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Nuclear Power Plantolar
Lounge
Nishkam Dhiman
Asst Prof : Electrical and Electronics
Engineering
Chitkara University, Punjab
Introduction
• Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive
nuclear energy. The most common type of nuclear fuel is fissile
elements that can be made to undergo nuclear fission chain
reactions in a nuclear reactor
 The most common nuclear fuels are 235U and 239Pu. Not all
nuclear fuels are used in fission chain reactions
Other fuels: 238Np(Neptunium), 239U(Uranium), 241Pu(plutonium)
• NUCLEAR FISSION
 When a neutron strikes an atom of uranium, the uranium
splits into two lighter atoms and releases heat
simultaneously.
 Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction which
can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic
radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments.
Chain Reaction
A chain reaction refers to a process in which neutrons released in
fission produce an additional fission in at least one further nucleus.
This nucleus in turn produces neutrons, and the process repeats. If the
process is controlled it is used for nuclear power or if uncontrolled it
is used for nuclear weapons
A chain reaction is that process in which number of neutrons keep on
multiplying rapidly(in GP) during fission till whole of the fissionable
material is disintegrated.
Chain reaction will continue if, for every neutron absorbed, at least one
fission neutron becomes available for causing fission of another
nucleus.
Expressed by multiplication factor
K= No. of neutrons in any particular generation/No. of neutrons in the
preceding generation.
If K>1, chain reaction will continue and if K<1 , cant be maintained.
Requirements of Fission Process
• The neutrons emitted in fission should have adequate
energy to cause fission of another nuclei.
• The produced number of neutrons must be able not
only to sustain the fission process but should be able to
increase the rate of fission.
• The process must be followed by liberation of energy.
• It must be able to control the rate of fission by some
means.
• Critical mass: The minimum quantity of fuel required
for any specific reactor system is called critical mass,
and size associated with it is called critical size.
• U235 + n → fission + 2 or 3 n + 200 MeV
• MeV s Mega Electron Volt.
 If each neutron releases two more neutrons, then the
number of fissions doubles each generation. In that
case, in 10 generations there are 1,024 fissions and in
80 generations about 6 x 10 23 (a mole) fissions.
Schematic diagram of a nuclear plant
control rods
fuel
rods
reactor
pressure
vessel
water
(cool)
water
(hot)
water
(high pressure)
water
(low pressure)
coolant out
coolant in
steam
condenser
steam (low
pressure)
turbine
electric
power
steam
generator
steam (high pressure)
pump
primary loop secondary loop
generator
reactor
core
pump
Nuclear Reactor
• A Nuclear reactor is an apparatus in which nuclear fission is
produced in the form of a controlled self sustaining chain reaction.
Classification of nuclear reactor
1. According to chain reacting system, neutron energies at which
the fission occurs:
a. Fast reactors
b. Intermediate reactor
c. Slow reactors
2. Fuel moderator assembly
a. Homogenous reactors: fuel and moderator are mixed to form a
homogenous material,
b. Heterogeneous reactors: the fuel is used in the form of rods,
plates, lamps or wires and the moderator surrounds the each fuel
element in the reactor core.
3. Fuel State
a. Solid
b. Liquid
c. Gas
4. Fuel material
a. Natural uranium with 235U(occurs in nature)
b. Enriched uranium with more than 0.71% of 235U
c. 239Pu, 241Pu or 239Pu(man made)
Natural uranium (0.7%) and its contents increase upto 90% in enriched
uranium.
5. Moderator
a. Water
b. Heavy water (D2O)
c. Graphite
d. Berylium or berylium oxide
e. Hydrocarbons or Hydrides.
6. Principal product:
a. Research reactor: To produce high neutron flux for research work.
b. Power reactor: To produce heat
c. Breeder reactor: produce fissionable material, convert fertile material to
fissionable materials.
d. Production reactor: To produce isotopes, output is radioactive material
used as source of radiation and tracers.
7. Coolant:
a. Air, carbon and helium cooled
b. Water or other liquid cooled
c. Liquid metal cooled
8. Construction of Core
a. Cubical b. Spherical
c. Cylindrical d. Slab
e. Octagonal
Essential Component of Nuclear
Reactor
1. Reactor core
2. Reflector
3. Control mechanism
4. Moderator
5. Coolants
6. Measuring instruments
7. Shielding
Nuclear Reactor
• Reactor Core :This is the main part of reactor which contain the
fissionable material called reactor fuel. Fission energy is liberated in the
form of heat for operating power conversion equipment. The fuel element
are made of plate of rods of uranium.
