winter (mostly January-February) • Floral differentiation on the current shoots and the fruit set take place simultaneously.
  • 51. Double pruning – Single cropping • This system is predominantly followed in Maharashtra, north interior Karnataka in case of Thompson Seedless, and Andhra Pradesh on Thompson Seedless and Anab-e- Shahi grapes • All the fruiting canes are pruned back to spurs retaining only one basal node. This is called as back pruning or foundation pruning or summer pruning • Buds on the shoots growing from these spurs differentiate into floral primordial and the shoots mature in about five months • These mature shoots are pruned for fruiting before the onset of winter (September- October). This pruning is called forward pruning or fruit pruning or winter pruning • All the mature shoots are subjected to fruit pruning. Thus, in this system of pruning, a cycle of two pruning's resulting in one crop is practiced Pruning
  • 52. Double pruning – Double cropping • This system is in Anab-e-shahi and Bangalore Blue grapes in the south interior Karnataka and in Anab-e- Shahi, Bhokri and Gulabi in Tamil Nadu • Mature shoots are pruned to canes of 7-8 buds after harvesting the crop in summer. • The mature shoots arising from these 3-4 buds along spurs are pruned for fruiting canes in the next winter. • In the Madurai region and other parts of Tamil Nadu, pruning is done during November-December for summer crop harvested during March-April, and during May-June for the second crop harvested during August-September. Pruning
  • 53. Cluster and flower bud thinning • Large bunches and uniform berry size, maintenance of 75 % crop load (80 – 90 bunches/vine) is important • Thinning of flower clusters leaving 80 – 90 clusters per vine should be done just after bunch emergence • In varieties that produce compact bunches, thinning of flower buds leaving 100 – 120 flower buds per panicle is retained and the rest is removed (a) Flower cluster ready for flower bud thinning (b) Brush used for thinning (a) (b) Most of the commercial grape varieties used these day are self-pollinated
  • 54. • Nipping is done at terminal buds at 12-15 node stage • Cluster or berry thinning: GA3 @ 50 ppm at calyptras stage • Pruning time north India: December to January • Pruning time in Tamil Nadu: December to January and May to June • Dormancy breaking chemical :Dormex • Bud breaking in North India: hydrogen cyanamide (HCN) 1.5% • Bud breaking in Tamil Nadu: Thiourea @ 4% Special operations
  • 55. Growth regulators • Spraying with CCC at 500ppm at five leaf stage after back pruning increases fruitfulness • 22-25 days after pruning spray with GA3 at 10ppm will elongate the clusters • Dipping of clusters in 60ppm GA3 increases berry size • Treating clusters with AVG (2 Aminoethyl Vinyl Glycine) 50-300 ppm 1-3 weeks before anthesis improves berry set • GA3 (40ppm) used for improving yield and quality. • Ethrel (250ppm) can be used for uniform colour development (5 weeks after anthesis, 4 weeks after berry set for colour) • For production of one gram of grape fruit 16-26 cm2 leaf area is requires • Uniform ripening – ethrel @ 250 to500 ppm at berry starts ripening
  • 56. Physiological Disorders 1. Blossom End Rot (BER)- due to Calcium deficiency –CaNo3 @ 1% 2. Uneven ripening – Bangalore Blue, Beauty Seedless are susceptible variety – Ethephon @ 250 ppm at colour break stage 3. Post harvest berry drop – Anab –e- shahi, Beauty Seedless are susceptible variety- NAA @ 50 ppm 4. Interveinal chlorosis: Mn, Zn or Fe deficiency-0.2% 5. Stalk necrosis: Calcium deficiency 6. Bud, flower and berry drop: girdling 10 days before full bloom, 500PPM ethrel at ripening, NAA 100PPM at 10 days before ripening, Reducing irrigation during bloom, Benzyl adenine 200ppm, 4-CPA 20ppm-for thinning 7. Bud killing: Excessive nitrogen 8. Hen & Chicken - Only a few seeded berries set, most berries remain small and seedless - Due to boron deficiency • Fe deficiency of grapes is most common in black soil • Major nutrient deficiency in grapes growing area in world : Mg
  • 60. Pests and diseases Pests 1. Flea beetles- Spraying Phosalone 35 EC (2ml/lit of water) 2. Thrips- spray Methyl demeton 25 EC or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/lit 3. Chaffer beetle- dusting any insectide in evenings 4. Mealy bugs- Quinalphos or Methyl parathion dust in the soil @ 20 kg/ha 5. Stem girdler - Swab the trunk with Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 gm/lit to control the pest. 6. Nematodes- Use nematode resistant root stocks - Carbofuran 3 G or Phorate 10 G granules per vine Diseases 1. Anthracnose: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or any other copper fungicide at 0.25 % concentration 2. Downy mildew: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or any other copper fungicide at 0.25 % concentration 3. Powdery mildew: Spray 0.3% Wettable sulphur or dust Sulphur @ 6-12 Kg/ha
  • 61. Colour and ripening enhancers • Spraying of ethephon (an ethylene releasing compound – 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) at a concentration of 400 mg/L at colour break stage has been established as a routine cultural practice among viticulturists to hasten maturity and to get uniform bunch colour - reduces fruit firmness • Grape growing countries use abscisic acid (ABA) as an alternative to ethephon to advance berry maturity and to promote uniform colouration, especially in red table grapes.
  • 62. Harvesting • Grape is a non climacteric fruit and has to be harvested at correct stage of maturity • Degree days from full bloom give a correct indication of maturity • Early cultivars require about 1600-2000 degree days and late cultivars about 3000 or more • A cluster having under developed seedless berries known as ―shot barriers or mummies • These will be very sweet in taste • Grape starts yielding from 2-3 years and continues for more than 20-25 years
  • 63. Seedless : 15 t/ha/year Muscat : 30 t/ha/year Pachadraksha : 40 t/ha/year Anab-e-Shahi and Arka hybrids : 20 t/ha/year Yield Average yield will be about 25-30 tonnes/ha but higher yields of 60-75 ton/ha also possible with good management
  • 64. Packing and storage • Grapes are packed in corrugated fibre board boxes having grape guard (craft paper coated within layer of sodium bi-sulphate and a plastic polymer) improve their storage life. • Grapes can be stored grape guard or for 7-12 weeks under controlled atmosphere with 15-25% Co2 and at 0-10C Grape guard
  • 65. Packaging in corrugated fibre board boxes with polyethylene liner and a grape guard Clusters packed in corrugated fibre board (CFB) boxes of 4 kg capacity for transportation to distant markets Pad contains sodium metabisulphite as the active ingredient Sodium metabisulphite in the pads reacts with available moisture to release Sulfur dioxide gas. This gas then protects the grapes from fungal infection