SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Heat and
Temperature



  Prepared by:
 Victor R. Oribe
What is heat?

Up to the middle of 19th century, it was
thought       that         heat         was        an
invisible, weightless substance called
Caloric Fluid.
When wood, for instance is burned, it is hot because it
produces large quantities of caloric fluid which is
transferred to other substance close by.

The burned wood, having lost its caloric fluid, is said
to have cooled off.
The theory of Caloric Fluid
was disproved around 1800
by     Count     Benjamin
Thompson Rumford, an
American-born physicist.


Count Benjamin Thompson
Rumford concluded that
heat was produced from
friction alone.
It was only about 40 years later that an English
physicist, James Prescott Joule proved that a
measurable amount of mechanical energy could
always be transformed into definite amounts of heat.



He concluded that heat
must be just another
form of energy.
Sources of Heat
             Natural Sources
1. The Sun
 When the sun’s energy reaches the earth, 30% of its is
 immediately reflected back out into space.

 Only 70% remains to
 interact     with      the
 earth, and warm it up.
 Of the 70%, 20% is
 energy to heat both the
 surface of the earth, as
 well as the ocean.
It is the sun’s heat
energy that makes
plants and animals to
provide themselves
with energy.
These plants provide
food for animals.
Human eat plants
and     animals   to
provide themselves
with energy.
Much of the heat on earth may be traced back to the
sun.
2. The interior of the Earth


A great amount of heat
also comes from buried hot
rocks and lava flow from
craters and crevices of
erupting volcanoes.


The hot spring in Tiwi, Albay, Los Banos, Laguna and
in Tayabas Quezon are proofs that the earth’s interior is
much hotter than its surface.
Artificial Sources
1. Chemical Action
 When fuels like coal, kerosene, wood, and gasoline are
 burned, they are used as artificial sources of heat.


 The oxygen we breathe in
 burns     the     food      we
 eat, producing enough body
 heat to keep our body
 temperature close to 370 C.
2. Mechanical Action
  Heat energy produced by a friction.
3. Electrical Energy
  Electricity is a very common source of heat at
  home.
  Oven toaster and electric iron are heated by the
  resistance of the heating coils to the electricity
  passing through them.
4. Nuclear Energy


 The        tremendous
 amount of energy
 from           nuclear
 reactions can be used
 to change water into
 steam, which is then
 used to operate a
 turbine to generate
 electricity.
How much have you learned?
1.   Heat is one of the topics in Thermodynamics.
     What is thermodynamics?
2.   Use kinetic molecular theory as a basis to explain
     how heat is produced.
3.   Solar energy is used by plants to manufacture
     their own food. Give two other examples how
     solar energy is used.
4.   Make a short description of the following kinds
     of thermometer:
            A. liquid-in-glass thermometer
            B. Platinum-resistance thermometer
            C. Thermocouple
            D. Optical
            E. thermograph
Temperature Scale
The most common thermometer used         in   the
laboratory is the Mercury Thermometer.
Colored alcohol is another liquid commonly used in
thermometer.
Celsius Scale
Commonly known as Centigrade Scale



This scale was devised in
1741     by    a     Swedish
astronomer,           Anders
Celsius, based on the
properties of water.
On the Celsius scale, the freezing point of
water is fixed at 0 degree Celsius (00 C)

The boiling point of pure water under
normal atmospheric pressure, 760 mm
Hg (at sea level), is 100 degrees Celsius
(1000 C).


The normal temperature of the human
body is 370 C
Fahrenheit Scale

The Fahrenheit scale was
devised by Daniel Gabriel
Fahrenheit,  A German
physicist.



Unites States of America and England use the
Fahrenheit scale for weather observation and other
purposes.
On Fahrenheit scale, 320 F is
the freezing point of water and
2120 F is the boiling point.
Kelvin Scale or Absolute Zero



Named after Sir
William Thompson
(Lord Kelvin) who
devised it.
This temperature scale is often used when
gases are involved.
Its zero point (0 K) corresponds to -2730 C
and is referred to as Absolute Zero or the
temperature at which the molecular
energy of matter is minimal.

On the Kelvin scale, the freezing point of
water is 273 K and the boiling point of
water is 373 K.
To convert temperature readings from
one scale to another, the equation below
are used:
Converting Units of Temperature
oC   to   oF       oF   =   (9/5)( oC)   + 32

38.7 oC             oF

          oF   = (1.8)(OC) + 32
               = (1.8) (38.7) + 32
               =        69.66   + 32
               =    101.7
oF   to   oC      oC   = 5/9 ( oF – 32)

      101.7 oF             o   C
       oC   = 5/9 ( oF – 32)
            = .555 (101.7 – 32)

            = (.555) (69.7)

            =   38.7
oC   to K         K = 273 + oC

 38.7 oC       K
    K = 273 + oC
        = 273 + 38.7

        = 311.7
Convert the following
1) 37o C to oF      1) 98.6oF
2) 350oF to oC      2) 176.7oC
3) 100oC to K       3) 373 K
4) 95o C to oF      4) 203 oF
5) 130oF to K       5) 327.4 K
6) 39oC to oF       6) 102 oF
 7) -160oF to oC    7) -107oC
 8) 80.0oF to oC    8) 27 o C
 9) 27oC to K       9) 300 K
10) 120oC to oF    10) 248 oF
How Heat is Measured?
Thermometer only gives us an idea of the total
potential energy and kinetic energy of the molecules
in an object.
It does not tell us how much heat a particular object
absorbs or gives off.
In fact there is no instrument that directly measures
the amount of heat energy that a body gives off or
absorbs

If you want to calculate the amount of heat given off
by a piece of charcoal or a certain kind of gas, then
you have to determine the change in temperature it
produces on a definite volume of water.
Units of Heat
Common units used for measuring heat energy:
    a. Calorie (cal)
    b. kilocalorie (kcal)
    c. joule (J)

The SI unit for heat, as for any other form of energy is
the Joule (1 N.m = 1 joule)

Today, the calorie is defined in terms of the joule: that
is 1 cal = 4.184 J.

