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EXPLANATION CONTENT
SECTORS OF INDIAN ECONOMY
• CLASSIFICATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES - 1.Primary -----
• 2.Secondary ---- 3.Tertiary ------Agriculture
• Dairy farming
• Fishing
• forestry
• Manufacturing industrial activities
• Example, cotton fibre from the plant to yarn and to cloth.
• Sugarcane to gur/sugar
• It is also known as industrial sector
• Tertiary sector helps the both primary and secondary sectors
• Example,transport,
• storage
• Banking,communication
• Trade.
• It is also called as service sector
Comparing the three sectors
PRIMARY,SECONDARY AND TERTIARY SECTORS IN INDIA
• HOW DO WE COUNT THE VARIOUS SECTORS AND KNOW THE TOTAL
PRODUCTION OF EACH SECTOR?
• IS IT DIFFICULT TASK?
• YES, SO TO GET RID OUT THIS PROBLEM
All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
• WE HAVE A METHOD TO CALCULATE THE VALUE OF GOODS AND
SERVICES
• EXAMPLE, 10,000 KG OF WHEAT IS SOLD AT Rs.8/KG, THE VALUE OF
WHEAT WILL BE Rs.80,000 SAME WAY THE VALUE OF 5000
COCONUTS AT Rs.10 PER COCONUT WILL BE Rs.50,000
WHAT IS FINAL GOODS AND SERVICES?
Remember, there is one precaution one has to take. Not every good (or
service) that is produced and sold needs to be counted. It makes sense only
to include the final goods and services. Take, for instance, a farmer who
sells wheat to a flour mill for Rs 8 per kg. The mill grinds the wheat and sells
the flour to a biscuit company for Rs 10 per kg. The biscuit company uses the
flour and things such as sugar and oil to make four packets of biscuits. It
sells biscuits in the market to the consumers for Rs 60 (Rs 15 per packet).
Biscuits are the final goods, i.e., goods that reach the consumers
The value of final goods and services produced in each sector during
a particular year provides the total production of the sector for that year. And
the sum of production in the three sectors gives what is called the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) of a country. It is the value of all final goods and
services produced within a country during a particular year. GDP shows how
big the economy is.
HISTORICAL CHANGE
1.Primary sector was the most important sector of economic activity.
2.Agriculture sector began to prosper, it produced much more food than
before.
Buying and selling activities increased many times.
3.Besides, there were also transporters, administrators, army etc. However,
at this stage, most of the goods produced were natural products from the
primary sector .
4.Expansion of Manufacturing Industries
All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
5.In the past 100 years, there has been a further shift from secondary to
tertiary sector in developed countries.
6The service sector has become the most important in terms of total
production. 7.Most of the working people are also employed in the service
sector. This is the general pattern observed in developed countries
RISING IMPORTANCE OF TERTIARY SECTOR in PRODUCTION
First, in any country several services such as hospitals, educational
institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts, village
administrative offices, municipal corporations, defence, transport, banks,
insurance companies, etc. are required. These can be considered as basic
services. In a developing country the government has to take responsibility
for the provision of these services
Second, the development of agriculture and industry leads to the
development of services such as
transport, trade, storage and the like, as we have already seen. Greater the
development of the primary and secondary sectors, more would be the
demand for such services.
Third, as income levels rise, certain sections of people start demanding
many more services like eating out, tourism, shopping, private hospitals,
private schools, professional training etc. You can see this change quite
sharply in cities, especially in big cities
UNDER EMPLOYMENT
Laxmi, owning about two hectares of unirrigated land dependent only on rain
and growing crops, like jowar and arhar. All five members of her family work
in the plot throughout the year. Why? They have nowhere else to go for work.
You will see that everyone is working, none remains idle, but in actual fact,
their labour effort gets divided. Each one is doing some work but no one is
fully employed. This is the situation of underemployment
All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
• DISGAUISED UNEMPLOYMENT
• where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work
less than their potential. This kind of underemployment is hidden in
contrast to someone who does not have a job and is clearly visible as
unemployed. Hence, it is also called disguised unemployment.
