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Theories Personality
 & Assessment

            Modified by
  Elizabeth T Santosa, M.Psi, psi.
+
           Definition of Personality?
 Personality refers    to the relatively enduring
    characteristics that differentiate one person
    from another and that lead people to act in a
    consistent and predictable manner, both in
    different situations and over extended periods
    of time.
 Personality    is defined as: the enduring or
    lasting patterns of behavior and thought (across
    time and situation).
+                   Personality

Four Major Perspectives on Personality




    Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations
    Trait - specific dimensions of personality
    Humanistic - inner capacity for growth
    Social-Cognitive - influence of environment
+
    Sigmund Freud


                  University of Vienna 1873
                     Voracious Reader
                  Medical School Graduate

                   Specialized in Nervous
                   Disorders : Some patients’ disorders
                   had no physical cause.



    (1856-1939)
+                    Sigmund Freud

 What   is the structure and development of
    personality, according to Sigmund Freud and his
    successors (i.e.,psychoanalysts)?
 According   to psychoanalysts, much of behavior is
    caused by parts of personality which are found in
    the unconscious and of which we are unaware.
                                          unaware
 Freud’s    3 levels of awareness/consciousness:
     the conscious mind;
     the preconscious mind; and
     the unconscious mind.
+ Psychoanalysis: The Unconscious
    “the mind is like an iceberg -- mostly hidden”
     “the mind is like an iceberg mostly hidden”

Conscious Awareness                  Unconscious
small part above surface           below the surface
    (Preconscious)                (thoughts, feelings,
                                  wishes, memories)


                                     Repression
                                     Banishing unacceptable
                                     thoughts and passions to
                                     unconscious:
                                     Dreams and Slips
+                 Psychoanalysis:
            Freud’s Theory of Personality
 Three   levels of consciousness:


  Conscious                                      mind:
                                                  mind
   things              we             are
   focusing on.
  Preconscious                                   mind:
                                                  mind
   things          are         are          not
   currently            aware             of
   but          which         we          could
   focus on.
  Unconscious                                    mind:
                                                  mind
   that             which            we             are
   unaware of.
+                 Psychoanalysis:
            Freud’s Theory of Personality
 Freud’s   theory suggest that personality is composed of
  the id, the ego, and the superego.
      id      ego          superego
 id:
  id the unorganized, inborn part of personality whose
  purpose is to immediately reduce tensions relating to
  hunger, sex, aggression, and other primitive impulses.
 ego:
  ego   restrains instinctual energy in order to maintain the
  safety of the individual and to help the person to be a
  member of society.
 superego:
  superego   the rights and wrongs of society and consists
  of the conscience and the ego-ideal.
+Freud and Personality Structure
   Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives
                    Pleasure Principle


                    Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways
                                  Reality Principle
                    Super
   Ego
                     Ego
                                                  Super Ego
                                             - voice of conscience
                                              that focuses on how
             Id                               we ought to behave
+                          Freud’s Theory:
                               “the ID”
 The      id uses the most primitive of thinking process.
 Basic      biological urges (e.g., hunger, self-protection).
 The      id operates on the Pleasure Principle.
                                       Principle
       Seeks pleasure and avoids pain:“I want what I want NOW!”
                                                           NOW!
 The      id operates completely at an unconscious level.
       No direct contact with reality.
 The      id has 2 major instincts:
     Eros: life instinct = motivates people to focus on pleasure-
      Eros
      seeking tendencies (e.g., sexual urges).
     Thanatos: death instinct = motivates people to use aggressive
      Thanatos
      urges to destroy.

 The   energy for the id’s instincts comes from the libido, (the
                                                     libido
    energy storehouse).
+                Freud’s Theory:
                    “the Ego”

 Theego consists of a conscious faculty for
 perceiving and dealing intelligently with reality.
 The ego acts as a mediator between the id and
 the superego.
  The ego is partly conscious.
  Deals with the demands of reality.
  Makes rational decisions.
+
                             Freud’s Theory:
                                “the Ego”
   The ego serves the ID:
    The    rational part of personality that maintains
        contact with reality.
       Governed by ‘Reality Principle’
           “What consequences are there to my behavior?”

   The ego is the Executive of the personality
       The ego controls higher mental processes.
           Reasoning, problem solving.
       The ego uses these higher mental processes to help satisfy the urges of the ID.
+
                    Freud’s Theory:
                    “the Superego”
 Superego:
  Superego    the moral part of personality.
  Internalized rules of parents and society.

 Superego consists of two parts:
  Conscience: “notions of right/wrong.”
   Conscience
  Ego Ideal: “how we ideally like to be.”
       Ideal
 Superego:  constrains us from gratifying every impulse (e.g.,
 murder) because they are immoral, and not because we might
 get caught.
 Superego:
  Superego    partly conscious, partly unconscious.
+
        Freud: superego, id, and ego
 According    to Freud, an individual’s feelings,
    thoughts, and behaviors are the result of the
    interaction of the id, the superego, and the
    ego.
+
        Freud’s Theory of Personality:
 The   id, the ego, and the superego are continually in
    conflict with one another.
 This   conflict generates anxiety.
                            anxiety
 If  the ego did not effectively handle the resulting
    anxiety, people would be so overwhelmed with
    anxiety that they would not be able to carry on with
    the tasks of everyday living.
 The   ego tries to control anxiety (i.e., to reduce
    anxiety) through the use of ego defense
    mechanisms.
    mechanisms
+        Ego Defense Mechanisms:
          Defense Mechanisms
                 Ego                     Id
 When the inner war
 gets out of hand, the
  result is Anxiety

Ego protects itself via
Defense Mechanisms
                                     Super
                                      Ego
    Defense Mechanisms reduce/redirect
        anxiety by distorting reality
+            Ego Defense Mechanisms

 Definition:
  Definition   An defense mechanism is a psychology
    tendency that the ego uses to help prevent people from
    becoming overwhelmed by any conflict (and resulting
    anxiety) among the id, the ego, and the superego.
 Defense   mechanisms operate at an unconscious
    level:
    level
     We are not aware of them during the time that we are
      actually using them.
     However, we may later become aware of their
      previous operation and use.
+                  Freud’s Theory:
                 Defense Mechanisms

     Repression:
      Repression    pushing unacceptable and anxiety-
     producing thoughts into the unconscious; involves
     intentional forgetting but not consciously done; repressed
     material can be memories or unacceptable impulses.
      A rape victim cannot recall the details of the attack.