This is the mechanical equivalent of heat
1 Kcal = 1000 calories
Effects of Heat
1. Generally when a substance absorbs heat, its
temperature rises.

2. Solid usually melt or change to the liquid
state when heated.
3. Liquid may absorb enough energy when
heated to change to vapor state.
4. Almost all objects expand when heated.
5. A change in the heat content of a substance
can cause chemical changes.
6. Heat causes many changes in bodily
functions of living organisms
Enzymes are protein-like substances formed in human
cells that act as catalysts in initiating or speeding up
specific chemical reactions.
Each has a characteristics shape that allows it to hold
two or more molecules close enough together so they
can react chemically.
If the temperature is increased, then the speed of
moving molecules is also increased.
Bombardment by high speed molecules in the cell can
cause the enzymes to lose its shape.
It can no longer perform its vital function.
Two glasses stack together.

If we twist them apart, one or both
of them may break.
What is the safest way to separate
the two glasses that stick together?
One way is to pour some cold water
into the inner glass and dip the
outer glass in hot water.
Within a short while, the two glasses can easily be
pulled apart.
Why?     Generally most substances expands when
         heated and contract when cooled.
A change in temperature produces
a change in length in almost all
solid.
Experimental results have shown
that change in length is directly
proportional     to   change   in
temperature and to the original
length of the object.
Different solids of the same length
differ in their expansion for the
same change in temperature.
In liquids the effect of heat is an increase in their
volume while the effect of cooling is a decrease in their
volume.
Expansion of Gases




                     Why      do    gases
                     expand at a greater
                     rate than solids and
                     liquids?
Change of Phase
Whenever the temperature of a substance
changes, there is an accompanying change in its
molecular structure.
If the change in molecular structure is such that it
becomes noticeable, then we say that the substance
is undergoing a Change of Phase.
Heat Transfer
Heat may be transferred in
three ways:
   a. Conduction
   b. Convection
   c. Radiation
a. Conduction
      Transmission of heat from particle to particle

      Conduction of heat in an object will take place
      only when one part of the object has a higher
      temperature than another part.


The part with a higher
temperature will transfer its
heat energy to that part
with a lower temperature.
Solid are the best conductors of heat.

Among solids, metal conduct heat
the best.
But   metals      differ   in    their
conductivity.

Silver is very good conductor of heat
than iron and lead. Why?
b. Convection
  The heat energy is distributed by the liquid or
  gaseous molecules in circling currents.
c. Radiation
  Transfer of heat through electromagnetic
  waves.
2
    1


3
            4
QUIZ
1. The absolute zero temperature
   is _____
    a. -273 0 C
    b. -320 C
    c. 00 C
    d. 273 K
2. The space between the walls of
the double-walled thermos bottle
is evacuated to ______
     a. increase volume
     b. reduce convection
     c. reduce heat transfer by
        conduction
     d. both b and c
3. Dry ice has a temperature of -
110.2   0 F.     What would its
temperature be on the Celsius
scale?
    a. -7110 C
    b. -198.3 0 C
    c. -142.2 0C

    d. -79 0C
4. Room temperature is often
                  0
identified as 68 F.         What
temperature is this on the Kelvin
scale?
    a. 20 K
    b. 100 K
    c. 293 K
    d. 341 K
5. The transfer of energy from a
source to an object by direct
contact between them is _____
    a. conduction
    b. convection
    c. insulation
    d. radiation
6. As more heat is added to a
sample of water boiling in a
stove, its temperature ______
    a. decreases
    b. increases
    c. increases then decreases
    d. remains the same
7. When water reaches        4 0   C, ____.
   a. it will expand only if heated.
   b. its volume will remain constant.
   c. it will expand whether it is cooled
      or heated.
   d. it will contract until it freezes into
      ice, and then expand.
8. When does vaporization
happen? It _____________.
  a. will occur only at night.
  b. takes place at very great pressures.
  c. occurs at the boiling point temperature
  d. takes only at a definite temperature
      may occur at a definite temperature
      or at any temperature.
9. Which of the following
statements is true about boiling?
It ____________.
   a. is lower than evaporation.
   b. takes place at a definite
       temperature.
   c. is the same for all liquids at the
      same temperature.
   d. takes place when bubbles begin to
       appear in the liquid.
10. The rate of evaporation may
be increase by _______
   a. raising the temperature of the
      liquid.
   b. increasing the surface area of the
      liquid.
   c. decreasing the air pressure on the
      surface of the liquid.
   d. any of the above.
11. What is condensation? It ____
   a. is an exothermic process.
   b. is the opposite process of
       melting.
   c. is due to the increase in the
      kinetic energy of the particle
      of the liquid.
   d. refers to the change from solid
      state to gaseous state form of
      matter.
Two cars of the same model, the same brand, and the
same size, are both locked and parked under the sun
in an open parking lot. The two cars are parked
from 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. One of the cars is ivory
white in color and the other is dark blue.

