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Mechanics deals with forces and motion, including kinetics, statics, and kinematics. Vector quantities like displacement and velocity have both magnitude and direction, while scalar quantities like mass and time only have magnitude. Mechanics also examines concepts like average speed, average velocity, acceleration, energy, heat, and the conservation of energy. Forces cause motion or changes in motion based on Newton's laws of motion.

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General physics

This document is a course syllabus for General Physics I: Classical Mechanics taught by Dr. D.G. Simpson at Prince George's Community College. It outlines the contents of the course, which includes chapters on units, kinematics, vectors, forces, Newton's laws of motion, work, and other topics in classical mechanics. The syllabus provides learning objectives for each chapter and references textbook chapters for further reading.

PROJECTILE MOTION

1) Projectile motion describes the trajectory of objects thrown or projected into the air. It is the motion of projectiles that are subject only to gravity.
2) Projectiles have two velocity components - a horizontal component that remains constant, and a vertical component that changes due to gravity. This results in a parabolic trajectory.
3) There are two types of projectile motion - horizontally launched, where the initial vertical velocity is zero, and vertically launched, where the velocity has horizontal and vertical components.

Uniformly accelerated motion (free fall) problems and solutions

The document discusses the benefits of exercise for mental health. Regular physical activity can help reduce anxiety and depression and improve mood and cognitive functioning. Exercise causes chemical changes in the brain that may help protect against mental illness and improve symptoms.

Speed, Velocity And Acceleration

The document defines and explains key kinematics concepts including speed, velocity, acceleration, uniform acceleration, and linear motion. Speed is distance over time while velocity includes direction and is a vector. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity, calculated as the change in velocity over time. Acceleration is uniform if the rate of change is constant, while non-uniform acceleration means the rate varies over time. Velocity decreases in deceleration.

Phy 7 velocity and acceleration ppt

This document provides examples of calculating speed, velocity, acceleration, and deceleration using formulas involving distance, time, and change in velocity. It defines key terms like speed, velocity, and acceleration. Examples include calculating the speed of a car accelerating from 0 to 1609.36m in 25.9 seconds and decelerating from 60 mph to a stop over 6 seconds. Graphs of velocity over time are also presented and examples are given of interpreting the graphs to determine acceleration, deceleration, and distance traveled.

Physics 1

This document provides an introduction to the topics that will be covered in Week 1, Lesson 1 of a physics course. It includes brief descriptions of what physics is, how measurements are made and quantified in terms of accuracy and precision, the fundamental dimensions and units used in physics, how to perform calculations and conversions involving units, and how to determine the appropriate number of significant figures in measurements and calculations. The key topics covered are counting, measuring, accuracy vs precision, dimensional analysis, unit conversions, and significant figures. Students are assigned to read sections 1.1 to 1.6 in their textbook to prepare for the lesson.

Free fall

Free fall is the motion of an object under the influence of gravitational force only. During free fall, the acceleration due to gravity (g) is about 9.8 m/s2, causing the object's speed to increase by 9.8 m/s every second and its position to change according to the kinematic equations of motion. In a vacuum, where there is no air resistance, all objects in free fall accelerate at the same rate due to gravity regardless of their mass or shape.

Speed, Velocity and Acceleration

This document defines and explains key concepts in kinematics including speed, velocity, and acceleration. It provides the following definitions:
- Speed is a measure of how fast a body moves and is a scalar quantity. There are two types - average and instantaneous speed.
- Velocity is a measure of both speed and direction of motion, making it a vector quantity. Average and instantaneous velocity are also defined.
- Acceleration is a change in velocity over time. It is a vector quantity measured in meters/second squared. Positive acceleration means speeding up while negative acceleration means slowing down.

General physics

This document is a course syllabus for General Physics I: Classical Mechanics taught by Dr. D.G. Simpson at Prince George's Community College. It outlines the contents of the course, which includes chapters on units, kinematics, vectors, forces, Newton's laws of motion, work, and other topics in classical mechanics. The syllabus provides learning objectives for each chapter and references textbook chapters for further reading.

PROJECTILE MOTION

1) Projectile motion describes the trajectory of objects thrown or projected into the air. It is the motion of projectiles that are subject only to gravity.
2) Projectiles have two velocity components - a horizontal component that remains constant, and a vertical component that changes due to gravity. This results in a parabolic trajectory.
3) There are two types of projectile motion - horizontally launched, where the initial vertical velocity is zero, and vertically launched, where the velocity has horizontal and vertical components.

Uniformly accelerated motion (free fall) problems and solutions

The document discusses the benefits of exercise for mental health. Regular physical activity can help reduce anxiety and depression and improve mood and cognitive functioning. Exercise causes chemical changes in the brain that may help protect against mental illness and improve symptoms.

Speed, Velocity And Acceleration

The document defines and explains key kinematics concepts including speed, velocity, acceleration, uniform acceleration, and linear motion. Speed is distance over time while velocity includes direction and is a vector. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity, calculated as the change in velocity over time. Acceleration is uniform if the rate of change is constant, while non-uniform acceleration means the rate varies over time. Velocity decreases in deceleration.

Phy 7 velocity and acceleration ppt

This document provides examples of calculating speed, velocity, acceleration, and deceleration using formulas involving distance, time, and change in velocity. It defines key terms like speed, velocity, and acceleration. Examples include calculating the speed of a car accelerating from 0 to 1609.36m in 25.9 seconds and decelerating from 60 mph to a stop over 6 seconds. Graphs of velocity over time are also presented and examples are given of interpreting the graphs to determine acceleration, deceleration, and distance traveled.

Physics 1

This document provides an introduction to the topics that will be covered in Week 1, Lesson 1 of a physics course. It includes brief descriptions of what physics is, how measurements are made and quantified in terms of accuracy and precision, the fundamental dimensions and units used in physics, how to perform calculations and conversions involving units, and how to determine the appropriate number of significant figures in measurements and calculations. The key topics covered are counting, measuring, accuracy vs precision, dimensional analysis, unit conversions, and significant figures. Students are assigned to read sections 1.1 to 1.6 in their textbook to prepare for the lesson.

Free fall

Free fall is the motion of an object under the influence of gravitational force only. During free fall, the acceleration due to gravity (g) is about 9.8 m/s2, causing the object's speed to increase by 9.8 m/s every second and its position to change according to the kinematic equations of motion. In a vacuum, where there is no air resistance, all objects in free fall accelerate at the same rate due to gravity regardless of their mass or shape.

Speed, Velocity and Acceleration

This document defines and explains key concepts in kinematics including speed, velocity, and acceleration. It provides the following definitions:
- Speed is a measure of how fast a body moves and is a scalar quantity. There are two types - average and instantaneous speed.
- Velocity is a measure of both speed and direction of motion, making it a vector quantity. Average and instantaneous velocity are also defined.
- Acceleration is a change in velocity over time. It is a vector quantity measured in meters/second squared. Positive acceleration means speeding up while negative acceleration means slowing down.

Speed and velocity

Speed refers to how fast an object moves over a period of time, while velocity also considers the direction of motion. When describing storms, forecasters provide both the speed and direction it is moving, as well as the circular speed of the winds. The circular wind speed determines the storm's strength. Instantaneous speed refers to an object's speed at a single moment, while average speed considers the total distance and time over multiple moments. Motion is considered constant if the instantaneous speed remains the same over time.

Projectile motion

The document discusses projectile motion. Projectile motion involves both vertical and horizontal motion that are independent of each other. There are two cases of projectile motion: horizontal launch and angled launch. Factors like initial velocity and projection angle affect the motion of a projectile by influencing its trajectory, range, and height. While a projectile experiences free fall due to gravity, projectile motion and free fall involve different types of motion.