     Regression:
      Regression    acting in ways characteristic of earlier life
     stages/earlier stage of personality.
      A young adult, anxious on a trip to his parents/ home,
       sits in the corner reading comic books, as he often did
       in grade school.
+                  Freud’s Theory:
                 Defense Mechanisms
 Reaction    formation: replacing an anxiety-producing
              formation
    feeling with its exact opposite, typically going
    overboard; repressed thoughts appear as mirror
    opposites.
     A man who is anxious about his interest in gay men
      begins dating women several times a week.
 Rationalization:
  Rationalization     creating false but believable excuses
    to justify inappropriate behavior; real motive for
    behavior is not accepted by ego.
     A student cheats on an exam, explaining that cheating
      is legitimate on an unfair examination.
+                  Freud’s Theory:
                 Defense Mechanisms
 Denial:
  Denial     claiming and believing that something which is
    actually true is false.
     A person disbelieves that she is age, asserting that “I
      am not getting older.”
 Displacement:
  Displacement        redirecting emotional feelings (e.g.,
    anger) to a substitute target; involves directing
    unacceptable impulses onto a less threatening
    object/person.
     A husband, angry at the way his boss treated him,
      screams at his children.
     Instead of telling your professor what you really think
      of her, you tailgate and harass a slow driver on your
      way home from school.
+                 Freud’s Theory:
                 Defense Mechanisms
 Projection:
  Projection  attributing one’s own unacceptable feelings
 or beliefs to others; perceiving the external world in
 terms of one’s own personal conflicts.
  An employee at a store, tempted to steal some
   merchandise, suspects that other employees are
   stealing.
 Sublimation:
  Sublimation  substitute socially acceptable behavior for
 unacceptable impulses.
  Playing video games instead of getting in a fight.
+                     Freud:
Stages of Personality Development

     Freud’s    psychoanalytic theory of personality
     suggests that personality develops through a series
     of stages, each of which is associated with a major
        stages
     biological function.
     More  specifically, Freud theorized that as people
     age, they pass through several systematic stages of
     psychosexual development in their personality.
+ Psychosexual Stages of Development
       are Source of Unconscious Conflicts.
 Thestages of personality development involve critical
 events that occur in every child’s life.
 Ateach level, there is a conflict between pleasure and
 reality.
 reality
  The resolution of this conflict determines personality.

 At any stage, “a fixation” can occur:
                                 occur
  If needs are either under-gratified or over-gratified, we
   become fixated at a particular stage.
                                   stage
 Each stage also involves an erogenous zone.
                                          zone
  Parts of the body that involve sexual pleasure.
Freud and Personality Development
“personality forms during the first few years of life,
“personality forms during the first few years of life,
 rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood”
  rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood”

 Psychosexual Stages
 Oral (0-18 mos) - centered on the mouth
 Anal (18-36 mos) - focus on bowel/bladder elim.
 Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals/“Oedipus Complex”
              (Identification & Gender Identity)
 Latency (6-puberty) - sexuality is dormant
 Genital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward others

Strong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3
+ Freud’s Stages of Personality
   Development:
 Oralstage: the oral state is the first period, occurring
      stage
 during the first year of life.
 Anal
     stage: next comes the anal stage, lasting from
      stage
 approximately age 1 to age 3.
 Phallic
        stage: the phallic stages follows, with interest
        stage
 focusing on the genitals.
 Latency period: then follows the latency period lasting
          period
 until puberty.
 Genitalstage: after puberty, people move into the
          stage
 genital stage, a period of mature sexuality.
+
    (1) Oral stage of development:
     Time period: Birth to 18 months:
      Erogenous zone is mouth.
                            mouth
        Gratification through sucking and swallowing.

     Oral fixation has two possible outcomes.
      Oral receptive personality:
                       personality
        Preoccupied with eating/drinking.
        Reduce tension through oral activity.
          eating, drinking, smoking, biting nails
        Passive and needy; sensitive to rejection.
      Oral aggressive personality:
                         personality
        Hostile and verbally abusive to others.
+
    (2) Anal stage of development:
      Time   period: 1 1/2 to 3 years of age.
      Erogenous     zone is the anus.
      Conflict   surrounds toilet training.
      Anal fixation has two possible outcomes.
       Anal retentive personality.
                        personality
         Stingy, compulsive orderliness, stubborn,
          perfectionistic.
       Anal expulsive personality.
                         personality
         Lack of self control, messy, careless.
+
    (3) Phallic stage of development:
 Time   period: 3 to 6 years.
 Erogenous     zone is the genitals: self-stimulation of the
    genitals produces pleasure.
 At   age 5 or 6, near the end of the phallic stage, children
    experience the Oedipal conflict (boys)/the Electra conflict
    (girls)--a process through which they learn to identify with
    the same gender parent by acting as much like that parent
    as possible.
 Oedipus     complex (boys) vs Electra complex (girls)
     Child is sexually attracted to the other sex parent and
      wishes to replace the same sex parent.
+
    (3) Phallic stage of development:
     Oedipus   complex (little boys):
     Castration anxiety:
      Son believes father knows about his desire for mom.
      Fears dad will castrate him.
      Represses his desire and defensively identifies with
       dad.
+
    (3) Phallic stage (continued):
 Electra   complex (little girls):
 Penis envy:
  Daughter is initially attached to mom.
  Shift of attachment occurs when she realizes she lacks a
   penis.
  She desires dad whom she sees as a means to obtain a
   penis substitute (a child).
                        child)
  Represses her desire for dad.
    incorporates the values of her mother
    accepts her inherent “inferiority” in society
+
    (4) Latency Period:

     During the latency period, little girls and little boys try
     to socialize only with members of their own gender.
     Freudposits that children do this so as to help
     minimize the awareness of “sexuality.”
     Thus, they continue the process of sexual repression
     that began in the previous stage (for those who
     successfully made it through the Oedipal
     Complex/Electra Complex).
+
    (5) Genital Stage:

       When adolescence begin puberty, they enter the 5th stage of
        psychosexual development.

       They develop secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., pubic
        hair).

       The onset of the physical sexual characteristics “re-awakens”
        people sexual urges, and thus they are no longer able to
        successfully repress their sexual desires, impulses, and
        urges.