12. Under the same condition, at 12:00 noon, _____
      a. the dark-colored will be hotter inside.
      b. the ivory-colored car will be hotter inside.
      c. since both are locked, the sun will not affect
         either car.
      d. since both are under the same sun, they will
          both be equally hot.
Match Column A with Column B

                                            Column A
                  Column A
_____13. William Thompson        a.   Centigrade tempt. Scale
_____14. Anders Celsius          b.   Absolute Tempt. Scale
_____15. D. Gabriel Fahrenheit   c.   Fahrenheit Tempt. Scale
_____16. B.T. Rumford
_____17. J. Prescott Joule       d.   Heat is produced by friction
                                 e.   Concluded that heat is a
                                      form of energy.
18-21. Enumerate the          different
artificial sources of heat.
     18.
     19.
     20.
     21.
22-24. Enumerate the        different
methods of heat transfer.
    22.
    23.
    24.
25. True or False
     Land breeze and sea breeze
occurs because of conviction current.
Answer
1. The absolute zero temperature
   is _____
    a. -273 0 C
    b. -320 C
    c. 00 C
    d. 273 K
2. The space between the walls of the
double-walled thermos bottle is
evacuated to ______
    a. increase volume
    b. reduce convection
    c. reduce heat transfer by
       conduction
    d. both b and c
3. Dry ice has a temperature of -110.2
0 F. What would its temperature be

on the Celsius scale?
    a. -7110 C
    b. -198.3 0 C
    c. -142.20 C
    d. -79 0C
4. Room temperature is often
                  0
identified as 68 F.         What
temperature is this on the Kelvin
scale?
    a. 20 K
    b. 100 K
    c. 293 K
    d. 341 K
5. The transfer of energy from a
source to an object by direct
contact between them is _____
    a. conduction
    b. convection
    c. insulation
    d. radiation
6. As more heat is added to a
sample of water boiling in a
stove, its temperature ______
    a. decreases
    b. increases
    c. increases then decreases
    d. remains the same
7. When water reaches        4 0   C, ____.
   a. it will expand only if heated.
   b. its volume will remain constant.
   c. it will expand whether it is cooled
      or heated.
   d. it will contract until it freezes into
      ice, and then expand.
8. When does vaporization
happen? It _____________.
  a. will occur only at night.
  b. takes place at very great pressures.
  c. occurs at the boiling point temperature
  d. takes only at a definite temperature
      may occur at a definite temperature
      or at any temperature.
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperature

More Related Content

What's hot

Grade 8 - Module 5: Sounds
Grade 8 - Module 5: SoundsGrade 8 - Module 5: Sounds
Grade 8 - Module 5: Sounds
Van Linz Castillo
 
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperatureHeat and temperature
Speed and velocity
Speed and velocitySpeed and velocity
Speed and velocity
Makati Science High School
 
Lesson 5: Heat as a Form of Energy
Lesson 5: Heat as a Form of EnergyLesson 5: Heat as a Form of Energy
Lesson 5: Heat as a Form of Energy
Mailyn Morales
 
Presentation on heat and temperature
Presentation on heat and temperaturePresentation on heat and temperature
Presentation on heat and temperature
topu93
 
Light and The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Light and The Electromagnetic SpectrumLight and The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Light and The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Louie Jane Eleccion, LPT
 
Heat PowerPoint
Heat PowerPointHeat PowerPoint
Heat PowerPoint
StaceyGreene12
 
Unit 3 Matter
Unit 3 MatterUnit 3 Matter
Unit 3 Matter
Irvin John Salegon
 
Relationship between fault and earthquake
Relationship between fault and earthquakeRelationship between fault and earthquake
Relationship between fault and earthquake
Anabelle Montevirgen
 
Properties of Mixtures and Pure Substances
Properties of Mixtures and Pure SubstancesProperties of Mixtures and Pure Substances
Properties of Mixtures and Pure Substances
Simple ABbieC
 
Work and Energy
Work and EnergyWork and Energy
Work and Energy
meenng
 
Current and voltage grade 8
Current and voltage grade 8Current and voltage grade 8
Current and voltage grade 8
Elgerjegz Balderas
 
Mechanical energy
Mechanical energyMechanical energy
Mechanical energy
John Florentino E Echon
 
Chap 3 locating places
Chap 3  locating placesChap 3  locating places
Chap 3 locating places
Jan Crisides Corrado
 
Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
Balanced and Unbalanced ForcesBalanced and Unbalanced Forces
Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
Rick Turner
 
Earthquakes and faults (Grade 8 Lesson)
Earthquakes and faults (Grade 8 Lesson) Earthquakes and faults (Grade 8 Lesson)
Earthquakes and faults (Grade 8 Lesson)
Riya Duran
 
Earthquakes and Fault Grade 8
Earthquakes and Fault Grade 8Earthquakes and Fault Grade 8
Earthquakes and Fault Grade 8
Lei Calidro Gerardo
 
Module 2 atom inside out (grade 8)
Module 2 atom inside out (grade 8)Module 2 atom inside out (grade 8)
Module 2 atom inside out (grade 8)
Jimnaira Abanto
 
Physics: Potential and Kinetic Energy
Physics: Potential and Kinetic EnergyPhysics: Potential and Kinetic Energy
Physics: Potential and Kinetic Energy
Padme Amidala
 
Science 7 - Describing Motion
Science 7 - Describing MotionScience 7 - Describing Motion
Science 7 - Describing Motion
Merra Mae Ramos
 

What's hot (20)

Grade 8 - Module 5: Sounds
Grade 8 - Module 5: SoundsGrade 8 - Module 5: Sounds
Grade 8 - Module 5: Sounds
 
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperatureHeat and temperature
Heat and temperature
 
Speed and velocity
Speed and velocitySpeed and velocity
Speed and velocity
 
Lesson 5: Heat as a Form of Energy
Lesson 5: Heat as a Form of EnergyLesson 5: Heat as a Form of Energy
Lesson 5: Heat as a Form of Energy
 
Presentation on heat and temperature
Presentation on heat and temperaturePresentation on heat and temperature
Presentation on heat and temperature
 
Light and The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Light and The Electromagnetic SpectrumLight and The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Light and The Electromagnetic Spectrum
 
Heat PowerPoint
Heat PowerPointHeat PowerPoint
Heat PowerPoint
 
Unit 3 Matter
Unit 3 MatterUnit 3 Matter
Unit 3 Matter
 
Relationship between fault and earthquake
Relationship between fault and earthquakeRelationship between fault and earthquake
Relationship between fault and earthquake
 