Grade 9 uniformly accelerated motion

The document discusses uniformly accelerated motion and provides examples of calculating distance, displacement, velocity, and acceleration using kinematic equations. It defines terms like motion, distance, displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Sample problems are given applying the equations to situations involving a habal-habal motorcycle and rock being dropped from a building.

Aristotle vs. Galileo

Aristotle and Galileo had opposing views on motion. Aristotle believed motion was either natural or violent, and considered the four elements as objects' proper places. Galileo disagreed and proved through experiments that all objects accelerate at the same rate in free fall, regardless of mass. He showed projectile motion follows a curved path under gravity, while Aristotle claimed objects move in straight lines. Their differing perspectives significantly advanced the scientific understanding of motion.

General Physics (2) lect 1

This document summarizes a physics lecture on electrical charges and Coulomb's law. It discusses the structure of atoms and how they can become charged by gaining or losing electrons. Coulomb's law is then introduced, stating that the electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Several example problems are worked through applying Coulomb's law to calculate the electrostatic force between charged objects at varying distances.

Light Waves

Huygen's principle states that every point on a wavefront can be considered a secondary source of waves, and the combination of these secondary waves determines the propagation and shape of subsequent wavefronts. Diffraction is the bending of light or other waves around obstacles and through slits, causing the waves to spread out and form interference patterns of light and dark bands. Specifically, AM radio waves diffract more than FM radio waves, allowing AM signals to travel farther.

Projectile motion

This document discusses projectile motion, beginning with an overview of the objectives and definitions. It explains that a projectile experiences only gravity and air resistance, and its motion can be analyzed as independent vertical and horizontal components. Horizontal projectiles follow the simplest case where velocity is constant horizontally but follows parabolic free fall vertically. Non-horizontal projectiles require calculating initial velocity components and analyzing changes in vertical velocity over time. Solving projectile motion problems generally involves drawing diagrams, choosing a coordinate system, and applying the independent kinematic equations along each axis. Air resistance decreases a projectile's range from the ideal parabolic trajectory.

Mirror equation

The document discusses the mirror equation, which expresses the quantitative relationship between the object distance (do), the image distance (di), and the focal length (f) of a spherical mirror. It provides examples of using the mirror equation to calculate di given do and f for concave mirrors. In one example, an image is formed 30 cm beyond the concave mirror when the object is 15 cm from the mirror and f is 10 cm. In another example, a virtual image is formed 7.78 cm behind the concave mirror when the object is 5 cm from the mirror and the radius is 28 cm, making f 14 cm.

Projectile motion

1) Projectile motion involves objects moving through the air without propulsion, following a parabolic trajectory under constant acceleration due to gravity.
2) The horizontal and vertical components of motion are independent, with horizontal motion uniform and vertical motion accelerated.
3) Key equations given relate the total time, horizontal range, and maximum height of a projectile to its initial velocity and launch angle.

Uniformly accelerated motion

This document provides examples of uniformly accelerated motion problems and their solutions. It begins with definitions of uniformly accelerated motion, where tangential acceleration is constant. Equations are provided relating initial speed, acceleration, time, distance, final speed, and position. Ten sample problems are then worked through step-by-step as examples of how to apply the equations to different scenarios involving cars, trains, airplanes, and objects in motion.

GENERAL PHYSICS 1 TEACHING GUIDE

This document provides an overview of a Teaching Guide for a General Physics 1 course for senior high school. It outlines the course content standards and performance standards, which are mapped to specific learning competencies. The course covers units, measurement, vectors, one-dimensional kinematics including uniformly accelerated motion, and two-dimensional and three-dimensional motion. The Teaching Guide is designed to be highly usable for teachers, providing classroom activities and notes to help develop students' understanding, mastery, and ownership of the content.

Motion in One Dimension: Distance, Displacement, speed or velocity and accele...

The document describes various concepts related to motion including distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. It provides examples of how to calculate each concept, such as calculating the average speed of a car that traveled 440 miles over 8 hours. Formulas are given for determining speed, velocity, and acceleration from values of distance, displacement, and time. A quiz with sample problems is also included to test understanding of motion concepts.

Projectile motion Grade 9

1) Projectile motion refers to the motion of objects thrown or projected into the air at an angle. It is determined by the object's initial velocity and gravity.
2) A projectile moves horizontally with constant velocity while being accelerated vertically by gravity. This results in a curved parabolic trajectory.
3) Maximum range is achieved when the projectile is launched at an angle of 45 degrees, as the horizontal and vertical motions are balanced at that angle.

Projectile Motion

This document discusses projectile motion. It defines a projectile as any body that is given an initial velocity and then follows a path determined by gravitational acceleration and air resistance. Projectiles move in two dimensions, with horizontal and vertical components to their motion. The horizontal velocity is constant, while the vertical velocity changes due to gravity. Together these components produce a parabolic trajectory. The document provides equations to calculate the maximum height, horizontal range, time of flight, and uses an example of kicking a football to demonstrate solving projectile motion problems.

Momentum in Grade 9 Physics

This document discusses momentum and its relationship to mass and velocity. It defines momentum as being directly proportional to mass and velocity, and that it is a measure of an object's resistance to stopping. Greater momentum can be achieved by increasing mass or velocity. Impulse is defined as being equal to force multiplied by time, and that it is equal to the change in momentum of an object. The principle of conservation of momentum is explained, which is that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant if no external forces act on it.

1.2 displacement and position vs time graphs

1) Displacement is defined as the straight line path between an object's initial and final positions, representing the change in position. It is not necessarily the same as the total distance travelled.
2) Victor's displacement is calculated as his final position (2km North of Starbucks) minus his initial position (3km South of Starbucks), equaling 5km North.
3) A position-time graph shows an object's position over time. The slope of the line between any two points represents the average velocity during that time interval.

Motion in two dimensions

The document discusses projectile motion, which refers to two-dimensional motion of objects subject to gravity. Examples of projectiles include balls and arrows. Projectiles follow a parabolic trajectory path. The range of a projectile is the maximum horizontal distance it can cover while returning to its original launch height. To analyze projectile motion, the initial velocity vector is resolved into horizontal and vertical components, and kinematic equations are applied to describe motion in each dimension throughout flight.

Kinematics

1. The document discusses kinematics concepts including speed, velocity, acceleration, and graphical analysis of motion. It provides definitions and formulas for speed, velocity, and acceleration. It discusses calculating average speed and acceleration using change in distance or velocity over time.
2. Graphs of distance-time and speed-time are presented and used to analyze motion including periods of rest, uniform motion, uniform acceleration, and non-uniform acceleration. Problem examples are provided to calculate values related to motion under acceleration.
3. The key concepts of uniform and non-uniform acceleration are defined. Acceleration occurs when velocity is changing, while uniform acceleration means the rate of change of velocity remains constant.

Scalar and vector quantities

This document discusses scalar and vector quantities. It defines a scalar quantity as having only magnitude, while a vector quantity has both magnitude and direction. Examples are given of quantities that are scalar like distance and those that are vector like force. The document also discusses the concept of a resultant vector, which results from adding two or more vectors together. Three techniques for finding the magnitude and angle of the resultant vector are described: the graphical method, Pythagorean theorem, and analytical/component method. The component method involves breaking vectors into their x and y components and then adding the components.

Grade 9 - Work, Power & Energy

Work, power and energy are quantitative properties related to the ability to do work or induce heat. Mechanical energy is the sum of potential and kinetic energy and exists in objects due to motion or position. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion and depends on an object's mass and speed, while potential energy is stored energy that depends on an object's height or the elastic forces acting on it. Mechanical energy is transformed between other forms but the total amount remains constant in a closed system without dissipative forces.