• Reactor reflector :The region surrounding the reactor core is known
as reflector. Its function is to reflect back some of the neutron that leak out
from the surface of core.
• Control rods :The rate of reaction in a nuclear reactor is controlled by
control rods. Since the neutron are responsible for the progress of chain
reaction, suitable neutron absorber are required to control the rate of
reaction.
a. For starting the reactor
b. For maintaining at that level. To keep the production at a steady state
c. For shutting down the reactor under normal or emergency conditions
• Cadmium and Boron are used as control rods.
• Moderator :The function of a reactor is to slow down the fast neutron. The
moderator should have
• High slowing down power
• Non corrosiveness
• High melting point for solids and low melting point for liquids.
• Chemical and radiation stability.
• High thermal conductivity
• Abundance in pure form.
• The commonly used moderator are :
(I) Ordinary water
(II) Heavy water
(III) Graphite.
• Coolant :The material used to remove heat produce by fission as fast as
liberated is known as reactor coolant. The coolant generally pumped
through the reactor in the form of liquid or gas. It is circulated throughout
the reactor so as to maintain a uniform temperature.
.
• Measuring Instruments: Main instrument required is for the purpose of
measuring thermal neutron flux which determines the power developed
by the reactor.
• Shielding: The large steel recipient containing the core, the control rods
and the heat-transfer fluid.
• All the components of the reactor are container in a solid concrete structure
that guarantees further isolation from external environment. This structure
is made of concrete that is one-metre thick, covered by steel.
Pressurized water reactor(PWR)
In a typical commercial pressurized light-water reactor, can use both natural
and highly enriched fuels.
Primary Circuit Secondary Circuit
(1) the core inside the reactor vessel creates heat,
(2) pressurized water in the primary coolant loop carries the heat to the steam
generator. Pressurizer keep the pressure at 100kg/cm2 so that it doesn’t boil.
(3) inside the steam generator, heat from the steam, and
(4) the steam line directs the steam to the main turbine, causing it to turn the
turbine generator, which produces electricity.
The unused steam is exhausted in to the condenser where it condensed into
water. The resulting water is pumped out of the condenser with a series of
pumps, reheated and pumped back to the steam generators.
Water acts both as coolant and moderator
It produces on saturated steam
PWR
Boiling Water Reactor(BWR)
• Uses Enriched fuel.
• The plant can safely operate using natural convection within the core or
forced circulation.
CANDU(Canadian-Deuterium-Uranium) REACTOR
• Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant
as well as neutron reflector.
• Natural Uranium(0.7% 235U) is used as fuel.
• In CANDU reactor the moderator and coolant
are kept separate.
Reactor Vessel and Core: Steel cylinder with horizontal axis,
length and diameter are 6m and 8m. Vessel is penetrated by
380 horizontal channels called pressure tubes. The channels
contain the fuel elements, and pressurized coolant flows along
the channel and around fuel elements to remove heat generated
by fission.
• The temperature 370deg C and high pressure 10Mpa
coolant leaving the reactor core enters the steam generator.
Fuel: Uranium Oxide as small cylinder pellets, packed in
corrosion resistance zirconium alloy tube to form fuel rod.
Control and Protection system:
Vertical control system:
Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor
• Sodium graphite reactor is liquid metal reactor.
• Sodium works as a coolant and graphite works as moderator.
• Sodium boils at 880deg C, sodium is first melted by electric heating system
and be pressurized to 7bars. The liquid sodium is then circulated by the
pump.
Working
• Breeder Reactor : Almost same as Liquid Metal Cooled
Reactor
Advantages and disadvantages of Nuclear Power plants
Nuclear Plant Site selection
• Proximity to load center
• Population distribution
• Land Use: not agricultural
• Meteorology: wind direction
• Geology: bearing capacity of soil
• Seismology: low seismic activity
• Hydrology: Near a water source
Safety Measures for Nuclear Power Plants
Three main sources of radioactive contamination
are:
• Fission of nuclei or nuclear fuels
• The effect of neutron fluxes on the heat carried in
the primary cooling system and on the ambient
air.