Properties of Mixtures and Pure Substances
Properties of Mixtures and Pure SubstancesProperties of Mixtures and Pure Substances
Properties of Mixtures and Pure Substances
 
Work and Energy
Work and EnergyWork and Energy
Work and Energy
 
Current and voltage grade 8
Current and voltage grade 8Current and voltage grade 8
Current and voltage grade 8
 
Mechanical energy
Mechanical energyMechanical energy
Mechanical energy
 
Chap 3 locating places
Chap 3  locating placesChap 3  locating places
Chap 3 locating places
 
Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
Balanced and Unbalanced ForcesBalanced and Unbalanced Forces
Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
 
Earthquakes and faults (Grade 8 Lesson)
Earthquakes and faults (Grade 8 Lesson) Earthquakes and faults (Grade 8 Lesson)
Earthquakes and faults (Grade 8 Lesson)
 
Earthquakes and Fault Grade 8
Earthquakes and Fault Grade 8Earthquakes and Fault Grade 8
Earthquakes and Fault Grade 8
 
Module 2 atom inside out (grade 8)
Module 2 atom inside out (grade 8)Module 2 atom inside out (grade 8)
Module 2 atom inside out (grade 8)
 
Physics: Potential and Kinetic Energy
Physics: Potential and Kinetic EnergyPhysics: Potential and Kinetic Energy
Physics: Potential and Kinetic Energy
 
Science 7 - Describing Motion
Science 7 - Describing MotionScience 7 - Describing Motion
Science 7 - Describing Motion
 

Viewers also liked

Temperature Lesson PowerPoint
Temperature Lesson PowerPointTemperature Lesson PowerPoint
Temperature Lesson PowerPoint
www.sciencepowerpoint.com
 
Things Dogs Carry #THINGSICARRY
Things Dogs Carry #THINGSICARRYThings Dogs Carry #THINGSICARRY
Things Dogs Carry #THINGSICARRY
Empowered Presentations
 
Earth Science. Geosphere, Plate Tectonic Notes
Earth Science. Geosphere, Plate Tectonic NotesEarth Science. Geosphere, Plate Tectonic Notes
Earth Science. Geosphere, Plate Tectonic Notes
Mrs. Henley
 
The Changing Earth - 01 The Structure of the Earth.
The Changing Earth - 01 The Structure of the Earth.The Changing Earth - 01 The Structure of the Earth.
The Changing Earth - 01 The Structure of the Earth.
Ian Anderson
 
Landforms of the Earth
Landforms of the EarthLandforms of the Earth
Landforms of the Earth
Anna Mae Cayanan
 
Temperature,Heat, and Energy Transfer
Temperature,Heat, and Energy TransferTemperature,Heat, and Energy Transfer
Temperature,Heat, and Energy Transfer
muguu_908
 
Earth structure for S2
Earth structure for S2Earth structure for S2
Earth structure for S2
jdmcd
 
Heat transfer
Heat transferHeat transfer
Thermal Energy & Heat Transfer
Thermal Energy & Heat TransferThermal Energy & Heat Transfer
Thermal Energy & Heat Transfer
Alan Wrafter
 
Temperature and heat
Temperature and heatTemperature and heat
Heat Transfer By Design Lesson 4
Heat Transfer By Design Lesson 4Heat Transfer By Design Lesson 4
Heat Transfer By Design Lesson 4
Henry Emuna
 
Earth and space science
Earth and space scienceEarth and space science
Earth and space science
mmoreno18
 
Makeup of the earth, lesson 2
Makeup of the earth, lesson 2Makeup of the earth, lesson 2
Makeup of the earth, lesson 2
Heather Schiesher
 
Chapter 3: the composition and structure of the earth
Chapter 3: the composition and structure of the earthChapter 3: the composition and structure of the earth
Chapter 3: the composition and structure of the earth
Christine Joy Tonquin
 
Interior of earth
Interior of earthInterior of earth
Interior of earth
Muhammad Adil
 
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperatureHeat and temperature
Heat and temperature
martagar78
 
The structure of the earth and plate tectonics
The structure of the earth and plate tectonicsThe structure of the earth and plate tectonics
The structure of the earth and plate tectonics
ccbthirdgrade
 
Methods of heat transfer and thermal properties of soil
Methods of heat transfer and thermal properties of soil Methods of heat transfer and thermal properties of soil
Methods of heat transfer and thermal properties of soil
dathan cs
 
Chapter 5 Lesson 1
Chapter 5 Lesson 1Chapter 5 Lesson 1
Chapter 5 Lesson 1
Dan
 
Features of earth`s surface
Features of earth`s surfaceFeatures of earth`s surface
Features of earth`s surface
Noura Ishnawer
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Temperature Lesson PowerPoint
Temperature Lesson PowerPointTemperature Lesson PowerPoint
Temperature Lesson PowerPoint
 
Things Dogs Carry #THINGSICARRY
Things Dogs Carry #THINGSICARRYThings Dogs Carry #THINGSICARRY
Things Dogs Carry #THINGSICARRY
 
Earth Science. Geosphere, Plate Tectonic Notes
Earth Science. Geosphere, Plate Tectonic NotesEarth Science. Geosphere, Plate Tectonic Notes
Earth Science. Geosphere, Plate Tectonic Notes
 
The Changing Earth - 01 The Structure of the Earth.
The Changing Earth - 01 The Structure of the Earth.The Changing Earth - 01 The Structure of the Earth.
The Changing Earth - 01 The Structure of the Earth.
 