       They begin searching for a marital mate, with whom they can
        share sex and intimacy.
+
    Summary of Freud (on personality):

 Freud’s     psychoanalytic theory has provoked a number of
    criticisms.
    • a lack of supportive scientific data;
    • the theory’s inadequacy in making predictions; and
    • its limitations owing to the restricted population on which
      it is based.
 Still,    the theory remains popular.
    •   For instance, the neo-Freudian psychoanalytic theorists
        built upon Freud’s work, although they placed greater
        emphasis on the role of the ego and paid greater
        attention to social factors in determining behavior.
+             Psychoanalysis:
            Freud and Personality
         Evaluating the Psychoanalytic
                  Perspective
    Were Freud’s theories            Current research
    the “best of his time”              contradicts
     or were they simply              many of Freud’s
          incorrect?                   specific ideas

                        Development does not
                          stop in childhood

       Slips of the tongue are      Dreams may not be
          likely competing             unconscious
    “nodes” in memory network        drives and wishes
+                Summary:
            Freud and Personality

       Freud’s Ideas as Scientific Theory
           Theories must explain observations
             and offer testable hypotheses


    Few Objective Observations       Few Hypotheses

     (Freud’s theories based on his recollections &
     interpretations of patients’ free associations,
             dreams & slips o’ the tongue)


    Does Not PREDICT Behavior or Traits
+        4 Types of Personality Theories:
    (1). Psychodynamic approaches
          to personality.

    (2). Humanistic approaches
         to personality.

    (3). Trait approaches to personality.

    (4). Social Cognitive approaches
          to personality.
+ Psychodynamic Personality
(1)
Theories:
  Source   of information about personality:
                                 personality
  •   Obtained from expert analyst from people in therapy.
  Cause    of behavior, thoughts, and feelings:
                                       feelings
  •   unconscious internal conflict associated with childhood
      experiences.
  •   Also, unconscious conflicts between pleasure-seeking
      impulses and social restraints.
  Outlook   on humans:
                humans
  •   negative.
  Comprehensiveness   of theory:
                          theory
  •   very comprehensive.
+ Psychodynamic (Psychoanalytic)
                      Theories:
Many are called Neo-Freudians. All place less emphasis on sex.
                Neo-Freudians
 Carl
     Jung:
     Jung
   Personal vs. Collective Unconscious.
                            Unconscious
   Balance between introversion and extroversion.
                                      extroversion
 Alfred Adler:
         Adler
   Strivingfor superiority = motivation to master
    environment.
   Notion of an Inferiority Complex.
                             Complex
 KarenHorney:
       Horney
   Personality is Cultural rather than biological.
                                        biological
+(2) Humanistic Personality
Theories:
   Source of information about personality:
                                personality
    •   obtained from self-reports from the general
        population and people in therapy.
   Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings:
                                     feelings
    •   self concepts,
    •   self-actualizing tendencies.
    •   conscious feelings about oneself (based on one’s
        previous experiences).
   Outlook on humans:
               humans
    •   positive.
   Comprehensiveness of theory:
                         theory
    •   fairly comprehensive.
The Humanistic Perspective

   Maslow’s                          Roger’s
Self-Actualizing                 Person-Centered
     Person                        Perspective




           “Healthy” rather than “Sick”
  Individual as greater than the sum of test scores
+          Humanistic Personality Theories:
               Maslow and Rogers
     Humanistic  approach (Third Force):
      Rejected Freud’s pessimistic view of personality.
      Rejected Behaviorist’s mechanistic view.
      More optimistic/positive about human nature.
      Humans are free and basically good.
      Humans are inner-directed.
      Everyone has the potential for healthy growth.
      Health growth involves Self actualization:
        “Be all you can be.”
        Given the right environmental conditions,
         we can reach our full potential.
Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective
        People are basically good
        with actualizing tendencies.

                Given the right environmental
                 conditions, we will develop
                    to our full potentials

 Genuineness, Acceptance, Empathy

      Self Concept central feature
           Concept:
          of personality (+ or -)
+
         Humanistic Personality Theories:
                       Carl Rogers
 Self-concept:
  Self-concept    our image or perception of ourselves
(Real Self versus Ideal Self).
                        Self)
 We    have a need for positive regard/approval from others.
                                 regard
     Conditions of worth or conditional positive regard.
       The conditions under which other people will approve of
        us.
       We change our behavior to obtain approval.
       What we need is: Unconditional positive regard.
                                                   regard
 Anxiety   signifies that we are not being true to our ideal self.
 Well-adjusted   persons: self-concept & experience.
 Poorly   adjusted person: self-concept & experience.
+   Maslow’s Hierarchy of human motives:
     one must satisfy lower needs before one
             satisfies higher needs.
Humanistic Personality Theories:
+
                   Abraham Maslow
 Self-actualization
                   is the culmination of a lifetime of inner-
 directed growth and improvement:
 • Challenging ourselves to the fullest.
 • Can you identify a self-actualized individual?
 • Characteristics of the self-actualized person:
                                          person
    Creative and open to new experiences.
    Committed to a cause or a higher goal.
    Trusting and caring of others, yet not dependent.
    Have the courage to act on their convictions.
(3) Trait Personality Theories:
 +

  Source   of information about personality:
                                 personality
  •   obtained from observation of behavior and questionnaire
      responses from the general population as well as from
      people in therapy.
  Cause    of behavior, thoughts, and feelings:
                                       feelings
  •   stable internal characteristics;
  •   some emphasize genetic basis.
  Outlook   on humans:
                 humans
  •   neutral - neither positive nor negative.
  Comprehensiveness    of theory:
                           theory
  •   not very comprehensive.
(3) Trait Personality Theories (cont):
 +

 Traitapproaches have tried to identify the most basic
 and relatively enduring dimensions along which people
 differ from one another--dimensions known as traits.
 How     many trait dimensions are there?
 How     can we measure these trait dimensions?
 Where     do these trait dimensions originate?
(3) Trait Personality Theories (cont):
+
                          Allport
 Allport:
  Allport    Most important personality traits are those that
    reflect our values.
 Allport     suggested that there are 3 kinds of traits:
    •   cardinal: a single personality trait that directs most of a
        cardinal
        person’s activities (e.g., greed, lust, kindness).
    •   central: a set of major characteristics that make up the
        central
        core of a person’s personality.
    •   secondary: less important personality traits that do not
        secondary
        affect behavior as much as central and cardinal traits
        do.
(3) Trait Personality Theories (cont):
                             Eysenck
   Hans Eysenck:
    found two (2) major
    trait dimensions:
    • introversion
      versus
      extroversion
      (quiet versus
      sociable).
    • Neuroticism
      versus
      emotional stability
      (moody versus calm).
+ (3) Trait Personality Theories (cont):
   Cattell’s Theory of Personality:
  Cattell’s Trait
                 Theory:
    Distinguished 3 types of traits:
      Dynamic.
      Ability.
      Temperament.