• Damage of shell of fuel elements.
All the above can cause health hazards to workers ,
communing and natural surroundings.
Safety Measures
• A nuclear power plant should be constructed away from
human habitation.(160km radius)
• The materials used for construction should be of required
standards.
• Waste water should be purified.
• Should have a proper safety system, plant could be shut
down when required.
• While disposing off the wastes it should be ensured that it
doesn’t contaminate the river or sea.
Nuclear Waste Disposal
• Geological Disposal
• The process of geological disposal centers on
burrowing nuclear waste into the ground to the point
where it is out of human reach.
• The waste needs to be properly protected to stop any
material from leaking out. Seepage from the waste
could contaminate the water table if the burial location
is above or below the water level. Furthermore, the
waste needs to be properly fastened to the burial site
and also structurally supported in the event of a major
seismic event, which could result in immediate
contamination.
• Reprocessing
• Reprocessing has also emerged as a viable
long term method for dealing with waste. As
the name implies, the process involves taking
waste and separating the useful components
from those that aren’t as useful. Specifically, it
involves taking the fissionable material out
from the irradiated nuclear fuel..
• Transmutation
• Transmutation also poses a solution for long term disposal. It
specifically involves converting a chemical element into another less
harmful one.
• Common conversions include going from Chlorine to Argon or
from Potassium to Argon.
• The driving force behind transmutation is chemical reactions that
are caused from an outside stimulus, such as a proton hitting the
reaction materials.
• Natural transmutation can also occur over a long period of time.
Natural transmutation also serves as the principle force behind
geological storage on the assumption that giving the waste enough
isolated time will allow it to become a non-fissionable material that
poses little or no risk
Future of Nuclear Power
• India has adequate deposits of fissionable material Thorium
which can be eventually used for generation of power.The
future of nuclear power plant is quiet bright
• Following three factors need discussion
1. Cost of Power Generation
2. Availability of nuclear fuel, breeder reactor.
3. Safety of nuclear plants.
List of Nuclear plants in India
http://www.npcil.nic.in/main/allprojectoperationdisplay.aspx
Tarapur, Rana Pratap Sagar , Kalpakkam, Narora, Kakrapar

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Nuclear power plants

  • 1. Nuclear Power Plantolar Lounge Nishkam Dhiman Asst Prof : Electrical and Electronics Engineering Chitkara University, Punjab
  • 2. Introduction • Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy. The most common type of nuclear fuel is fissile elements that can be made to undergo nuclear fission chain reactions in a nuclear reactor  The most common nuclear fuels are 235U and 239Pu. Not all nuclear fuels are used in fission chain reactions Other fuels: 238Np(Neptunium), 239U(Uranium), 241Pu(plutonium)
  • 3. • NUCLEAR FISSION  When a neutron strikes an atom of uranium, the uranium splits into two lighter atoms and releases heat simultaneously.  Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments.
  • 4. Chain Reaction A chain reaction refers to a process in which neutrons released in fission produce an additional fission in at least one further nucleus. This nucleus in turn produces neutrons, and the process repeats. If the process is controlled it is used for nuclear power or if uncontrolled it is used for nuclear weapons A chain reaction is that process in which number of neutrons keep on multiplying rapidly(in GP) during fission till whole of the fissionable material is disintegrated. Chain reaction will continue if, for every neutron absorbed, at least one fission neutron becomes available for causing fission of another nucleus. Expressed by multiplication factor K= No. of neutrons in any particular generation/No. of neutrons in the preceding generation. If K>1, chain reaction will continue and if K<1 , cant be maintained.
  • 5. Requirements of Fission Process • The neutrons emitted in fission should have adequate energy to cause fission of another nuclei. • The produced number of neutrons must be able not only to sustain the fission process but should be able to increase the rate of fission. • The process must be followed by liberation of energy. • It must be able to control the rate of fission by some means. • Critical mass: The minimum quantity of fuel required for any specific reactor system is called critical mass, and size associated with it is called critical size.
  • 6.