HOW TO CREATE MORE EMPLOYMENT
• small farmers like laksmi take loans from bank for agriculture.
• irrigation, seeds, equipments, fertilizers etc.
• many farmers do the same
• they cultivte food crops
• this leads to many other agro based industries and many people
engage themselves in employment
MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARENTEE ACT
2005(MGNREGA)
• Right to Work in about 625 districts of India. It is called Mahatma
Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (MGNREGA
2005). Under MGNREGA 2005, all those who are able to, and are in
need of, work in rural areas are guaranteed 100 days of employment in
a year by the government..
If the government fails in its duty to provide employment, it will give
unemployment allowances to the people. The types of work that would in
future help to increase the production from land will be given preference
under the Act.
DIVISION OF SECTORS AS ORGANISED AND UNORGANISED
• Check these points
• Regular work
• Every month salary
• Provident fund
All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
• Allowances
• Sunday holiday
• Terms and conditions of work
• With unorganised sect.
• Daily wage
• Overtime
• No allowances
• No wage on leave
• No formal letter of joining
• Employer’s word is final
HOW TO PROTECT WORKERS IN THE
UNORGANSED SECTOR?
• Who are these vulnerable people who need protection?
• landless agricultural labourers,
• small and marginal farmers,
• sharecroppers and artisans (such as weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters
and goldsmiths).
• In the urban areas,
• workers in small-scale industry,
• casual workers in construction,
• trade and transport etc.,
• street vendors,
• head load workers,
• garment makers,
All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
• rag pickers etc.
• Small-scale industry also needs government’s support for procuring
raw material and marketing of output.
• The casual workers in both rural and urban areas need to be protected
SECTORS IN TERMS OF OWNERSHIP
In the public sector, the government owns most of the assets and provides
all the services.. Railways or post office is an example of the public sector.
BHEL
NALCO
BSNL are few examples
PRIVATE SECTOR
In the private sector, ownership of assets and delivery of services is in the
hands of private individuals or companies like Tata Iron and Steel Company
Limited (TISCO) or Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) are privately owned.
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT
• There are some activities, which the government has to support.
• The private sector may not continue their production or business
unless government encourages it.
• For example, selling electricity at the cost of generation may push up
the costs of production of goods in many industries. Many units,
especially small-scale units, might have to shut down.
• Government here steps in by producing and supplying electricity at
rates which these industries can afford
• . Government has to bear part of the cost
• There are a large number of activities which are the primary
responsibility of the government.
All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
• The government must spend on these. Providing health and education
facilities for all is one example.
• Running proper schools and providing quality education, particularly
elementary education, is the duty of the government.
• India’s size of illiterate population is one of the largest in the world.
• Similarly, we know that nearly half of India’s children are malnourished
and a quarter of them are critically ill. We have read about Infant
Mortality Rates. The infant mortality rate of Odisha (41) or Madhya
Pradesh (47) is higher than some of the poorest regions of the world.
Government also needs to pay attention to aspects of human
development such as availability of safe drinking water, housing
facilities for the poor and food and nutrition. It is also the duty of the
government to take care of the poorest and most ignored regions of the
country through increased spending in such areas.
• We know that nearly half of India’s children are malnourished and a
quarter of them are critically ill.
• We have read about Infant Mortality Rates.
• The infant mortality rate of Odisha (41) or Madhya Pradesh (47) is
higher than some of the poorest regions of the world.
• Government also needs to pay attention to aspects of human
development such as availability of safe drinking water, housing
facilities for the poor and food and nutrition.
• It is also the duty of the government to take care of the poorest and
most ignored regions of the country through increased spending in
such areas.
CONCLUSION
• Classification of economic activities
• Primary sector
• Secondary sector/Industrial sector
All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
• Tertiary sector-Service sector
• Examples of economic activities
• Let’s work these out
• Comparing the three sectors
• Primary, Secondary and Tertiary sectors in India
• GDP by primary secondary and tertiary sectors
• Rising importance of Tertiary sector
• Where are the most of the people employed?