  Also:
    Surface Traits: Less important to personality.
    Source Traits: More important basic underlying
     traits.
  Cattell identified 16 basic traits.
   •   He developed the 16PF to measure these traits.
+ Trait Personality Theories (cont):
(3)

 Recently personality theorists have begun to converge on the
 view that there are 5 basic personality dimensions:
 1: emotional stability versus neuroticism:
   calm, secure, self-satisfied VS anxious, insecure,    self-pitying.
 2: extraversion versus introversion:
   sociable, fun-loving, affectionate VS   retiring, sober, reserved.
 3: openness versus close-mindedness:
   imaginative, independent VS practical,    conforming.
 4: agreeableness versus disagreeableness:
   kind, trusting, helpful VS ruthless, suspicious,   uncooperative.
 5: conscientiousness versus undependable:
   organized, careful, disciplined VS disorganized,    careless,
   impulsive.
+
    Five Factor Model of Traits
+
    Five Factor Model of Traits
             The Big Five
                          • Calm/Anxious
    Emotional Stability
                          • Secure/Insecure

                          • Sociable/Retiring
      Extraversion
                          • Fun Loving/Sober

                          • Imaginative/Practical
        Openness
                          • Independent/Conforming
                          • Soft-Hearted/Ruthless
      Agreeableness
                          • Trusting/Suspicious
                          • Organized/Disorganized
    Conscientiousness
                          • Careful/Careless
+
          Trait Theories of Personality:
                    Summary
     Traits:
      Traits
      Characteristicsor typical ways of acting:
        Consistency:
          across situations, over time.
        Distinctiveness:
          each personality is unique.

     Explain   why individuals behave in certain ways.
     How many traits are there, and what are they?
      Not easy to answer; little consensus.
+ Assessing Personality Traits
       How can we assess traits?
(aim to simplify a person’s behavior patterns)

           Personality Inventories
MMPI:
• most widely used personality inventory.
• assess psychological disorders
  (not normal traits).
• empirically derived - test items selected based
    upon how well they discriminate between
    groups of traits.
+
                     Do traits exist?
           The Trait-Situation Debate
 Walter Mischel (1968) argued that:
       Behavior is not consistent across time or situation.
       If no consistency, not much point in arguing for “personality.”
       Thus, “personality” is an illusion.

   Situationism:
           Mischel believed that behavior is influenced more by the situation than
            any internal “trait.”

   Person x situation interactionism:
    Both (a) internal traits and (b) the situation we are in are important
        determinants of behavior.
+
    (4) Social-Cognitive (Learning)
    Approaches to personality
 Source of information about personality:
         Personality Theories:
    Obtained from experiments, observations of behavior,
     and questionnaire responses from the general
     population.
   Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings:
                                     feelings
      •reciprocal
                influence between people (cognitions and
     behavior) and their environmental situations, colored by
     their perceptions of control.
   Outlook on humans:
               humans
      •neutral:   neither positive nor negative.
   Comprehensiveness of theory:
                         theory
      •not   very comprehensive.
Social-Cognitive-Learning
+
           Perspective
        Behavior learned through
      conditioning and observation



    What we think about our situation
          affects our behavior

            Interaction of
      Environment and Intellect
+       Social-Cognitive Personality
                 Theories:
               Social Learning Theory
 Bandura:
  Bandura      Theoretical origins in behaviorism.
 Emphasizes     the role of learning in personality.
     Classical Conditioning.
     Operant Conditioning .
     Modeling.

 Instead  of studying what’s going on inside the person (traits),
    study what is going on outside the person (environment).
 How    does the environment shape personality?
+       Social-Cognitive Personality
                 Theories:
              Social Learning Theory
 Bandura    also emphasized the importance of cognition in
    personality development.
 People     develop a sense of self-efficacy:
                                 self-efficacy
     Our beliefs about our ability to achieve goals.
     Individuals with higher self-efficacy:
       accept greater challenges.
       try harder to meet challenges.

 Bandura     also discusses the notion of Reciprocal
    Determinism:
    Determinism
     The individual and the environment continually
      influence one another.
+ Social-Cognitive Personality Theories:
        Reciprocal Determination
                   Personal/
                   Cognitive
                    Factors


  Environment
                                   Behavior
    Factors

     Internal World + External World = Us
      Internal World + External World = Us
+ Social-Cognitive Personality Theories:
       Reciprocal Determination
+ Social-Cognitive Personality Theories:
               Personal Control
Internal Locus of Control:
You pretty much control your own destiny

External Locus of Control:
Luck, fate and/or powerful others control your destiny.


Methods of Study:
• Correlate feelings of control with behavior.
• Experiment by raising/lowering people’s sense of
  control and noting the consequences and effects.
+ Social-Cognitive Personality Theories:
       Outcomes of Personal Control

            Learned Helplessness:
Uncontrollable      Perceived         Generalized
 bad events       lack of control   helpless behavior


             Important Issues:
              • Nursing Homes
                  • Prisons
                  •Colleges
+
    Comparison of Personality
    Theories
+
           Personality Assessment
 Personality assessment       involves the techniques for
    systematically gathering information about a person in
    order to understand and predict behavior.
 Goal    of personality assessment: to obtain reliable,
                         assessment
    valid measures of individual differences that will
    permit the accurate prediction of behavior.
+
    How do we measure “Personality”?

 (1)
    Interview:
    Interview
  Ask the person about themselves.
  Obtain information that reveals personality.