Landforms of the Earth
Landforms of the EarthLandforms of the Earth
Landforms of the Earth
 
Temperature,Heat, and Energy Transfer
Temperature,Heat, and Energy TransferTemperature,Heat, and Energy Transfer
Temperature,Heat, and Energy Transfer
 
Earth structure for S2
Earth structure for S2Earth structure for S2
Earth structure for S2
 
Heat transfer
Heat transferHeat transfer
Heat transfer
 
Thermal Energy & Heat Transfer
Thermal Energy & Heat TransferThermal Energy & Heat Transfer
Thermal Energy & Heat Transfer
 
Temperature and heat
Temperature and heatTemperature and heat
Temperature and heat
 
Heat Transfer By Design Lesson 4
Heat Transfer By Design Lesson 4Heat Transfer By Design Lesson 4
Heat Transfer By Design Lesson 4
 
Earth and space science
Earth and space scienceEarth and space science
Earth and space science
 
Makeup of the earth, lesson 2
Makeup of the earth, lesson 2Makeup of the earth, lesson 2
Makeup of the earth, lesson 2
 
Chapter 3: the composition and structure of the earth
Chapter 3: the composition and structure of the earthChapter 3: the composition and structure of the earth
Chapter 3: the composition and structure of the earth
 
Interior of earth
Interior of earthInterior of earth
Interior of earth
 
Heat and temperature
Heat and temperatureHeat and temperature
Heat and temperature
 
The structure of the earth and plate tectonics
The structure of the earth and plate tectonicsThe structure of the earth and plate tectonics
The structure of the earth and plate tectonics
 
Methods of heat transfer and thermal properties of soil
Methods of heat transfer and thermal properties of soil Methods of heat transfer and thermal properties of soil
Methods of heat transfer and thermal properties of soil
 
Chapter 5 Lesson 1
Chapter 5 Lesson 1Chapter 5 Lesson 1
Chapter 5 Lesson 1
 
Features of earth`s surface
Features of earth`s surfaceFeatures of earth`s surface
Features of earth`s surface
 

Similar to Heat and temperature

Lecture 6 heat
Lecture 6   heatLecture 6   heat
Lecture 6 heat
Bekark
 
Measurement and effects of heat
Measurement and effects of heatMeasurement and effects of heat
Measurement and effects of heat
siddharthsamant5
 
Capter 10 for 9th grade Physics
Capter 10 for 9th grade PhysicsCapter 10 for 9th grade Physics
Capter 10 for 9th grade Physics
Physics Amal Sweis
 
Heat transfer
Heat transferHeat transfer
Heat transfer
akash282011
 
Heat Ch. 11
Heat Ch. 11Heat Ch. 11
Heat Ch. 11
StaceyGreene12
 
Heat Lecture Slides
Heat Lecture SlidesHeat Lecture Slides
Heat Lecture Slides
Ed Stermer
 
Tempertaure and Heat
Tempertaure and Heat Tempertaure and Heat
Tempertaure and Heat
Paul Comitz
 
Ch 12 Temperature and Heat
Ch 12 Temperature and Heat Ch 12 Temperature and Heat
Ch 12 Temperature and Heat
Scott Thomas
 
Capter 10 for 9th grade physics
Capter 10 for 9th grade physicsCapter 10 for 9th grade physics
Capter 10 for 9th grade physics
Physics Amal Sweis
 
Capter 10
Capter 10Capter 10
Physics for 9th grade [Chapter 10]
Physics for 9th grade [Chapter 10]Physics for 9th grade [Chapter 10]
Physics for 9th grade [Chapter 10]
Physics Amal Sweis
 
Grade 7 Chemistry
Grade 7 ChemistryGrade 7 Chemistry
Grade 7 Chemistry
ScienceCoats
 
Capter 10
Capter 10Capter 10
Capter 10
Capter 10Capter 10
Heat and Calorie
Heat and CalorieHeat and Calorie
Heat and Calorie
Kim Reymart Sumayan
 
Heat
HeatHeat
Module 13 transit energies
Module 13  transit energiesModule 13  transit energies
Module 13 transit energies
dionesioable
 
Introduction to Thermodynamics
Introduction to ThermodynamicsIntroduction to Thermodynamics
Introduction to Thermodynamics
osang0908
 
2º ESO UNITt 1 HEAT. NOTES
2º ESO UNITt 1 HEAT. NOTES2º ESO UNITt 1 HEAT. NOTES
2º ESO UNITt 1 HEAT. NOTES
beabio75
 
for Thursday.pptx
for Thursday.pptxfor Thursday.pptx
for Thursday.pptx
RegieGGalang
 

Similar to Heat and temperature (20)

Lecture 6 heat
Lecture 6   heatLecture 6   heat
Lecture 6 heat
 
Measurement and effects of heat
Measurement and effects of heatMeasurement and effects of heat
Measurement and effects of heat
 
Capter 10 for 9th grade Physics
Capter 10 for 9th grade PhysicsCapter 10 for 9th grade Physics
Capter 10 for 9th grade Physics
 
Heat transfer
Heat transferHeat transfer
Heat transfer
 
Heat Ch. 11
Heat Ch. 11Heat Ch. 11
Heat Ch. 11
 
Heat Lecture Slides
Heat Lecture SlidesHeat Lecture Slides
Heat Lecture Slides
 
Tempertaure and Heat
Tempertaure and Heat Tempertaure and Heat
Tempertaure and Heat
 
Ch 12 Temperature and Heat
Ch 12 Temperature and Heat Ch 12 Temperature and Heat
Ch 12 Temperature and Heat
 
Capter 10 for 9th grade physics
Capter 10 for 9th grade physicsCapter 10 for 9th grade physics
Capter 10 for 9th grade physics
 
Capter 10
Capter 10Capter 10
Capter 10
 
Physics for 9th grade [Chapter 10]
Physics for 9th grade [Chapter 10]Physics for 9th grade [Chapter 10]
Physics for 9th grade [Chapter 10]
 
Grade 7 Chemistry
Grade 7 ChemistryGrade 7 Chemistry
Grade 7 Chemistry
 
Capter 10
Capter 10Capter 10
Capter 10
 
Capter 10
Capter 10Capter 10
Capter 10
 
Heat and Calorie
Heat and CalorieHeat and Calorie
Heat and Calorie
 
Heat
HeatHeat
Heat
 
Module 13 transit energies
Module 13  transit energiesModule 13  transit energies
Module 13 transit energies
 