• share of sectors in employment(%)
• Under Employment
• How to create more Employment
• Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
2005(MGNREGA)
• Division of Sectors as Organized and Un organized
• How to protect workers in the in Un organized sector?
• Sectors in terms of Ownership
• Role of Government
All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission

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Sectors of the Indian Economy - Class 10 Study Notes pdf

  • 1. EXPLANATION CONTENT SECTORS OF INDIAN ECONOMY • CLASSIFICATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES - 1.Primary ----- • 2.Secondary ---- 3.Tertiary ------Agriculture • Dairy farming • Fishing • forestry • Manufacturing industrial activities • Example, cotton fibre from the plant to yarn and to cloth. • Sugarcane to gur/sugar • It is also known as industrial sector • Tertiary sector helps the both primary and secondary sectors • Example,transport, • storage • Banking,communication • Trade. • It is also called as service sector Comparing the three sectors PRIMARY,SECONDARY AND TERTIARY SECTORS IN INDIA • HOW DO WE COUNT THE VARIOUS SECTORS AND KNOW THE TOTAL PRODUCTION OF EACH SECTOR? • IS IT DIFFICULT TASK? • YES, SO TO GET RID OUT THIS PROBLEM All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
  • 2. • WE HAVE A METHOD TO CALCULATE THE VALUE OF GOODS AND SERVICES • EXAMPLE, 10,000 KG OF WHEAT IS SOLD AT Rs.8/KG, THE VALUE OF WHEAT WILL BE Rs.80,000 SAME WAY THE VALUE OF 5000 COCONUTS AT Rs.10 PER COCONUT WILL BE Rs.50,000 WHAT IS FINAL GOODS AND SERVICES? Remember, there is one precaution one has to take. Not every good (or service) that is produced and sold needs to be counted. It makes sense only to include the final goods and services. Take, for instance, a farmer who sells wheat to a flour mill for Rs 8 per kg. The mill grinds the wheat and sells the flour to a biscuit company for Rs 10 per kg. The biscuit company uses the flour and things such as sugar and oil to make four packets of biscuits. It sells biscuits in the market to the consumers for Rs 60 (Rs 15 per packet). Biscuits are the final goods, i.e., goods that reach the consumers The value of final goods and services produced in each sector during a particular year provides the total production of the sector for that year. And the sum of production in the three sectors gives what is called the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country. It is the value of all final goods and services produced within a country during a particular year. GDP shows how big the economy is. HISTORICAL CHANGE 1.Primary sector was the most important sector of economic activity. 2.Agriculture sector began to prosper, it produced much more food than before. Buying and selling activities increased many times. 3.Besides, there were also transporters, administrators, army etc. However, at this stage, most of the goods produced were natural products from the primary sector . 4.Expansion of Manufacturing Industries All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
  • 3. 5.In the past 100 years, there has been a further shift from secondary to tertiary sector in developed countries. 6The service sector has become the most important in terms of total production. 7.Most of the working people are also employed in the service sector. This is the general pattern observed in developed countries RISING IMPORTANCE OF TERTIARY SECTOR in PRODUCTION First, in any country several services such as hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts, village administrative offices, municipal corporations, defence, transport, banks, insurance companies, etc. are required. These can be considered as basic services. In a developing country the government has to take responsibility for the provision of these services Second, the development of agriculture and industry leads to the development of services such as transport, trade, storage and the like, as we have already seen. Greater the development of the primary and secondary sectors, more would be the demand for such services. Third, as income levels rise, certain sections of people start demanding many more services like eating out, tourism, shopping, private hospitals, private schools, professional training etc. You can see this change quite sharply in cities, especially in big cities UNDER EMPLOYMENT Laxmi, owning about two hectares of unirrigated land dependent only on rain and growing crops, like jowar and arhar. All five members of her family work in the plot throughout the year. Why? They have nowhere else to go for work. You will see that everyone is working, none remains idle, but in actual fact, their labour effort gets divided. Each one is doing some work but no one is fully employed. This is the situation of underemployment All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