Class 12 Cbse Chemistry Syllabus 2015

This document provides details about the syllabus and exam structure for Class XII Chemistry in the academic year 2014-2015. It is divided into 16 units covering topics in inorganic, organic, physical and analytical chemistry. The theory exam will be of 70 marks with 3 hours duration. Practical exams will involve 30 marks for experiments covering surface chemistry, chemical kinetics, thermochemistry, electrochemistry, chromatography, preparation of compounds and qualitative analysis. The document also provides a sample question paper format dividing the questions into different cognitive levels and typologies.

Cbse Class 12 Maths Sample Paper 2013 Model 3

cbse class 12 maths sample paper 2012-13 model 3 - http://cbse.edurite.com/cbse-sample-papers/cbse-sample-papers-class-12-maths.html

Speed and velocity

Speed refers to how fast an object moves over a period of time, while velocity also considers the direction of motion. When describing storms, forecasters provide both the speed and direction it is moving, as well as the circular speed of the winds. The circular wind speed determines the storm's strength. Instantaneous speed refers to an object's speed at a single moment, while average speed considers the total distance and time over multiple moments. Motion is considered constant if the instantaneous speed remains the same over time.

Projectile motion

The document discusses projectile motion. Projectile motion involves both vertical and horizontal motion that are independent of each other. There are two cases of projectile motion: horizontal launch and angled launch. Factors like initial velocity and projection angle affect the motion of a projectile by influencing its trajectory, range, and height. While a projectile experiences free fall due to gravity, projectile motion and free fall involve different types of motion.

Grade 9 uniformly accelerated motion

The document discusses uniformly accelerated motion and provides examples of calculating distance, displacement, velocity, and acceleration using kinematic equations. It defines terms like motion, distance, displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Sample problems are given applying the equations to situations involving a habal-habal motorcycle and rock being dropped from a building.

Aristotle vs. Galileo

Aristotle and Galileo had opposing views on motion. Aristotle believed motion was either natural or violent, and considered the four elements as objects' proper places. Galileo disagreed and proved through experiments that all objects accelerate at the same rate in free fall, regardless of mass. He showed projectile motion follows a curved path under gravity, while Aristotle claimed objects move in straight lines. Their differing perspectives significantly advanced the scientific understanding of motion.

General Physics (2) lect 1

This document summarizes a physics lecture on electrical charges and Coulomb's law. It discusses the structure of atoms and how they can become charged by gaining or losing electrons. Coulomb's law is then introduced, stating that the electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Several example problems are worked through applying Coulomb's law to calculate the electrostatic force between charged objects at varying distances.

Light Waves

Huygen's principle states that every point on a wavefront can be considered a secondary source of waves, and the combination of these secondary waves determines the propagation and shape of subsequent wavefronts. Diffraction is the bending of light or other waves around obstacles and through slits, causing the waves to spread out and form interference patterns of light and dark bands. Specifically, AM radio waves diffract more than FM radio waves, allowing AM signals to travel farther.

Projectile motion

This document discusses projectile motion, beginning with an overview of the objectives and definitions. It explains that a projectile experiences only gravity and air resistance, and its motion can be analyzed as independent vertical and horizontal components. Horizontal projectiles follow the simplest case where velocity is constant horizontally but follows parabolic free fall vertically. Non-horizontal projectiles require calculating initial velocity components and analyzing changes in vertical velocity over time. Solving projectile motion problems generally involves drawing diagrams, choosing a coordinate system, and applying the independent kinematic equations along each axis. Air resistance decreases a projectile's range from the ideal parabolic trajectory.

Mirror equation

The document discusses the mirror equation, which expresses the quantitative relationship between the object distance (do), the image distance (di), and the focal length (f) of a spherical mirror. It provides examples of using the mirror equation to calculate di given do and f for concave mirrors. In one example, an image is formed 30 cm beyond the concave mirror when the object is 15 cm from the mirror and f is 10 cm. In another example, a virtual image is formed 7.78 cm behind the concave mirror when the object is 5 cm from the mirror and the radius is 28 cm, making f 14 cm.

Projectile motion

1) Projectile motion involves objects moving through the air without propulsion, following a parabolic trajectory under constant acceleration due to gravity.
2) The horizontal and vertical components of motion are independent, with horizontal motion uniform and vertical motion accelerated.
3) Key equations given relate the total time, horizontal range, and maximum height of a projectile to its initial velocity and launch angle.

Uniformly accelerated motion

This document provides examples of uniformly accelerated motion problems and their solutions. It begins with definitions of uniformly accelerated motion, where tangential acceleration is constant. Equations are provided relating initial speed, acceleration, time, distance, final speed, and position. Ten sample problems are then worked through step-by-step as examples of how to apply the equations to different scenarios involving cars, trains, airplanes, and objects in motion.

GENERAL PHYSICS 1 TEACHING GUIDE

This document provides an overview of a Teaching Guide for a General Physics 1 course for senior high school. It outlines the course content standards and performance standards, which are mapped to specific learning competencies. The course covers units, measurement, vectors, one-dimensional kinematics including uniformly accelerated motion, and two-dimensional and three-dimensional motion. The Teaching Guide is designed to be highly usable for teachers, providing classroom activities and notes to help develop students' understanding, mastery, and ownership of the content.

Motion in One Dimension: Distance, Displacement, speed or velocity and accele...

The document describes various concepts related to motion including distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. It provides examples of how to calculate each concept, such as calculating the average speed of a car that traveled 440 miles over 8 hours. Formulas are given for determining speed, velocity, and acceleration from values of distance, displacement, and time. A quiz with sample problems is also included to test understanding of motion concepts.

Projectile motion Grade 9

1) Projectile motion refers to the motion of objects thrown or projected into the air at an angle. It is determined by the object's initial velocity and gravity.
2) A projectile moves horizontally with constant velocity while being accelerated vertically by gravity. This results in a curved parabolic trajectory.
3) Maximum range is achieved when the projectile is launched at an angle of 45 degrees, as the horizontal and vertical motions are balanced at that angle.

Projectile Motion

This document discusses projectile motion. It defines a projectile as any body that is given an initial velocity and then follows a path determined by gravitational acceleration and air resistance. Projectiles move in two dimensions, with horizontal and vertical components to their motion. The horizontal velocity is constant, while the vertical velocity changes due to gravity. Together these components produce a parabolic trajectory. The document provides equations to calculate the maximum height, horizontal range, time of flight, and uses an example of kicking a football to demonstrate solving projectile motion problems.

Momentum in Grade 9 Physics

This document discusses momentum and its relationship to mass and velocity. It defines momentum as being directly proportional to mass and velocity, and that it is a measure of an object's resistance to stopping. Greater momentum can be achieved by increasing mass or velocity. Impulse is defined as being equal to force multiplied by time, and that it is equal to the change in momentum of an object. The principle of conservation of momentum is explained, which is that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant if no external forces act on it.

1.2 displacement and position vs time graphs

1) Displacement is defined as the straight line path between an object's initial and final positions, representing the change in position. It is not necessarily the same as the total distance travelled.
2) Victor's displacement is calculated as his final position (2km North of Starbucks) minus his initial position (3km South of Starbucks), equaling 5km North.
3) A position-time graph shows an object's position over time. The slope of the line between any two points represents the average velocity during that time interval.

Motion in two dimensions

The document discusses projectile motion, which refers to two-dimensional motion of objects subject to gravity. Examples of projectiles include balls and arrows. Projectiles follow a parabolic trajectory path. The range of a projectile is the maximum horizontal distance it can cover while returning to its original launch height. To analyze projectile motion, the initial velocity vector is resolved into horizontal and vertical components, and kinematic equations are applied to describe motion in each dimension throughout flight.