Introduction to Thermodynamics
Introduction to ThermodynamicsIntroduction to Thermodynamics
Introduction to Thermodynamics
 
2º ESO UNITt 1 HEAT. NOTES
2º ESO UNITt 1 HEAT. NOTES2º ESO UNITt 1 HEAT. NOTES
2º ESO UNITt 1 HEAT. NOTES
 
for Thursday.pptx
for Thursday.pptxfor Thursday.pptx
for Thursday.pptx
 

More from Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

12 days of christmas
12 days of christmas12 days of christmas
Respiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organs
Respiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organsRespiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organs
Respiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organs
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
 
Heredity, inheritance, and variation
Heredity, inheritance, and variationHeredity, inheritance, and variation
Heredity, inheritance, and variation
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
 
1 introduction to world geography
1  introduction to world geography1  introduction to world geography
1 introduction to world geography
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
 
Components of vector
Components of vectorComponents of vector
Linear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. Oribe
Linear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. OribeLinear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. Oribe
Linear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. Oribe
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
 
Astronomy by Victor R. Oribe
Astronomy by Victor R. OribeAstronomy by Victor R. Oribe
Astronomy by Victor R. Oribe
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
 
Touring our solar system (astronomy)
Touring  our solar system (astronomy)Touring  our solar system (astronomy)
Touring our solar system (astronomy)
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
 
The lithosphere
The lithosphereThe lithosphere
Light
LightLight
Sound
SoundSound
Nature of waves
Nature of wavesNature of waves
Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproductionAsexual reproduction
mechanics
mechanicsmechanics
Characteristics of living things
Characteristics of living thingsCharacteristics of living things
Characteristics of living things
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
 
Amines
AminesAmines
Aldehydes
AldehydesAldehydes
When things in life seems too much too handle
When things in life seems too much too handleWhen things in life seems too much too handle
When things in life seems too much too handle
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
 
Alamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalaki
Alamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalakiAlamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalaki
Alamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalaki
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
 
Magnetism
MagnetismMagnetism

More from Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation (20)

12 days of christmas
12 days of christmas12 days of christmas
12 days of christmas
 
Respiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organs
Respiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organsRespiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organs
Respiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organs
 
Heredity, inheritance, and variation
Heredity, inheritance, and variationHeredity, inheritance, and variation
Heredity, inheritance, and variation
 
1 introduction to world geography
1  introduction to world geography1  introduction to world geography
1 introduction to world geography
 
Components of vector
Components of vectorComponents of vector
Components of vector
 
Linear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. Oribe
Linear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. OribeLinear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. Oribe
Linear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. Oribe
 
Astronomy by Victor R. Oribe
Astronomy by Victor R. OribeAstronomy by Victor R. Oribe
Astronomy by Victor R. Oribe
 
Touring our solar system (astronomy)
Touring  our solar system (astronomy)Touring  our solar system (astronomy)
Touring our solar system (astronomy)
 
The lithosphere
The lithosphereThe lithosphere
The lithosphere
 
Light
LightLight
Light
 
Sound
SoundSound
Sound
 
Nature of waves
Nature of wavesNature of waves
Nature of waves
 
Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproductionAsexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction
 
mechanics
mechanicsmechanics
mechanics
 
Characteristics of living things
Characteristics of living thingsCharacteristics of living things
Characteristics of living things
 
Amines
AminesAmines
Amines
 
Aldehydes
AldehydesAldehydes
Aldehydes
 
When things in life seems too much too handle
When things in life seems too much too handleWhen things in life seems too much too handle
When things in life seems too much too handle
 
Alamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalaki
Alamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalakiAlamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalaki
Alamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalaki
 
Magnetism
MagnetismMagnetism
Magnetism
 

Recently uploaded

Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHatAzure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Scholarhat
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
History of Stoke Newington
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
RitikBhardwaj56
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP ModuleHow to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
Celine George
 
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in AmericaTop five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
Bisnar Chase Personal Injury Attorneys
 
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for studentLife upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
NgcHiNguyn25
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
Israel Genealogy Research Association
 
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School DistrictPride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
David Douglas School District
 
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Dr. Mulla Adam Ali
 
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptxAssessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Kavitha Krishnan
 
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and InclusionExecutive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
TechSoup
 
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in EducationA Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
Peter Windle
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
Jean Carlos Nunes Paixão
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdfclinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptxA Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
thanhdowork
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHatAzure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP ModuleHow to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
 
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in AmericaTop five deadliest dog breeds in America
Top five deadliest dog breeds in America
 
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for studentLife upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
 
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School DistrictPride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
 
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
 
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptxAssessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
 
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and InclusionExecutive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
 
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in EducationA Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
 
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdfclinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
 
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptxA Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
 