 (2)Behavioral Observation:
                Observation
  Watch the individual’s behavior in an actual or simulated
   situation.
 Personality Tests:
              Tests
  (3) Objective tests (questionnaire tests).
  (4) Projective tests.
+
         How do we measure personality?
            (2) Behavioral assessment

     Behavioral assessment is based on the principles of
     learning theory.
     Behavioral  assessment employs direct measurement
     of behavior to determine the characteristics related to
     personality.
+         How do we measure personality?
            (3) Objective Test Assessment

     Objective personality tests (self-report
     questionnaires) present the test taker with a number
     of specific items to which she is asked to respond,
     either on paper or on a computer screen.
     Self-report
                measures ask people about a sample
     range of their behaviors.
     These reports are used to infer the presence of
     particular personality characteristics.
+
            How do we measure personality?
              (3) Objective Test Assessment

     Examples  of objective personality measures:
      the MMPI (the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
       Inventory).
      the 16 PF (the Sixteen Personality Factor
       Questionnaire).
      the NEO-PI (the NEO Personality Inventory).

     The most commonly used self-report measure is the
     Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-
     2), designed to differentiate people with specific
     2)
     sorts of psychological difficulties from normal
     individuals.
+
     Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
           Inventory (MMPI-2)
     Mostwidely used personality instrument.
      Used in clinical and employment settings.
      MMPI-2 Has several different scales (multiphasic).

     MMPI   sample items:
        ‘I usually feel that life is worthwhile and interesting
         (FALSE) = Depression.
        ‘I seem to hear things that other people can’t hear’
         (TRUE) = Schizophrenia.
     Measures aspects of personality that, if extreme, suggest
     a problem:
      Extreme suspiciousness may indicate paranoia.
+        How do we measure personality?
           (4) Projective Test Assessment
   A projective personality test is one in which the subject
    is given an ambiguous stimulus and asked to respond
    spontaneously.
     pictures or inkblots.
     No clear answer.

 The    ambiguous stimulus allows test takers to project
    their own needs, dreams, feelings into their response.
 The    observer’s responses to the stimulus are then used
    to infer information about the observer’s personality.
+
         How do we measure personality?
     (4) Projective Test Assessment (continued)

 All projective tests are based on the projective hypothesis
    which states that the individual's response to an
    ambiguous stimulus represents a projection of his or her
    own inner, often unconscious, feelings and needs.
 Indirect   method of personality assessment:
 Based    on psychoanalytic assumptions:
                              assumptions
     Personality is mostly unconscious.
     People are unaware of contents of unconscious.
+
            How do we measure personality?
        (4) Projective Test Assessment (continued):

 The      2 most frequently used projective tests are:
    •   the Rorschach: reactions to inkblots are employed to
            Rorschach
        classify personality types.
    •   the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): stories about
                                        (TAT)
        ambiguous pictures are used to draw inferences about
        the storyteller’s personality.
+
             Rorschach Inkblot Test
 Most   popular projective technique.
 Respond    to inkblot: “What could this be?”
+