Kinematics

1. The document discusses kinematics concepts including speed, velocity, acceleration, and graphical analysis of motion. It provides definitions and formulas for speed, velocity, and acceleration. It discusses calculating average speed and acceleration using change in distance or velocity over time.
2. Graphs of distance-time and speed-time are presented and used to analyze motion including periods of rest, uniform motion, uniform acceleration, and non-uniform acceleration. Problem examples are provided to calculate values related to motion under acceleration.
3. The key concepts of uniform and non-uniform acceleration are defined. Acceleration occurs when velocity is changing, while uniform acceleration means the rate of change of velocity remains constant.

Scalar and vector quantities

This document discusses scalar and vector quantities. It defines a scalar quantity as having only magnitude, while a vector quantity has both magnitude and direction. Examples are given of quantities that are scalar like distance and those that are vector like force. The document also discusses the concept of a resultant vector, which results from adding two or more vectors together. Three techniques for finding the magnitude and angle of the resultant vector are described: the graphical method, Pythagorean theorem, and analytical/component method. The component method involves breaking vectors into their x and y components and then adding the components.

Grade 9 - Work, Power & Energy

Work, power and energy are quantitative properties related to the ability to do work or induce heat. Mechanical energy is the sum of potential and kinetic energy and exists in objects due to motion or position. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion and depends on an object's mass and speed, while potential energy is stored energy that depends on an object's height or the elastic forces acting on it. Mechanical energy is transformed between other forms but the total amount remains constant in a closed system without dissipative forces.

Speed and velocity

Speed and velocity

Projectile motion

Projectile motion

Grade 9 uniformly accelerated motion

Grade 9 uniformly accelerated motion

Aristotle vs. Galileo

Aristotle vs. Galileo

General Physics (2) lect 1

General Physics (2) lect 1

Light Waves

Light Waves

Projectile motion

Projectile motion

Mirror equation

Mirror equation

Projectile motion

Projectile motion

Uniformly accelerated motion

Uniformly accelerated motion

GENERAL PHYSICS 1 TEACHING GUIDE

GENERAL PHYSICS 1 TEACHING GUIDE

Motion in One Dimension: Distance, Displacement, speed or velocity and accele...

Motion in One Dimension: Distance, Displacement, speed or velocity and accele...

Projectile motion Grade 9

Projectile motion Grade 9

Projectile Motion

Projectile Motion

Momentum in Grade 9 Physics

Momentum in Grade 9 Physics

1.2 displacement and position vs time graphs

1.2 displacement and position vs time graphs

Motion in two dimensions

Motion in two dimensions

Kinematics

Kinematics

Scalar and vector quantities

Scalar and vector quantities

Grade 9 - Work, Power & Energy

Grade 9 - Work, Power & Energy

Class 12 Cbse Chemistry Syllabus 2015

This document provides details about the syllabus and exam structure for Class XII Chemistry in the academic year 2014-2015. It is divided into 16 units covering topics in inorganic, organic, physical and analytical chemistry. The theory exam will be of 70 marks with 3 hours duration. Practical exams will involve 30 marks for experiments covering surface chemistry, chemical kinetics, thermochemistry, electrochemistry, chromatography, preparation of compounds and qualitative analysis. The document also provides a sample question paper format dividing the questions into different cognitive levels and typologies.

Cbse Class 12 Maths Sample Paper 2013 Model 3

cbse class 12 maths sample paper 2012-13 model 3 - http://cbse.edurite.com/cbse-sample-papers/cbse-sample-papers-class-12-maths.html

Physical science unit two measurement

1. This document provides an overview of key concepts in physical science measurements including the International System of Units (SI), units of measurement, prefixes, and measurement techniques.
2. The SI system establishes standard units for measuring common physical properties including the meter for length, kilogram for mass, second for time, kelvin for temperature, ampere for electric current, mole for amount of substance, and candela for luminous intensity.
3. Proper measurement requires selecting the appropriate unit and precision based on the quantity and tool. Data is organized and compared using tables, graphs, and applying statistical concepts like mean and percent error.

Chapter 13

This document discusses various topics relating to solutions, including:
- Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances where the solute is uniformly dispersed throughout the solvent.
- For a solution to form, the intermolecular forces between solute and solvent particles must be strong enough to overcome those within the pure substances.
- The energy changes during solution formation depend on the enthalpy of separating solute and solvent particles and the new interactions between them.
- Solubility is affected by the similarity between solute and solvent intermolecular forces, temperature, and pressure.
- Colligative properties like boiling point elevation and freezing point depression depend only on the number of solute particles and can be

Chapter 21

1) The nucleus is comprised of protons and neutrons, with the number of protons defining the element. 2) Isotopes of the same element have different numbers of neutrons, resulting in slightly different masses. 3) Some nuclei are unstable and undergo radioactive decay through processes like alpha, beta, or gamma emission to become more stable nuclides. 4) Nuclear reactions involve tremendous amounts of energy due to mass-energy equivalence, and can be harnessed through fission in reactors or potential fusion.

Chapter 19

The document discusses key concepts in chemical thermodynamics including:
1) The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.
2) Spontaneous processes are those that can occur without outside intervention, while reversible processes can be undone by exactly reversing changes made to the system.
3) The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of the universe increases for spontaneous processes. Entropy is a measure of disorder and generally increases when the number of possible molecular arrangements increases.

Solution chemistry notes

This document provides information on solution chemistry and concepts including:
- Definitions of key terms like solution, solute, and solvent
- The process of dissolution where solvent molecules pull apart solute molecules
- How saturated, supersaturated and concentrated solutions are classified
- Factors that influence solubility like temperature, pressure and nature of solute
- Colligative properties of solutions like vapor pressure lowering, freezing point depression and boiling point elevation that depend on amount of solute.
- Equations to calculate values like molarity, molality and mole fraction in solutions.

Chapter 11

The document discusses intermolecular forces, which are the attractions between molecules. It describes the different types of intermolecular forces including dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonding, and London dispersion forces. It explains how these intermolecular forces influence various physical properties of substances like boiling point, viscosity, surface tension, and phase changes. The document also discusses how intermolecular forces relate to states of matter and phase diagrams.

Magnetic effect of electric current

this presentation is based on magnetic effect of electric current, a which many of us have studies or will be studying in higher classes.this presentation is a better way of understanding the topic and in a visual way

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 3

1. The document discusses various topics in electrostatics including line integrals of electric fields, electric potential and potential differences, Gauss's theorem, and applications of Gauss's theorem.
2. Key concepts covered are the definitions of electric potential and potential difference, the relationship between electric field and potential via line integrals, and Gauss's theorem that the electric flux through any closed surface is equal to the enclosed charge divided by the permittivity of free space.
3. Examples are given of using Gauss's theorem to calculate electric fields, such as for an infinite line charge, planar sheet of charge, and spherical shell of charge.

1-2 Physics & Measurement

The seven major fields of physics are mechanics, thermodynamics, waves, optics, electromagnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics. The scientific method involves making observations, defining a problem, developing a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis through experiments, and drawing a conclusion. The difference between accuracy and precision is that accuracy refers to how close a measurement is to the accepted value, while precision refers to the repeatability of measurements and the number of significant figures used. Significant figures are used to express the precision of measurements by determining the number of digits that should be written.

Chapter 20

1. Electrochemistry involves electron transfer between chemical species in oxidation-reduction reactions.
2. Oxidation and reduction half-reactions can be balanced using the half-reaction method and combined to give the overall redox reaction.
3. Voltaic cells harness the energy of spontaneous redox reactions by allowing electrons to flow through an external circuit, and cell potential depends on the relative reduction potentials of the half-reactions.