Heat and temperature

  • 1. Heat and Temperature Prepared by: Victor R. Oribe
  • 2. What is heat? Up to the middle of 19th century, it was thought that heat was an invisible, weightless substance called Caloric Fluid. When wood, for instance is burned, it is hot because it produces large quantities of caloric fluid which is transferred to other substance close by. The burned wood, having lost its caloric fluid, is said to have cooled off.
  • 3. The theory of Caloric Fluid was disproved around 1800 by Count Benjamin Thompson Rumford, an American-born physicist. Count Benjamin Thompson Rumford concluded that heat was produced from friction alone.
  • 4. It was only about 40 years later that an English physicist, James Prescott Joule proved that a measurable amount of mechanical energy could always be transformed into definite amounts of heat. He concluded that heat must be just another form of energy.
  • 5. Sources of Heat Natural Sources 1. The Sun When the sun’s energy reaches the earth, 30% of its is immediately reflected back out into space. Only 70% remains to interact with the earth, and warm it up. Of the 70%, 20% is energy to heat both the surface of the earth, as well as the ocean.
  • 6. It is the sun’s heat energy that makes plants and animals to provide themselves with energy. These plants provide food for animals. Human eat plants and animals to provide themselves with energy. Much of the heat on earth may be traced back to the sun.
  • 7. 2. The interior of the Earth A great amount of heat also comes from buried hot rocks and lava flow from craters and crevices of erupting volcanoes. The hot spring in Tiwi, Albay, Los Banos, Laguna and in Tayabas Quezon are proofs that the earth’s interior is much hotter than its surface.
  • 8. Artificial Sources 1. Chemical Action When fuels like coal, kerosene, wood, and gasoline are burned, they are used as artificial sources of heat. The oxygen we breathe in burns the food we eat, producing enough body heat to keep our body temperature close to 370 C.
  • 9. 2. Mechanical Action Heat energy produced by a friction.
  • 10. 3. Electrical Energy Electricity is a very common source of heat at home. Oven toaster and electric iron are heated by the resistance of the heating coils to the electricity passing through them.
  • 11. 4. Nuclear Energy The tremendous amount of energy from nuclear reactions can be used to change water into steam, which is then used to operate a turbine to generate electricity.
  • 12. How much have you learned? 1. Heat is one of the topics in Thermodynamics. What is thermodynamics? 2. Use kinetic molecular theory as a basis to explain how heat is produced. 3. Solar energy is used by plants to manufacture their own food. Give two other examples how solar energy is used. 4. Make a short description of the following kinds of thermometer: A. liquid-in-glass thermometer B. Platinum-resistance thermometer C. Thermocouple D. Optical E. thermograph
  • 13. Temperature Scale The most common thermometer used in the laboratory is the Mercury Thermometer.
  • 14. Colored alcohol is another liquid commonly used in thermometer.
  • 15. Celsius Scale Commonly known as Centigrade Scale This scale was devised in 1741 by a Swedish astronomer, Anders Celsius, based on the properties of water.
  • 16. On the Celsius scale, the freezing point of water is fixed at 0 degree Celsius (00 C) The boiling point of pure water under normal atmospheric pressure, 760 mm Hg (at sea level), is 100 degrees Celsius (1000 C). The normal temperature of the human body is 370 C
  • 17. Fahrenheit Scale The Fahrenheit scale was devised by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, A German physicist. Unites States of America and England use the Fahrenheit scale for weather observation and other purposes.
  • 18. On Fahrenheit scale, 320 F is the freezing point of water and 2120 F is the boiling point.
  • 19. Kelvin Scale or Absolute Zero Named after Sir William Thompson (Lord Kelvin) who devised it.
  • 20. This temperature scale is often used when gases are involved. Its zero point (0 K) corresponds to -2730 C and is referred to as Absolute Zero or the temperature at which the molecular energy of matter is minimal. On the Kelvin scale, the freezing point of water is 273 K and the boiling point of water is 373 K.
  • 21.
  • 22. To convert temperature readings from one scale to another, the equation below are used:
  • 23. Converting Units of Temperature oC to oF oF = (9/5)( oC) + 32 38.7 oC oF oF = (1.8)(OC) + 32 = (1.8) (38.7) + 32 = 69.66 + 32 = 101.7
  • 24. oF to oC oC = 5/9 ( oF – 32) 101.7 oF o C oC = 5/9 ( oF – 32) = .555 (101.7 – 32) = (.555) (69.7) = 38.7
  • 25. oC to K K = 273 + oC 38.7 oC K K = 273 + oC = 273 + 38.7 = 311.7
  • 26. Convert the following 1) 37o C to oF 1) 98.6oF 2) 350oF to oC 2) 176.7oC 3) 100oC to K 3) 373 K 4) 95o C to oF 4) 203 oF 5) 130oF to K 5) 327.4 K 6) 39oC to oF 6) 102 oF 7) -160oF to oC 7) -107oC 8) 80.0oF to oC 8) 27 o C 9) 27oC to K 9) 300 K 10) 120oC to oF 10) 248 oF
  • 27. How Heat is Measured? Thermometer only gives us an idea of the total potential energy and kinetic energy of the molecules in an object. It does not tell us how much heat a particular object absorbs or gives off. In fact there is no instrument that directly measures the amount of heat energy that a body gives off or absorbs If you want to calculate the amount of heat given off by a piece of charcoal or a certain kind of gas, then you have to determine the change in temperature it produces on a definite volume of water.
  • 28. Units of Heat Common units used for measuring heat energy: a. Calorie (cal) b. kilocalorie (kcal) c. joule (J) The SI unit for heat, as for any other form of energy is the Joule (1 N.m = 1 joule) Today, the calorie is defined in terms of the joule: that is 1 cal = 4.184 J. This is the mechanical equivalent of heat 1 Kcal = 1000 calories
  • 29. Effects of Heat 1. Generally when a substance absorbs heat, its temperature rises. 2. Solid usually melt or change to the liquid state when heated.
  • 30. 3. Liquid may absorb enough energy when heated to change to vapor state.
  • 31. 4. Almost all objects expand when heated.
  • 32. 5. A change in the heat content of a substance can cause chemical changes.
  • 33. 6. Heat causes many changes in bodily functions of living organisms Enzymes are protein-like substances formed in human cells that act as catalysts in initiating or speeding up specific chemical reactions. Each has a characteristics shape that allows it to hold two or more molecules close enough together so they can react chemically. If the temperature is increased, then the speed of moving molecules is also increased. Bombardment by high speed molecules in the cell can cause the enzymes to lose its shape. It can no longer perform its vital function.