    THE END

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1. theories of personality

  • 1. Theories Personality & Assessment Modified by Elizabeth T Santosa, M.Psi, psi.
  • 2. + Definition of Personality?  Personality refers to the relatively enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another and that lead people to act in a consistent and predictable manner, both in different situations and over extended periods of time.  Personality is defined as: the enduring or lasting patterns of behavior and thought (across time and situation).
  • 3. + Personality Four Major Perspectives on Personality Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations Trait - specific dimensions of personality Humanistic - inner capacity for growth Social-Cognitive - influence of environment
  • 4. + Sigmund Freud University of Vienna 1873 Voracious Reader Medical School Graduate Specialized in Nervous Disorders : Some patients’ disorders had no physical cause. (1856-1939)
  • 5. + Sigmund Freud  What is the structure and development of personality, according to Sigmund Freud and his successors (i.e.,psychoanalysts)?  According to psychoanalysts, much of behavior is caused by parts of personality which are found in the unconscious and of which we are unaware. unaware  Freud’s 3 levels of awareness/consciousness:  the conscious mind;  the preconscious mind; and  the unconscious mind.
  • 6. + Psychoanalysis: The Unconscious “the mind is like an iceberg -- mostly hidden” “the mind is like an iceberg mostly hidden” Conscious Awareness Unconscious small part above surface below the surface (Preconscious) (thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories) Repression Banishing unacceptable thoughts and passions to unconscious: Dreams and Slips
  • 7. + Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Theory of Personality  Three levels of consciousness:  Conscious mind: mind things we are focusing on.  Preconscious mind: mind things are are not currently aware of but which we could focus on.  Unconscious mind: mind that which we are unaware of.
  • 8. + Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Theory of Personality  Freud’s theory suggest that personality is composed of the id, the ego, and the superego. id ego superego  id: id the unorganized, inborn part of personality whose purpose is to immediately reduce tensions relating to hunger, sex, aggression, and other primitive impulses.  ego: ego restrains instinctual energy in order to maintain the safety of the individual and to help the person to be a member of society.  superego: superego the rights and wrongs of society and consists of the conscience and the ego-ideal.
  • 9. +Freud and Personality Structure Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives Pleasure Principle Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways Reality Principle Super Ego Ego Super Ego - voice of conscience that focuses on how Id we ought to behave
  • 10. + Freud’s Theory: “the ID”  The id uses the most primitive of thinking process.  Basic biological urges (e.g., hunger, self-protection).  The id operates on the Pleasure Principle. Principle  Seeks pleasure and avoids pain:“I want what I want NOW!” NOW!  The id operates completely at an unconscious level.  No direct contact with reality.  The id has 2 major instincts:  Eros: life instinct = motivates people to focus on pleasure- Eros seeking tendencies (e.g., sexual urges).  Thanatos: death instinct = motivates people to use aggressive Thanatos urges to destroy.  The energy for the id’s instincts comes from the libido, (the libido energy storehouse).
  • 11. + Freud’s Theory: “the Ego”  Theego consists of a conscious faculty for perceiving and dealing intelligently with reality.  The ego acts as a mediator between the id and the superego.  The ego is partly conscious.  Deals with the demands of reality.  Makes rational decisions.
  • 12. + Freud’s Theory: “the Ego”  The ego serves the ID: The rational part of personality that maintains contact with reality.  Governed by ‘Reality Principle’  “What consequences are there to my behavior?”  The ego is the Executive of the personality  The ego controls higher mental processes.  Reasoning, problem solving.  The ego uses these higher mental processes to help satisfy the urges of the ID.
  • 13. + Freud’s Theory: “the Superego”  Superego: Superego the moral part of personality.  Internalized rules of parents and society.  Superego consists of two parts:  Conscience: “notions of right/wrong.” Conscience  Ego Ideal: “how we ideally like to be.” Ideal  Superego: constrains us from gratifying every impulse (e.g., murder) because they are immoral, and not because we might get caught.  Superego: Superego partly conscious, partly unconscious.
  • 14. + Freud: superego, id, and ego  According to Freud, an individual’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are the result of the interaction of the id, the superego, and the ego.
  • 15. + Freud’s Theory of Personality:  The id, the ego, and the superego are continually in conflict with one another.  This conflict generates anxiety. anxiety  If the ego did not effectively handle the resulting anxiety, people would be so overwhelmed with anxiety that they would not be able to carry on with the tasks of everyday living.  The ego tries to control anxiety (i.e., to reduce anxiety) through the use of ego defense mechanisms. mechanisms
  • 16. + Ego Defense Mechanisms: Defense Mechanisms Ego Id When the inner war gets out of hand, the result is Anxiety Ego protects itself via Defense Mechanisms Super Ego Defense Mechanisms reduce/redirect anxiety by distorting reality
  • 17. + Ego Defense Mechanisms  Definition: Definition An defense mechanism is a psychology tendency that the ego uses to help prevent people from becoming overwhelmed by any conflict (and resulting anxiety) among the id, the ego, and the superego.  Defense mechanisms operate at an unconscious level: level  We are not aware of them during the time that we are actually using them.  However, we may later become aware of their previous operation and use.
  • 18. + Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms  Repression: Repression pushing unacceptable and anxiety- producing thoughts into the unconscious; involves intentional forgetting but not consciously done; repressed material can be memories or unacceptable impulses.  A rape victim cannot recall the details of the attack.  Regression: Regression acting in ways characteristic of earlier life stages/earlier stage of personality.  A young adult, anxious on a trip to his parents/ home, sits in the corner reading comic books, as he often did in grade school.
  • 19. + Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms  Reaction formation: replacing an anxiety-producing formation feeling with its exact opposite, typically going overboard; repressed thoughts appear as mirror opposites.  A man who is anxious about his interest in gay men begins dating women several times a week.  Rationalization: Rationalization creating false but believable excuses to justify inappropriate behavior; real motive for behavior is not accepted by ego.  A student cheats on an exam, explaining that cheating is legitimate on an unfair examination.
  • 20. + Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms  Denial: Denial claiming and believing that something which is actually true is false.  A person disbelieves that she is age, asserting that “I am not getting older.”  Displacement: Displacement redirecting emotional feelings (e.g., anger) to a substitute target; involves directing unacceptable impulses onto a less threatening object/person.  A husband, angry at the way his boss treated him, screams at his children.  Instead of telling your professor what you really think of her, you tailgate and harass a slow driver on your way home from school.
  • 21. + Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms  Projection: Projection attributing one’s own unacceptable feelings or beliefs to others; perceiving the external world in terms of one’s own personal conflicts.  An employee at a store, tempted to steal some merchandise, suspects that other employees are stealing.  Sublimation: Sublimation substitute socially acceptable behavior for unacceptable impulses.  Playing video games instead of getting in a fight.
  • 22. + Freud: Stages of Personality Development  Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality suggests that personality develops through a series of stages, each of which is associated with a major stages biological function.  More specifically, Freud theorized that as people age, they pass through several systematic stages of psychosexual development in their personality.
  • 23. + Psychosexual Stages of Development are Source of Unconscious Conflicts.  Thestages of personality development involve critical events that occur in every child’s life.  Ateach level, there is a conflict between pleasure and reality. reality  The resolution of this conflict determines personality.  At any stage, “a fixation” can occur: occur  If needs are either under-gratified or over-gratified, we become fixated at a particular stage. stage  Each stage also involves an erogenous zone. zone  Parts of the body that involve sexual pleasure.