Current Electricity Class 12 Part-2

1. This document discusses several topics related to electricity including Kirchhoff's laws, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge, and potentiometer.
2. Kirchhoff's laws include the junction rule which states the algebraic sum of currents at a junction is zero, and the loop rule which states the algebraic sum of potential drops around any closed loop is zero.
3. The Wheatstone bridge and metre bridge are used to measure unknown resistances based on balancing a galvanometer using a sliding contact to adjust potential differences.
4. A potentiometer can be used to compare electromotive forces (EMFs) of cells by finding the balance point where the potential is equal and opposite to the cell's

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 1

1. Frictional electricity is produced by rubbing two materials together, causing electrons to transfer from one material to the other. For example, rubbing glass with silk causes electrons to transfer from the glass to the silk, leaving the glass positively charged and the silk negatively charged.
2. Coulomb's law states that the electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
3. Charge can exist as discrete quantities called electrons. Charge is quantized and can be expressed as integer multiples of the fundamental unit of charge called the electron charge.
4. Continuous charge distributions can be described by their linear charge density, surface charge

Magnetic effect of electric current

A compass needle is placed under a copper wire carrying an electric current. When current is passed through the wire, the compass needle deflects, showing that the current produces a magnetic field that exerts a force on the compass needle. This demonstrates that electricity and magnetism are linked. The magnetic field produced by a current has concentric circular field lines around the wire. Increasing the current increases the magnetic field strength.

Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-1

The document discusses the magnetic effects of electric current, including:
1) Oersted's experiment showing a current-carrying wire deflects a magnetic needle.
2) Rules for determining the direction of magnetic fields, including Ampere's swimming rule and Maxwell's corkscrew rule.
3) Biot-Savart's law, which describes the magnetic field created by a current-carrying element as proportional to the current and inversely proportional to the distance.

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 4

This document discusses the principles and components of a Van de Graaff generator, which is used to generate very high voltages. It consists of a large metal sphere and two combs with sharp points that are attached to moving belts. When the belts transfer charge to the sphere via the combs, the potential of the sphere increases greatly. The sharp points on the combs ionize the surrounding air through corona discharge, spraying charges onto the belts. This allows the generator to continually build up charge on the sphere over time.

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 2

This document discusses the concepts of electric fields and electric field intensity. It defines electric field as a region of space around charged particles that exert electrostatic forces on other charges. Electric field intensity is defined as the electrostatic force per unit positive test charge. The electric field due to a point charge is discussed, along with the superposition principle and electric field lines. Electric dipoles are introduced as pairs of equal and opposite charges, with discussions of dipole moment, and the electric field intensity and torque experienced by dipoles.

Current Electricity Class 12 Part-3

This document discusses three effects of electricity: thermal, chemical, and thermoelectric. The thermal effect explains how an electric current produces heat due to the collision of electrons with atoms in a conductor. Joule's law quantifies this relationship. The chemical effect discusses electrolysis and Faraday's laws of electrolysis. Electrolysis is the process of using a direct current to cause a non-spontaneous chemical reaction. The thermoelectric effect explains how a temperature difference across junctions of two different conductors can produce an electric current, as described by Seebeck's discovery of the thermoelectric effect. Key concepts covered include Seebeck series, neutral temperature, and temperature of inversion.

Converting Metric Units

Many occupations require converting between metric units, including tradespeople, engineers, scientists, and medical professionals. It is easiest to use a conversion chart that shows relationships between units like kilometers, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. Area and volume conversions involve squaring or cubing the units, so they can produce very large results. Common area units include hectares and square meters, while volume is often measured in cubic meters, liters, or milliliters. Liquid volume is termed capacity. Mass conversions also use multiples of 1000, with the gram and kilogram as base units.

Class 12 Cbse Chemistry Syllabus 2015

Class 12 Cbse Chemistry Syllabus 2015

Cbse Class 12 Maths Sample Paper 2013 Model 3

Cbse Class 12 Maths Sample Paper 2013 Model 3

Physical science unit two measurement

Physical science unit two measurement

Chapter 13

Chapter 13

Chapter 21

Chapter 21

Chapter 19

Chapter 19

Solution chemistry notes

Solution chemistry notes

Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Magnetic effect of electric current

Magnetic effect of electric current

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 3

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 3

1-2 Physics & Measurement

1-2 Physics & Measurement

Chapter 20

Chapter 20

Current Electricity Class 12 Part-2

Current Electricity Class 12 Part-2

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 1

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 1

Magnetic effect of electric current

Magnetic effect of electric current

Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-1

Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-1

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 4

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 4

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 2

Electrostatics Class 12- Part 2

Current Electricity Class 12 Part-3

Current Electricity Class 12 Part-3

Converting Metric Units

Converting Metric Units

Basic science

Okay, let's solve this step-by-step:
(i) Volume of the gold cube
Length = 150.00 mm = 0.1500 m
Width = 10.00 cm = 0.1000 m
Thickness = 0.95 m
Volume = Length x Width x Thickness
= 0.1500 x 0.1000 x 0.95
= 0.0142 m3
(ii) Convert density of gold from g/cm3 to kg/m3
19.3 g/cm3 x (1000 g/1 kg) x (1 m3/1000 cm3) = 19,300 kg/m3
(iii) Mass of the gold cube
Density of

Chapter2

This document summarizes key concepts about motion from a physics textbook. It defines important terms like position, motion, speed, velocity, vectors, displacement, distance, acceleration, and gravity. It provides examples of calculating speed, velocity, acceleration, and distance using the physics equations. Key points covered include the difference between speed and velocity, constant versus changing motion, and Galileo's experiments showing objects accelerate at the same rate when dropped regardless of mass.

Sci 1010 chapter 2

This document provides an overview of key concepts in physics related to motion, including:
- Definitions of terms like speed, velocity, acceleration, displacement, and distance.
- Equations for calculating average speed, velocity, acceleration, and distance traveled with constant acceleration.
- The relationship between time and velocity/distance for objects experiencing constant acceleration due to gravity.
- Centripetal acceleration and the equation relating centripetal acceleration, velocity, and radius of circular motion.

Linear motion pp

The document discusses concepts related to motion including speed, velocity, acceleration, and free fall. It defines key terms, provides examples of calculating speed, acceleration, and distance using formulas like the relationship between velocity and acceleration under gravity. Examples include calculating the impact speed of cars moving in the same direction and the acceleration and distance traveled by objects in free fall.

ALL-ABOUT-MOTION (3).pptx

This document discusses key concepts of motion including:
1. It defines motion as a continuous change in position over time and differentiates between speed, velocity, and acceleration.
2. It explains that mechanics involves the study of motion and is divided into kinematics (description of motion) and dynamics (forces that produce motion).
3. It provides equations for calculating average speed, velocity, and acceleration and examples of how to use these equations to solve motion problems.

NCV 4 Mathematical Literacy Hands-On Support Slide Show - Module 1 Part 2

The document provides information on measurements and units of measurement. It includes:
- Converting between different units like metres to kilometres
- Calculating speeds, rates, volumes and surface areas using formulas
- Measuring tools for different quantities like length, volume, mass
- Examples of calculating speeds, volumes, areas of different shapes

Motion day3

This document summarizes key concepts about motion, including:
1. Rates of change like speed and velocity are defined as the amount of change per unit time. Speed is the rate of distance traveled, while velocity also includes direction of movement.
2. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity over time. Gravity causes everything on Earth to accelerate at approximately 9.81 m/s2 downward.
3. Graphing distance versus time allows calculation of speed from the slope. The slope of a velocity-time graph gives instantaneous velocity, while the slope of a position graph gives average velocity over time.

grade 12 distance and displacement.pptx

Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to how far an object has traveled, regardless of direction. Displacement is a vector quantity referring to an object's overall change in position, including both distance and direction traveled. Velocity is a vector quantity that includes both an object's speed and the direction of motion, while speed is a scalar quantity referring only to the rate of travel. Acceleration refers to any change in an object's velocity, whether in magnitude or direction over time.