  • 7. • U235 + n → fission + 2 or 3 n + 200 MeV • MeV s Mega Electron Volt.  If each neutron releases two more neutrons, then the number of fissions doubles each generation. In that case, in 10 generations there are 1,024 fissions and in 80 generations about 6 x 10 23 (a mole) fissions.
  • 8. Schematic diagram of a nuclear plant control rods fuel rods reactor pressure vessel water (cool) water (hot) water (high pressure) water (low pressure) coolant out coolant in steam condenser steam (low pressure) turbine electric power steam generator steam (high pressure) pump primary loop secondary loop generator reactor core pump
  • 9. Nuclear Reactor • A Nuclear reactor is an apparatus in which nuclear fission is produced in the form of a controlled self sustaining chain reaction. Classification of nuclear reactor 1. According to chain reacting system, neutron energies at which the fission occurs: a. Fast reactors b. Intermediate reactor c. Slow reactors 2. Fuel moderator assembly a. Homogenous reactors: fuel and moderator are mixed to form a homogenous material, b. Heterogeneous reactors: the fuel is used in the form of rods, plates, lamps or wires and the moderator surrounds the each fuel element in the reactor core.
  • 10. 3. Fuel State a. Solid b. Liquid c. Gas 4. Fuel material a. Natural uranium with 235U(occurs in nature) b. Enriched uranium with more than 0.71% of 235U c. 239Pu, 241Pu or 239Pu(man made) Natural uranium (0.7%) and its contents increase upto 90% in enriched uranium. 5. Moderator a. Water b. Heavy water (D2O) c. Graphite d. Berylium or berylium oxide e. Hydrocarbons or Hydrides.
  • 11. 6. Principal product: a. Research reactor: To produce high neutron flux for research work. b. Power reactor: To produce heat c. Breeder reactor: produce fissionable material, convert fertile material to fissionable materials. d. Production reactor: To produce isotopes, output is radioactive material used as source of radiation and tracers. 7. Coolant: a. Air, carbon and helium cooled b. Water or other liquid cooled c. Liquid metal cooled 8. Construction of Core a. Cubical b. Spherical c. Cylindrical d. Slab e. Octagonal
  • 12. Essential Component of Nuclear Reactor 1. Reactor core 2. Reflector 3. Control mechanism 4. Moderator 5. Coolants 6. Measuring instruments 7. Shielding
  • 14. • Reactor Core :This is the main part of reactor which contain the fissionable material called reactor fuel. Fission energy is liberated in the form of heat for operating power conversion equipment. The fuel element are made of plate of rods of uranium. • Reactor reflector :The region surrounding the reactor core is known as reflector. Its function is to reflect back some of the neutron that leak out from the surface of core. • Control rods :The rate of reaction in a nuclear reactor is controlled by control rods. Since the neutron are responsible for the progress of chain reaction, suitable neutron absorber are required to control the rate of reaction. a. For starting the reactor b. For maintaining at that level. To keep the production at a steady state c. For shutting down the reactor under normal or emergency conditions • Cadmium and Boron are used as control rods.
  • 15. • Moderator :The function of a reactor is to slow down the fast neutron. The moderator should have • High slowing down power • Non corrosiveness • High melting point for solids and low melting point for liquids. • Chemical and radiation stability. • High thermal conductivity • Abundance in pure form. • The commonly used moderator are : (I) Ordinary water (II) Heavy water (III) Graphite.
  • 16. • Coolant :The material used to remove heat produce by fission as fast as liberated is known as reactor coolant. The coolant generally pumped through the reactor in the form of liquid or gas. It is circulated throughout the reactor so as to maintain a uniform temperature. . • Measuring Instruments: Main instrument required is for the purpose of measuring thermal neutron flux which determines the power developed by the reactor. • Shielding: The large steel recipient containing the core, the control rods and the heat-transfer fluid. • All the components of the reactor are container in a solid concrete structure that guarantees further isolation from external environment. This structure is made of concrete that is one-metre thick, covered by steel.
  • 17. Pressurized water reactor(PWR) In a typical commercial pressurized light-water reactor, can use both natural and highly enriched fuels. Primary Circuit Secondary Circuit (1) the core inside the reactor vessel creates heat, (2) pressurized water in the primary coolant loop carries the heat to the steam generator. Pressurizer keep the pressure at 100kg/cm2 so that it doesn’t boil. (3) inside the steam generator, heat from the steam, and (4) the steam line directs the steam to the main turbine, causing it to turn the turbine generator, which produces electricity. The unused steam is exhausted in to the condenser where it condensed into water. The resulting water is pumped out of the condenser with a series of pumps, reheated and pumped back to the steam generators. Water acts both as coolant and moderator It produces on saturated steam
  • 18. PWR
  • 19.