  • 24. Freud and Personality Development “personality forms during the first few years of life, “personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood” rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood” Psychosexual Stages Oral (0-18 mos) - centered on the mouth Anal (18-36 mos) - focus on bowel/bladder elim. Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals/“Oedipus Complex” (Identification & Gender Identity) Latency (6-puberty) - sexuality is dormant Genital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward others Strong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3
  • 25. + Freud’s Stages of Personality Development:  Oralstage: the oral state is the first period, occurring stage during the first year of life.  Anal stage: next comes the anal stage, lasting from stage approximately age 1 to age 3.  Phallic stage: the phallic stages follows, with interest stage focusing on the genitals.  Latency period: then follows the latency period lasting period until puberty.  Genitalstage: after puberty, people move into the stage genital stage, a period of mature sexuality.
  • 26. + (1) Oral stage of development:  Time period: Birth to 18 months:  Erogenous zone is mouth. mouth  Gratification through sucking and swallowing.  Oral fixation has two possible outcomes.  Oral receptive personality: personality  Preoccupied with eating/drinking.  Reduce tension through oral activity.  eating, drinking, smoking, biting nails  Passive and needy; sensitive to rejection.  Oral aggressive personality: personality  Hostile and verbally abusive to others.
  • 27. + (2) Anal stage of development:  Time period: 1 1/2 to 3 years of age.  Erogenous zone is the anus.  Conflict surrounds toilet training.  Anal fixation has two possible outcomes.  Anal retentive personality. personality  Stingy, compulsive orderliness, stubborn, perfectionistic.  Anal expulsive personality. personality  Lack of self control, messy, careless.
  • 28. + (3) Phallic stage of development:  Time period: 3 to 6 years.  Erogenous zone is the genitals: self-stimulation of the genitals produces pleasure.  At age 5 or 6, near the end of the phallic stage, children experience the Oedipal conflict (boys)/the Electra conflict (girls)--a process through which they learn to identify with the same gender parent by acting as much like that parent as possible.  Oedipus complex (boys) vs Electra complex (girls)  Child is sexually attracted to the other sex parent and wishes to replace the same sex parent.
  • 29. + (3) Phallic stage of development:  Oedipus complex (little boys):  Castration anxiety:  Son believes father knows about his desire for mom.  Fears dad will castrate him.  Represses his desire and defensively identifies with dad.
  • 30. + (3) Phallic stage (continued):  Electra complex (little girls):  Penis envy:  Daughter is initially attached to mom.  Shift of attachment occurs when she realizes she lacks a penis.  She desires dad whom she sees as a means to obtain a penis substitute (a child). child)  Represses her desire for dad.  incorporates the values of her mother  accepts her inherent “inferiority” in society
  • 31. + (4) Latency Period:  During the latency period, little girls and little boys try to socialize only with members of their own gender.  Freudposits that children do this so as to help minimize the awareness of “sexuality.”  Thus, they continue the process of sexual repression that began in the previous stage (for those who successfully made it through the Oedipal Complex/Electra Complex).
  • 32. + (5) Genital Stage:  When adolescence begin puberty, they enter the 5th stage of psychosexual development.  They develop secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., pubic hair).  The onset of the physical sexual characteristics “re-awakens” people sexual urges, and thus they are no longer able to successfully repress their sexual desires, impulses, and urges.  They begin searching for a marital mate, with whom they can share sex and intimacy.
  • 33. + Summary of Freud (on personality):  Freud’s psychoanalytic theory has provoked a number of criticisms. • a lack of supportive scientific data; • the theory’s inadequacy in making predictions; and • its limitations owing to the restricted population on which it is based.  Still, the theory remains popular. • For instance, the neo-Freudian psychoanalytic theorists built upon Freud’s work, although they placed greater emphasis on the role of the ego and paid greater attention to social factors in determining behavior.
  • 34. + Psychoanalysis: Freud and Personality Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Were Freud’s theories Current research the “best of his time” contradicts or were they simply many of Freud’s incorrect? specific ideas Development does not stop in childhood Slips of the tongue are Dreams may not be likely competing unconscious “nodes” in memory network drives and wishes
  • 35. + Summary: Freud and Personality Freud’s Ideas as Scientific Theory Theories must explain observations and offer testable hypotheses Few Objective Observations Few Hypotheses (Freud’s theories based on his recollections & interpretations of patients’ free associations, dreams & slips o’ the tongue) Does Not PREDICT Behavior or Traits
  • 36. + 4 Types of Personality Theories: (1). Psychodynamic approaches to personality. (2). Humanistic approaches to personality. (3). Trait approaches to personality. (4). Social Cognitive approaches to personality.
  • 37. + Psychodynamic Personality (1) Theories:  Source of information about personality: personality • Obtained from expert analyst from people in therapy.  Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings: feelings • unconscious internal conflict associated with childhood experiences. • Also, unconscious conflicts between pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints.  Outlook on humans: humans • negative.  Comprehensiveness of theory: theory • very comprehensive.
  • 38. + Psychodynamic (Psychoanalytic) Theories: Many are called Neo-Freudians. All place less emphasis on sex. Neo-Freudians  Carl Jung: Jung Personal vs. Collective Unconscious. Unconscious Balance between introversion and extroversion. extroversion  Alfred Adler: Adler Strivingfor superiority = motivation to master environment. Notion of an Inferiority Complex. Complex  KarenHorney: Horney Personality is Cultural rather than biological. biological
  • 39. +(2) Humanistic Personality Theories:  Source of information about personality: personality • obtained from self-reports from the general population and people in therapy.  Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings: feelings • self concepts, • self-actualizing tendencies. • conscious feelings about oneself (based on one’s previous experiences).  Outlook on humans: humans • positive.  Comprehensiveness of theory: theory • fairly comprehensive.
  • 40. The Humanistic Perspective Maslow’s Roger’s Self-Actualizing Person-Centered Person Perspective “Healthy” rather than “Sick” Individual as greater than the sum of test scores
  • 41. + Humanistic Personality Theories: Maslow and Rogers  Humanistic approach (Third Force):  Rejected Freud’s pessimistic view of personality.  Rejected Behaviorist’s mechanistic view.  More optimistic/positive about human nature.  Humans are free and basically good.  Humans are inner-directed.  Everyone has the potential for healthy growth.  Health growth involves Self actualization:  “Be all you can be.”  Given the right environmental conditions, we can reach our full potential.
  • 42. Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective People are basically good with actualizing tendencies. Given the right environmental conditions, we will develop to our full potentials Genuineness, Acceptance, Empathy Self Concept central feature Concept: of personality (+ or -)
  • 43. + Humanistic Personality Theories: Carl Rogers  Self-concept: Self-concept our image or perception of ourselves (Real Self versus Ideal Self). Self)  We have a need for positive regard/approval from others. regard  Conditions of worth or conditional positive regard.  The conditions under which other people will approve of us.  We change our behavior to obtain approval.  What we need is: Unconditional positive regard. regard  Anxiety signifies that we are not being true to our ideal self.  Well-adjusted persons: self-concept & experience.  Poorly adjusted person: self-concept & experience.
  • 44. + Maslow’s Hierarchy of human motives: one must satisfy lower needs before one satisfies higher needs.
  • 45. Humanistic Personality Theories: + Abraham Maslow  Self-actualization is the culmination of a lifetime of inner- directed growth and improvement: • Challenging ourselves to the fullest. • Can you identify a self-actualized individual? • Characteristics of the self-actualized person: person  Creative and open to new experiences.  Committed to a cause or a higher goal.  Trusting and caring of others, yet not dependent.  Have the courage to act on their convictions.