Foundation Science Presentation 1

Vector and scalar quantities are discussed, as well as velocity vs speed, and displacement vs distance

Motion Intro Notes

1) The document provides information about motion, including definitions of rates, speed, velocity, acceleration, and how to graphically represent these concepts using distance vs time and velocity vs time graphs.
2) Key concepts covered include the difference between speed and velocity, how to calculate average speed and velocity, and the relationship between displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
3) Examples are provided for calculating speed, velocity, acceleration and distance traveled given rates of change over time for various motion scenarios.

Physics .

Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to how far an object has traveled, while displacement is a vector quantity referring to the shortest distance between initial and final positions. Speed is the distance traveled per unit time, while velocity is a vector quantity referring to the rate of change of an object's position and includes direction. Acceleration refers to the rate of change of an object's velocity. It can be calculated using the change in velocity over the change in time.

Fourth six weeks review

The document discusses key concepts in motion including frames of reference, speed, velocity, acceleration, momentum, Newton's laws of motion, gravity, weight, and air resistance. It provides examples and practice problems for each concept. Key terms like force, mass, distance, and time are defined throughout in the context of describing and quantifying different types of motion.

Fourth six weeks review

The document discusses key concepts in motion including frames of reference, speed, velocity, acceleration, momentum, Newton's laws of motion, gravity, weight, and air resistance. It provides examples and practice problems for each concept. Key terms like force, mass, distance, and time are defined throughout in the context of describing and quantifying different types of motion.

Law of momentum

This document provides examples and explanations of key physics concepts including:
- The law of momentum is used to calculate total momentum before and after collisions between objects of different masses moving at different velocities. Conservation of momentum is demonstrated.
- Graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration over time can show motion and changes in motion.
- Newton's second law relates force, mass, and acceleration. Examples show how to calculate any one of these values given the other two.
- Energy concepts like activation energy, work, and spring potential energy are defined and calculations are provided to determine these values in example scenarios.

PHYS 101 Chapter 1

This document discusses fundamental concepts in the study of motion including units of measurement, vectors, speed, velocity, acceleration, and simple types of motion. It provides examples and explanations of these concepts, covering topics like converting between units, vector addition, centripetal acceleration, and motion with constant velocity or acceleration. Examples are included to illustrate calculations and check understanding of key ideas.

Science pp3 unit 1

The document discusses different types of motion and speed. It defines motion as a change in an object's position over time. There are three main types of speed discussed: regular speed which is constant, irregular speed which varies, and relative speed which depends on the observer. Equations for calculating speed, average speed, and acceleration are provided along with examples of using the equations to solve problems. Graphs are used to represent motion and speed visually.

G7 Science Q3- Week 1_2- Force and Motion Standards.ppt

1) The document discusses force and motion standards related to determining the relationship between velocity and acceleration, and the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on an object.
2) It defines key terms related to motion including distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Distance refers to how far an object travels regardless of direction, while displacement takes direction into account. Speed is how fast something moves, while velocity includes both speed and direction.
3) Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity, whether that be a change in speed, direction, or both. Equations for calculating speed, velocity and acceleration from distance, time and other variables are provided.

Motion

One of the major topics in physics is motion. Everything around us moves. Motion is all about forces. Force is the one that acts upon an object to move, or to change its motion.

Hugh_D_Young_&_Roger_A_Freedman_Física_Universitaria_12ed_Manual.pdf

1. The document provides examples of converting between different units of measurement, such as miles to kilometers, gallons to liters, seconds to years, etc. Conversions involve setting up proportional relationships between units and calculating using conversion factors.
2. Examples show calculating uncertainties in measurements based on the precision of the measuring instrument. Uncertainty is estimated as a percentage error relative to the measured quantity.
3. To determine average values and uncertainties, the document uses the maximum and minimum possible values based on the precision of the original measurements. The uncertainty is taken as half the range between the maximum and minimum average values.

Fisica_Universitaria_Sears_Zemansky_12va_Edicion_Solucionario.pdf

1. The document provides examples of converting between different units of measurement, such as miles to kilometers, gallons to liters, seconds to years, etc. Conversions involve setting up proportional relationships between units and calculating using conversion factors.
2. Examples show calculating uncertainties in measurements based on the precision of the measuring instrument. Uncertainty is estimated as a percentage error relative to the measured quantity.
3. To determine average values and uncertainties, the document uses the maximum and minimum possible values based on the precision of the original measurements. The uncertainty is taken as half the range between the maximum and minimum average values.

Basic science

Basic science

Chapter2

Chapter2

Sci 1010 chapter 2

Sci 1010 chapter 2

Linear motion pp

Linear motion pp

ALL-ABOUT-MOTION (3).pptx

ALL-ABOUT-MOTION (3).pptx

NCV 4 Mathematical Literacy Hands-On Support Slide Show - Module 1 Part 2

NCV 4 Mathematical Literacy Hands-On Support Slide Show - Module 1 Part 2

Motion day3

Motion day3

grade 12 distance and displacement.pptx

grade 12 distance and displacement.pptx

Foundation Science Presentation 1

Foundation Science Presentation 1

Motion Intro Notes

Motion Intro Notes

Physics .

Physics .

Fourth six weeks review

Fourth six weeks review

Fourth six weeks review

Fourth six weeks review

Law of momentum

Law of momentum

PHYS 101 Chapter 1

PHYS 101 Chapter 1

Science pp3 unit 1

Science pp3 unit 1

G7 Science Q3- Week 1_2- Force and Motion Standards.ppt

G7 Science Q3- Week 1_2- Force and Motion Standards.ppt

Motion

Motion

Hugh_D_Young_&_Roger_A_Freedman_Física_Universitaria_12ed_Manual.pdf

Hugh_D_Young_&_Roger_A_Freedman_Física_Universitaria_12ed_Manual.pdf

Fisica_Universitaria_Sears_Zemansky_12va_Edicion_Solucionario.pdf

Fisica_Universitaria_Sears_Zemansky_12va_Edicion_Solucionario.pdf

12 days of christmas

Meaning of the 12 gifts of Christmas starting from day one to day twelve.

Respiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organs

Respiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organsManuel S. Enverga University Foundation

lesson for grade 9 science
the topics includes: (a)respiratory system, (b) circulatory system, (c) other organs working together with the respiratory and circulatory systemHeredity, inheritance, and variation

lesson of grade 9 science.
the topics includes the following (a) heredity, inheritance and variation

1 introduction to world geography

An introduction to the study of World Geography.
a) meaning of geography
b) essential elements of geography
c) branches of geography
d) themes of geography
e) graphic representation of the Earth (maps)
f) the global grid system
g) types of maps
h) map essentials
i) earth as a member of the solar system
j) the Planet Earth
k) evaluation (Quiz)

Components of vector

lesson or topics about finding the components of vector particularly the graphical method and component method.

Linear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. Oribe

This document discusses linear momentum and its conservation. It begins by defining momentum as the product of an object's mass and velocity. Momentum is a vector quantity with both magnitude and direction. The document then provides examples of calculating momentum for various objects and collisions. It introduces impulse as the product of force and time of interaction. The law of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of a system remains constant during elastic collisions, where both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved.

Astronomy by Victor R. Oribe

This document provides an overview of the history of astronomy. It discusses early astronomy among ancient cultures like the Chinese, Egyptians, and Babylonians who made early records of celestial objects. It then covers the Golden Age of astronomy centered in Greece where thinkers like Aristotle and Eratosthenes made advances. Key figures who supported the heliocentric model like Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton are also summarized along with their major contributions and findings that helped establish our modern understanding of the solar system and universe. The document concludes with sections on constellations and the motion of the Earth.