  • 4. • DISGAUISED UNEMPLOYMENT • where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential. This kind of underemployment is hidden in contrast to someone who does not have a job and is clearly visible as unemployed. Hence, it is also called disguised unemployment. HOW TO CREATE MORE EMPLOYMENT • small farmers like laksmi take loans from bank for agriculture. • irrigation, seeds, equipments, fertilizers etc. • many farmers do the same • they cultivte food crops • this leads to many other agro based industries and many people engage themselves in employment MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARENTEE ACT 2005(MGNREGA) • Right to Work in about 625 districts of India. It is called Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (MGNREGA 2005). Under MGNREGA 2005, all those who are able to, and are in need of, work in rural areas are guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year by the government.. If the government fails in its duty to provide employment, it will give unemployment allowances to the people. The types of work that would in future help to increase the production from land will be given preference under the Act. DIVISION OF SECTORS AS ORGANISED AND UNORGANISED • Check these points • Regular work • Every month salary • Provident fund All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
  • 5. • Allowances • Sunday holiday • Terms and conditions of work • With unorganised sect. • Daily wage • Overtime • No allowances • No wage on leave • No formal letter of joining • Employer’s word is final HOW TO PROTECT WORKERS IN THE UNORGANSED SECTOR? • Who are these vulnerable people who need protection? • landless agricultural labourers, • small and marginal farmers, • sharecroppers and artisans (such as weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters and goldsmiths). • In the urban areas, • workers in small-scale industry, • casual workers in construction, • trade and transport etc., • street vendors, • head load workers, • garment makers, All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
  • 6. • rag pickers etc. • Small-scale industry also needs government’s support for procuring raw material and marketing of output. • The casual workers in both rural and urban areas need to be protected SECTORS IN TERMS OF OWNERSHIP In the public sector, the government owns most of the assets and provides all the services.. Railways or post office is an example of the public sector. BHEL NALCO BSNL are few examples PRIVATE SECTOR In the private sector, ownership of assets and delivery of services is in the hands of private individuals or companies like Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO) or Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) are privately owned. ROLE OF GOVERNMENT • There are some activities, which the government has to support. • The private sector may not continue their production or business unless government encourages it. • For example, selling electricity at the cost of generation may push up the costs of production of goods in many industries. Many units, especially small-scale units, might have to shut down. • Government here steps in by producing and supplying electricity at rates which these industries can afford • . Government has to bear part of the cost • There are a large number of activities which are the primary responsibility of the government. All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
  • 7. • The government must spend on these. Providing health and education facilities for all is one example. • Running proper schools and providing quality education, particularly elementary education, is the duty of the government. • India’s size of illiterate population is one of the largest in the world. • Similarly, we know that nearly half of India’s children are malnourished and a quarter of them are critically ill. We have read about Infant Mortality Rates. The infant mortality rate of Odisha (41) or Madhya Pradesh (47) is higher than some of the poorest regions of the world. Government also needs to pay attention to aspects of human development such as availability of safe drinking water, housing facilities for the poor and food and nutrition. It is also the duty of the government to take care of the poorest and most ignored regions of the country through increased spending in such areas. • We know that nearly half of India’s children are malnourished and a quarter of them are critically ill. • We have read about Infant Mortality Rates. • The infant mortality rate of Odisha (41) or Madhya Pradesh (47) is higher than some of the poorest regions of the world. • Government also needs to pay attention to aspects of human development such as availability of safe drinking water, housing facilities for the poor and food and nutrition. • It is also the duty of the government to take care of the poorest and most ignored regions of the country through increased spending in such areas. CONCLUSION • Classification of economic activities • Primary sector • Secondary sector/Industrial sector All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission
  • 8. • Tertiary sector-Service sector • Examples of economic activities • Let’s work these out • Comparing the three sectors • Primary, Secondary and Tertiary sectors in India • GDP by primary secondary and tertiary sectors • Rising importance of Tertiary sector • Where are the most of the people employed? • share of sectors in employment(%) • Under Employment • How to create more Employment • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005(MGNREGA) • Division of Sectors as Organized and Un organized • How to protect workers in the in Un organized sector? • Sectors in terms of Ownership • Role of Government All right copy reserved. No part of the material can be produced without prior permission