  • 20. Boiling Water Reactor(BWR) • Uses Enriched fuel. • The plant can safely operate using natural convection within the core or forced circulation.
  • 21.
  • 23. • Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant as well as neutron reflector. • Natural Uranium(0.7% 235U) is used as fuel. • In CANDU reactor the moderator and coolant are kept separate.
  • 24. Reactor Vessel and Core: Steel cylinder with horizontal axis, length and diameter are 6m and 8m. Vessel is penetrated by 380 horizontal channels called pressure tubes. The channels contain the fuel elements, and pressurized coolant flows along the channel and around fuel elements to remove heat generated by fission. • The temperature 370deg C and high pressure 10Mpa coolant leaving the reactor core enters the steam generator. Fuel: Uranium Oxide as small cylinder pellets, packed in corrosion resistance zirconium alloy tube to form fuel rod.
  • 25. Control and Protection system: Vertical control system:
  • 26.
  • 27. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor • Sodium graphite reactor is liquid metal reactor. • Sodium works as a coolant and graphite works as moderator. • Sodium boils at 880deg C, sodium is first melted by electric heating system and be pressurized to 7bars. The liquid sodium is then circulated by the pump.
  • 28. Working • Breeder Reactor : Almost same as Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor
  • 29.
  • 30. Advantages and disadvantages of Nuclear Power plants
  • 31. Nuclear Plant Site selection • Proximity to load center • Population distribution • Land Use: not agricultural • Meteorology: wind direction • Geology: bearing capacity of soil • Seismology: low seismic activity • Hydrology: Near a water source
  • 32. Safety Measures for Nuclear Power Plants Three main sources of radioactive contamination are: • Fission of nuclei or nuclear fuels • The effect of neutron fluxes on the heat carried in the primary cooling system and on the ambient air. • Damage of shell of fuel elements. All the above can cause health hazards to workers , communing and natural surroundings.
  • 33. Safety Measures • A nuclear power plant should be constructed away from human habitation.(160km radius) • The materials used for construction should be of required standards. • Waste water should be purified. • Should have a proper safety system, plant could be shut down when required. • While disposing off the wastes it should be ensured that it doesn’t contaminate the river or sea.
  • 34. Nuclear Waste Disposal • Geological Disposal • The process of geological disposal centers on burrowing nuclear waste into the ground to the point where it is out of human reach. • The waste needs to be properly protected to stop any material from leaking out. Seepage from the waste could contaminate the water table if the burial location is above or below the water level. Furthermore, the waste needs to be properly fastened to the burial site and also structurally supported in the event of a major seismic event, which could result in immediate contamination.
  • 35.
  • 36. • Reprocessing • Reprocessing has also emerged as a viable long term method for dealing with waste. As the name implies, the process involves taking waste and separating the useful components from those that aren’t as useful. Specifically, it involves taking the fissionable material out from the irradiated nuclear fuel..
  • 37. • Transmutation • Transmutation also poses a solution for long term disposal. It specifically involves converting a chemical element into another less harmful one. • Common conversions include going from Chlorine to Argon or from Potassium to Argon. • The driving force behind transmutation is chemical reactions that are caused from an outside stimulus, such as a proton hitting the reaction materials. • Natural transmutation can also occur over a long period of time. Natural transmutation also serves as the principle force behind geological storage on the assumption that giving the waste enough isolated time will allow it to become a non-fissionable material that poses little or no risk
  • 38. Future of Nuclear Power • India has adequate deposits of fissionable material Thorium which can be eventually used for generation of power.The future of nuclear power plant is quiet bright • Following three factors need discussion 1. Cost of Power Generation 2. Availability of nuclear fuel, breeder reactor. 3. Safety of nuclear plants. List of Nuclear plants in India http://www.npcil.nic.in/main/allprojectoperationdisplay.aspx Tarapur, Rana Pratap Sagar , Kalpakkam, Narora, Kakrapar