Touring our solar system (astronomy)

The document summarizes how the planets in our solar system formed and their key characteristics. It explains that the solar system originated from a large cloud of dust and gas that contracted under gravity, with most matter forming the Sun and the remainder forming a disk from which the planets accreted. The inner, terrestrial planets like Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are rocky, while the outer, Jovian planets like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are gas giants due to forming farther from the Sun where ices could condense. The document contrasts attributes of the inner and outer planets such as size, density, chemical makeup and atmospheres.

The lithosphere

The document describes the different layers that make up the Earth, including the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core. It provides details on the composition and characteristics of each layer, such as the crust being the outermost solid layer and the inner core being made of solid iron and nickel. It also discusses the lithosphere, which includes the crust and upper mantle, and the types of rocks that make up the different layers, such as basalt in the crust and iron and nickel in the outer core.

Heat and temperature

This document discusses heat and temperature. It begins by explaining early theories of heat, including the caloric fluid theory which was later disproven. It then discusses sources of heat, both natural like the sun and artificial like chemical reactions. Key terms are defined, like conduction, convection and radiation as methods of heat transfer. Common temperature scales are explained including Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin. Effects of heat like expansion and phase changes are covered. The document concludes with a short quiz to test the reader's understanding.

Light

Here are the answers to the quiz:
1. b
2. d
3. b
4. c
5. b
6. a
7. B
8. B
9. A
10. B
11. B
12. Isaac Newton
13. Christian Huygens
14. d
15. b

Sound

Sound waves are produced by the vibration of molecules and transmitted through matter as longitudinal waves, traveling faster in solids than liquids or gases due to the closer proximity of molecules. Sound travels as waves that can be reflected, refracted, or absorbed by various media; the velocity depends on the density and elasticity of the material. The human ear detects sound waves through the vibration of the eardrum and conversion to neural signals by specialized structures in the inner ear that are transmitted to the brain for interpretation.

Nature of waves

The document discusses the nature and characteristics of waves, including defining vibration, amplitude, period, frequency, and simple harmonic motion. It describes how vibrating objects can produce different types of waves, such as electromagnetic waves from vibrating electrons and mechanical waves that require a medium and are either transverse or longitudinal. The characteristics of transverse and longitudinal waves are compared, such as their direction of particle oscillation and motion of the waves through different media.

Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is one of two types of reproduction where a single organism can produce offspring that are genetically identical to itself. There are four main types of asexual reproduction in animals: 1) fission or budding where new organisms form from the original but remain attached until maturity, 2) fragmentation where the parent breaks into pieces that develop into new individuals, 3) regeneration where lost body parts can regrow entire new organisms in animals like echinoderms, and 4) gemmules where a parent releases cell clusters that develop into offspring as seen in sponges.

Characteristics of living things

Living things respond to stimuli in their environment, perform life processes like metabolism, growth and reproduction. The document then describes that cells are the basic unit of structure of living things, and details the functions of key cell structures like the cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria and lysosomes. It explains how cells combine to form tissues, organs and organ systems.

Amines

This document discusses the structure and properties of amines. It begins by defining amines as carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen compounds that are commonly found in living organisms. It then discusses the bonding characteristics of nitrogen atoms in organic compounds and how this relates to the structures of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. The document also covers the physical properties, basicity, and reactions of amines, including the formation of amine salts. It concludes by discussing heterocyclic and isomeric amines.

Aldehydes

Aldehydes contain a carbonyl group with at least one hydrogen attached to the carbonyl carbon. They are intermediate in properties between alcohols and alkanes, with higher boiling points than alkanes due to dipole-dipole interactions. Aldehydes are readily oxidized to carboxylic acids and reduced to primary alcohols. They react with alcohols to form hemiacetals and acetals through addition reactions. Hemiacetals contain both a hydroxyl and alkoxy group bonded to the same carbon.

When things in life seems too much too handle

The professor fills an empty mayonnaise jar with golf balls, representing important things in life like family and health. He then adds pebbles, representing other priorities like work and home. Sand is poured in next, filling all remaining spaces, to illustrate unimportant things. When beer is added, it fills the empty areas between sand. This teaches that priorities like family should come before less important tasks, but there is always room for fun with friends.

Alamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalaki

Legend why Men are Liar

Magnetism

1. A proton moves through Earth's magnetic field with a speed of 1.00 x 105 m/s.
2. The magnetic field at this location has a value of 55.0μT.
3. We need to determine the magnetic force on the proton when it moves perpendicular to the magnetic field lines.
Using the formula for magnetic force, F=qvB, where q is the charge on the proton (1.60x10-19 C), v is its speed, and B is the magnetic field:
F= (1.60x10-19 C) x (1.00 x

12 days of christmas

12 days of christmas

Respiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organs

Respiratory system and circulatory system working together with other organs

Heredity, inheritance, and variation

Heredity, inheritance, and variation

1 introduction to world geography

1 introduction to world geography

Components of vector

Components of vector

Linear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. Oribe

Linear momentum and its conservation by Victor R. Oribe

Astronomy by Victor R. Oribe

Astronomy by Victor R. Oribe

Touring our solar system (astronomy)

Touring our solar system (astronomy)

The lithosphere

The lithosphere

Heat and temperature

Heat and temperature

Light

Light

Sound

Sound

Nature of waves

Nature of waves

Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction

Characteristics of living things

Characteristics of living things

Amines

Amines

Aldehydes

Aldehydes

When things in life seems too much too handle

When things in life seems too much too handle

Alamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalaki

Alamat kung bakit sinungaling ang lalaki

Magnetism

Magnetism

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In this webinar, member learned how to stay in compliance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for restricted grants.