  • 34.
  • 35. Two glasses stack together. If we twist them apart, one or both of them may break. What is the safest way to separate the two glasses that stick together? One way is to pour some cold water into the inner glass and dip the outer glass in hot water. Within a short while, the two glasses can easily be pulled apart. Why? Generally most substances expands when heated and contract when cooled.
  • 36. A change in temperature produces a change in length in almost all solid. Experimental results have shown that change in length is directly proportional to change in temperature and to the original length of the object. Different solids of the same length differ in their expansion for the same change in temperature.
  • 37. In liquids the effect of heat is an increase in their volume while the effect of cooling is a decrease in their volume.
  • 38. Expansion of Gases Why do gases expand at a greater rate than solids and liquids?
  • 39. Change of Phase Whenever the temperature of a substance changes, there is an accompanying change in its molecular structure. If the change in molecular structure is such that it becomes noticeable, then we say that the substance is undergoing a Change of Phase.
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42. Heat Transfer Heat may be transferred in three ways: a. Conduction b. Convection c. Radiation
  • 43. a. Conduction Transmission of heat from particle to particle Conduction of heat in an object will take place only when one part of the object has a higher temperature than another part. The part with a higher temperature will transfer its heat energy to that part with a lower temperature.
  • 44.
  • 45. Solid are the best conductors of heat. Among solids, metal conduct heat the best. But metals differ in their conductivity. Silver is very good conductor of heat than iron and lead. Why?
  • 46. b. Convection The heat energy is distributed by the liquid or gaseous molecules in circling currents.
  • 47. c. Radiation Transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves.
  • 48. 2 1 3 4
  • 49. QUIZ
  • 50. 1. The absolute zero temperature is _____ a. -273 0 C b. -320 C c. 00 C d. 273 K
  • 51. 2. The space between the walls of the double-walled thermos bottle is evacuated to ______ a. increase volume b. reduce convection c. reduce heat transfer by conduction d. both b and c
  • 52. 3. Dry ice has a temperature of - 110.2 0 F. What would its temperature be on the Celsius scale? a. -7110 C b. -198.3 0 C c. -142.2 0C d. -79 0C
  • 53. 4. Room temperature is often 0 identified as 68 F. What temperature is this on the Kelvin scale? a. 20 K b. 100 K c. 293 K d. 341 K
  • 54. 5. The transfer of energy from a source to an object by direct contact between them is _____ a. conduction b. convection c. insulation d. radiation
  • 55. 6. As more heat is added to a sample of water boiling in a stove, its temperature ______ a. decreases b. increases c. increases then decreases d. remains the same
  • 56. 7. When water reaches 4 0 C, ____. a. it will expand only if heated. b. its volume will remain constant. c. it will expand whether it is cooled or heated. d. it will contract until it freezes into ice, and then expand.
  • 57. 8. When does vaporization happen? It _____________. a. will occur only at night. b. takes place at very great pressures. c. occurs at the boiling point temperature d. takes only at a definite temperature may occur at a definite temperature or at any temperature.
  • 58. 9. Which of the following statements is true about boiling? It ____________. a. is lower than evaporation. b. takes place at a definite temperature. c. is the same for all liquids at the same temperature. d. takes place when bubbles begin to appear in the liquid.
  • 59. 10. The rate of evaporation may be increase by _______ a. raising the temperature of the liquid. b. increasing the surface area of the liquid. c. decreasing the air pressure on the surface of the liquid. d. any of the above.
  • 60. 11. What is condensation? It ____ a. is an exothermic process. b. is the opposite process of melting. c. is due to the increase in the kinetic energy of the particle of the liquid. d. refers to the change from solid state to gaseous state form of matter.
  • 61. Two cars of the same model, the same brand, and the same size, are both locked and parked under the sun in an open parking lot. The two cars are parked from 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. One of the cars is ivory white in color and the other is dark blue. 12. Under the same condition, at 12:00 noon, _____ a. the dark-colored will be hotter inside. b. the ivory-colored car will be hotter inside. c. since both are locked, the sun will not affect either car. d. since both are under the same sun, they will both be equally hot.
  • 62. Match Column A with Column B Column A Column A _____13. William Thompson a. Centigrade tempt. Scale _____14. Anders Celsius b. Absolute Tempt. Scale _____15. D. Gabriel Fahrenheit c. Fahrenheit Tempt. Scale _____16. B.T. Rumford _____17. J. Prescott Joule d. Heat is produced by friction e. Concluded that heat is a form of energy.
  • 63. 18-21. Enumerate the different artificial sources of heat. 18. 19. 20. 21.
  • 64. 22-24. Enumerate the different methods of heat transfer. 22. 23. 24.
  • 65. 25. True or False Land breeze and sea breeze occurs because of conviction current.
  • 67. 1. The absolute zero temperature is _____ a. -273 0 C b. -320 C c. 00 C d. 273 K
  • 68. 2. The space between the walls of the double-walled thermos bottle is evacuated to ______ a. increase volume b. reduce convection c. reduce heat transfer by conduction d. both b and c
  • 69. 3. Dry ice has a temperature of -110.2 0 F. What would its temperature be on the Celsius scale? a. -7110 C b. -198.3 0 C c. -142.20 C d. -79 0C
  • 70. 4. Room temperature is often 0 identified as 68 F. What temperature is this on the Kelvin scale? a. 20 K b. 100 K c. 293 K d. 341 K
  • 71. 5. The transfer of energy from a source to an object by direct contact between them is _____ a. conduction b. convection c. insulation d. radiation
  • 72. 6. As more heat is added to a sample of water boiling in a stove, its temperature ______ a. decreases b. increases c. increases then decreases d. remains the same
  • 73. 7. When water reaches 4 0 C, ____. a. it will expand only if heated. b. its volume will remain constant. c. it will expand whether it is cooled or heated. d. it will contract until it freezes into ice, and then expand.
  • 74. 8. When does vaporization happen? It _____________. a. will occur only at night. b. takes place at very great pressures. c. occurs at the boiling point temperature d. takes only at a definite temperature may occur at a definite temperature or at any temperature.