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- 1. Mechanics
- 2. Mechanics The branch of physics that deals with the action of forces on bodies and with motion, comprised of kinetics, statics, and kinematics.
- 3. Vector and Scalar Quantities In your study of physics, you will encounter scalar and vector quantities. Examples of Vector quantities 1. Displacement: An airplane flies a distance of 100 km in a easterly direction. 2. Velocity A car moves 60 km/h, 350 east of north. 3. Force A force of 15 newtons acts on a body in an upward direction
- 4. Examples of Scalar quantities 1. Mass A load has a mass of 5 kg 2. Time The car has reached its destination after 1 hour 3. Distance The train has traveled a distance of 80 km.
- 5. Some quantities are expressed as (a number and a unit of measure) only. These quantities are called SCALAR. Quantities that are expressed by a magnitude and direction are called VECTORS VECTOR is represented by an arrow. The arrow has three important parts: 1. Arrowhead – indicates the direction of the vector. 2. Length of the arrow – represents the magnitude of the vector 3. Tail – represents the origin of the vector
- 7. Example 1: The ship sails 25 km north. N d = 25 km Vector diagram Given: d= 25km north Scale: 1 cm = 10 km
- 8. Example 2: The ship sails 20 km south, then 15 km east. d1 = 20km Given: d1 = 20km south d2 = 15km east Scale: 1 cm = 10 km N d2 = 15km W E d1 = 20km d2 = 15km S
- 9. Resultant Vector Scalar quantities can be added and subtracted like ordinary numbers provided the scalars have the same unit. For vectors, the sum depends on the direction of the vectors. The sum of two or more vectors is represented by a single vector called RESULTANT. This vector may be found by using the Graphical method, the Pythagorean theorem, or the component method.
- 10. Graphical Method Carlito was observing an ant that crawled along a tabletop. With a piece of chalk, he followed its path. He determined the ant’s displacements using a ruler and protractor. The displacement were as follows: 2cm east; 3.5cm,320 north of east; and 2.3 cm, 220 west of north. Given: d1 = 2 cm east d2 = 3.5 cm, 320 north of east d3 = 2.3 cm, 220 west of north dR = ?
- 11. Given: d1 = 2 cm east Solution: d2 = 3.5 cm, 320 north of east d3 = 2.3 cm, 220 west of north dR = ? N 220 ___0 d3 = 2.3 cm dr = 320 d2 = 3.5 cm W E
- 12. Assignment: Given the following displacement find the resultant displacement: d1 = 3.5 cm, 320 north of east d2 = 2.3 cm, 220 west of north d3 = 2 cm east Answer: dr = 5.5 cm, 420 north of east.
- 13. Pythagorean Theorem A plane flying due north at 100 m/s is blown by a 500 m/s strong wind due east. What is the plane’s resultant velocity? Given: v2 v1 = 100 m/s north v2 = 500 m/s east v1 vr c2 = a2 + b2 Scale: 1cm = 100 m vR2 = v1 2 + b2 2 vR2 = (100m/s) 2 + (500m/s) 2 vR = 509.90 m/s
- 14. To determine the direction of the resultant velocity, use the equation: tan Ø = opposite side / adjacent side tan Ø = 100m/s / 500m/s = 0.2 tan Ø = 0.2 = 11.310 north of east vR = 509.90 m/s, 11.310 north of east
- 15. Kinematics Motion may be defined as a continuous change of position with respect to a certain reference point. Down - Up +
- 16. Speed and Velocity Speed is scalar quantity, it represents the rate of change of displacement. It represents only the magnitude of velocity. Most vehicles have a device called a SPEEDOMETER which measures speed.
- 17. Average Speed (vs) The average speed may be defined as the total distance traveled divided by the time it took to travel this distance. distance vs = d Average t time Average speed
- 18. Average Velocity (v) Another difference between speed and velocity is that the magnitude of the average velocity is calculated in terms of displacement rather than total distance traveled distance average time velocity change
- 19. A car travels a distance of 40km from manila to a town in Quezon. What is its average speed in (km/h) if traveling time is from 7:00am to 7:30am? Its average velocity? (km/h) Average speed Given: d= 40 km t = 7:00am to 7:30 am = 30 minutes vs = d / t 1.3km/min x 60 min/h = 40km / 30 min = 78 km/h = 1.3 km/min
- 20. A car travels a distance of 40km from manila to a town in Quezon. What is its average speed in (km/h) if traveling time is from 7:00am to 7:30am? Its average velocity? (km/h) Average velocity Given: d= 40 km t = 7:00am to 7:30 am = 30 minutes v =d/t 1.3km/min x 60 min/h = 40km / 30 min = 78 km/h from Manila = 1.3 km/min to Quezon
- 21. Acceleration Acceleration is a vector quantity since it involves a change in velocity which is vector. An increase or decrease in the magnitude of velocity is called acceleration although the word deceleration is sometimes used to indicate a decrease in the magnitude of velocity. The average acceleration of an object may be defined as: Change in velocity Average acceleration = Elapsed time
- 22. Initial final velocity velocity change Final time Average acceleration initial time
- 23. What is the average acceleration of the car in the figure: 0s 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s Start, v = 0 v1 = 5km/h v2 = 10km/h v3 = 15km/h v4 = 20km/h v5 = 25km/h v6 = 30km/h Given: v=0 v0 = 30km/h t=0 = 30 km/h – 0 / 6 s – 0 t0 = 6 s = 5 km/h/s
- 24. Energy Energy is the capacity to do work. Energy can exists in many forms. The chemical energy in a battery is changed into electrical energy that runs the engine motor. The engine motor converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy by making the other parts of the engine work to make the car move.
- 25. Kinetic Energy Energy possess by any moving object. The work done by the moving object is equal to the change in its kinetic energy. 1 KE = mv2 2 Velocity Kinetic energy mass
- 26. A 98-kg basketball player runs at a speed of 7 m/s. a) what is his KE? Given: mass = 98-kg v = 7 m/s KE = ? KE = ½ mv2 = (1) (98-kg) (7 m/s)2 / 2 = 2,401 Joules.
- 27. Potential Energy Energy possess by any object at rest. Types of Potential Energy a) Gravitational Potential Energy Energy possess by an object due to its position. It is determined by the height GPE = mgh of an object above the earth’s center of gravity. mass height Gravity (9.8m/s2 )
- 28. Types of Potential Energy b) Chemical energy the energy possessed by the atoms or molecules of a substance and is released or changed into another forms when the substance is involved in a chemical reaction. this energy depends on the composition of the substance.
- 29. Types of Potential Energy c. Elastic Potential Energy this is the energy possessed by an object like a spring or any other elastic materials due to its condition. The energy depends on the average required to compress it and the distance from its normal length Elastic Potential Energy = kx2 / 2
- 30. Law of Conservation of Energy “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can only be changed from one form to another.” ∆KE + ∆PE + ∆(other forms of energy) = 0
- 31. For example, when the fuel used by a thermal power plant is burned, its chemical energy is converted into heat energy. The heat produced causes the water to boil and can be converted into steam. The energy of the steam is transformed in the steam turbine to mechanical energy. This energy is changed in the generator to electrical energy which is distributed to the consumers. The electrical energy is converted into light energy in electrical lamps, sound energy in a radio, or heat energy in an electric stove.
- 32. Heat
- 33. Sources of Heat A. Natural Sources a) The Sun b) The interior of the Earth B. Artificial Sources a) Chemical Action b) Mechanical Action c) Electrical Energy d) Nuclear energy
- 34. Effects of Heat Heat affects materials in various ways: 1. When substance absorbed heat, its temperature rises. 2. Solid usually melts or change to liquid state when heated. 3. Liquid may absorb enough heat when heated to change to the vapor state. 4. Almost all objects expands when heated. 5. A change in the heat content of a substance can cause chemical change. 6. Heat causes many changes in bodily functions of living organisms.
- 35. Electricity and Magnetism
- 36. Electrical Nature of Matter When a glass rod is rubbed with silk, some of the free moving electrons in the glass transfer to the silk cloth. This breaks the neutral state of both the glass rod and the silk. The rod becomes deficient in electrons and is said to be positively charged. The silk having gained the electrons lost by the rod, has an excess of electrons and becomes negatively charged. In the example given, the number of proton remains the same throughout. The object never lose or gain proton. An object becomes charged with whatever particles it has in excess.
- 37. The Coulomb’s Law The first Law of Electrostatics states that: Like charges repel and unlike charges attract. How large is this charge that repels or attracts? The quantity of charge in the SI system is expressed in Coulombs ( C ), named after Charles Augustine de Coulomb. 1 coulomb = 6.25x1018 electrons q1 q 2 Measured in F=k Coulomb 9x109 N.m2 /C2 d2 Distance in meter
- 38. If q1 has a positive charge and q2 a negative charged, F will therefore be a force of attraction which will bring the two bodies closer to each other. If q1 and q2 are both negative charged bodies, F will be a force of repulsion which will make the two charged bodies move away from each other.
- 39. The two objects are both negatively charged with 0.02 C each and are 70 cm apart. What kind of force exists between them and how much? Given: q1 = q2 = -0.02 C d = 70 cm = 0.70 m k = 9 x 109 N.m2 /C2 Solution: F = 9 X109 N.m2 /C2 x = (9x109 N.m2 ) (-0.02C) (0.02C) / (0.70m)2 x = 7.3x106 N (force of repulsion)
- 40. OHM’S LAW The current flowing through a circuit is directly proportional to the potential difference and inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit. The first part of the law may be represented as I (current) V (potential difference. The second law may be expressed as I I/R Current or E Potential difference (emf) the rate of low I= Volts (V) of electricity R resistance in Ohms
- 41. What is the potential difference (emf) in an electric circuit with a current of 15 amperes and a resistance of 4.0 ohms? Given: I = 15 amperes R = 4.0 ohms V= ? Solution: I = E/R 15 A = E/ 4.0 Ώ E = 60 volts (emf)