  • 46. (3) Trait Personality Theories: +  Source of information about personality: personality • obtained from observation of behavior and questionnaire responses from the general population as well as from people in therapy.  Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings: feelings • stable internal characteristics; • some emphasize genetic basis.  Outlook on humans: humans • neutral - neither positive nor negative.  Comprehensiveness of theory: theory • not very comprehensive.
  • 47. (3) Trait Personality Theories (cont): +  Traitapproaches have tried to identify the most basic and relatively enduring dimensions along which people differ from one another--dimensions known as traits.  How many trait dimensions are there?  How can we measure these trait dimensions?  Where do these trait dimensions originate?
  • 48. (3) Trait Personality Theories (cont): + Allport  Allport: Allport Most important personality traits are those that reflect our values.  Allport suggested that there are 3 kinds of traits: • cardinal: a single personality trait that directs most of a cardinal person’s activities (e.g., greed, lust, kindness). • central: a set of major characteristics that make up the central core of a person’s personality. • secondary: less important personality traits that do not secondary affect behavior as much as central and cardinal traits do.
  • 49. (3) Trait Personality Theories (cont): Eysenck  Hans Eysenck: found two (2) major trait dimensions: • introversion versus extroversion (quiet versus sociable). • Neuroticism versus emotional stability (moody versus calm).
  • 50. + (3) Trait Personality Theories (cont): Cattell’s Theory of Personality:  Cattell’s Trait Theory:  Distinguished 3 types of traits:  Dynamic.  Ability.  Temperament.  Also:  Surface Traits: Less important to personality.  Source Traits: More important basic underlying traits.  Cattell identified 16 basic traits. • He developed the 16PF to measure these traits.
  • 51. + Trait Personality Theories (cont): (3)  Recently personality theorists have begun to converge on the view that there are 5 basic personality dimensions:  1: emotional stability versus neuroticism:  calm, secure, self-satisfied VS anxious, insecure, self-pitying.  2: extraversion versus introversion:  sociable, fun-loving, affectionate VS retiring, sober, reserved.  3: openness versus close-mindedness:  imaginative, independent VS practical, conforming.  4: agreeableness versus disagreeableness:  kind, trusting, helpful VS ruthless, suspicious, uncooperative.  5: conscientiousness versus undependable:  organized, careful, disciplined VS disorganized, careless, impulsive.
  • 52. + Five Factor Model of Traits
  • 53. + Five Factor Model of Traits The Big Five • Calm/Anxious Emotional Stability • Secure/Insecure • Sociable/Retiring Extraversion • Fun Loving/Sober • Imaginative/Practical Openness • Independent/Conforming • Soft-Hearted/Ruthless Agreeableness • Trusting/Suspicious • Organized/Disorganized Conscientiousness • Careful/Careless
  • 54. + Trait Theories of Personality: Summary  Traits: Traits  Characteristicsor typical ways of acting:  Consistency:  across situations, over time.  Distinctiveness:  each personality is unique.  Explain why individuals behave in certain ways.  How many traits are there, and what are they?  Not easy to answer; little consensus.
  • 55. + Assessing Personality Traits How can we assess traits? (aim to simplify a person’s behavior patterns) Personality Inventories MMPI: • most widely used personality inventory. • assess psychological disorders (not normal traits). • empirically derived - test items selected based upon how well they discriminate between groups of traits.
  • 56. + Do traits exist? The Trait-Situation Debate  Walter Mischel (1968) argued that:  Behavior is not consistent across time or situation.  If no consistency, not much point in arguing for “personality.”  Thus, “personality” is an illusion.  Situationism:  Mischel believed that behavior is influenced more by the situation than any internal “trait.”  Person x situation interactionism: Both (a) internal traits and (b) the situation we are in are important determinants of behavior.
  • 57. + (4) Social-Cognitive (Learning) Approaches to personality  Source of information about personality: Personality Theories: Obtained from experiments, observations of behavior, and questionnaire responses from the general population.  Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings: feelings •reciprocal influence between people (cognitions and behavior) and their environmental situations, colored by their perceptions of control.  Outlook on humans: humans •neutral: neither positive nor negative.  Comprehensiveness of theory: theory •not very comprehensive.
  • 58. Social-Cognitive-Learning + Perspective Behavior learned through conditioning and observation What we think about our situation affects our behavior Interaction of Environment and Intellect
  • 59. + Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Social Learning Theory  Bandura: Bandura Theoretical origins in behaviorism.  Emphasizes the role of learning in personality.  Classical Conditioning.  Operant Conditioning .  Modeling.  Instead of studying what’s going on inside the person (traits), study what is going on outside the person (environment).  How does the environment shape personality?
  • 60. + Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Social Learning Theory  Bandura also emphasized the importance of cognition in personality development.  People develop a sense of self-efficacy: self-efficacy  Our beliefs about our ability to achieve goals.  Individuals with higher self-efficacy:  accept greater challenges.  try harder to meet challenges.  Bandura also discusses the notion of Reciprocal Determinism: Determinism  The individual and the environment continually influence one another.
  • 61. + Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Reciprocal Determination Personal/ Cognitive Factors Environment Behavior Factors Internal World + External World = Us Internal World + External World = Us
  • 62. + Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Reciprocal Determination
  • 63. + Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Personal Control Internal Locus of Control: You pretty much control your own destiny External Locus of Control: Luck, fate and/or powerful others control your destiny. Methods of Study: • Correlate feelings of control with behavior. • Experiment by raising/lowering people’s sense of control and noting the consequences and effects.
  • 64. + Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Outcomes of Personal Control Learned Helplessness: Uncontrollable Perceived Generalized bad events lack of control helpless behavior Important Issues: • Nursing Homes • Prisons •Colleges
  • 65. + Comparison of Personality Theories
  • 66. + Personality Assessment  Personality assessment involves the techniques for systematically gathering information about a person in order to understand and predict behavior.  Goal of personality assessment: to obtain reliable, assessment valid measures of individual differences that will permit the accurate prediction of behavior.
  • 67. + How do we measure “Personality”?  (1) Interview: Interview  Ask the person about themselves.  Obtain information that reveals personality.  (2)Behavioral Observation: Observation  Watch the individual’s behavior in an actual or simulated situation.  Personality Tests: Tests  (3) Objective tests (questionnaire tests).  (4) Projective tests.
  • 68. + How do we measure personality? (2) Behavioral assessment  Behavioral assessment is based on the principles of learning theory.  Behavioral assessment employs direct measurement of behavior to determine the characteristics related to personality.
  • 69. + How do we measure personality? (3) Objective Test Assessment  Objective personality tests (self-report questionnaires) present the test taker with a number of specific items to which she is asked to respond, either on paper or on a computer screen.  Self-report measures ask people about a sample range of their behaviors.  These reports are used to infer the presence of particular personality characteristics.
  • 70. + How do we measure personality? (3) Objective Test Assessment  Examples of objective personality measures:  the MMPI (the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory).  the 16 PF (the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire).  the NEO-PI (the NEO Personality Inventory).  The most commonly used self-report measure is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI- 2), designed to differentiate people with specific 2) sorts of psychological difficulties from normal individuals.
  • 71. + Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)  Mostwidely used personality instrument.  Used in clinical and employment settings.  MMPI-2 Has several different scales (multiphasic).  MMPI sample items:  ‘I usually feel that life is worthwhile and interesting (FALSE) = Depression.  ‘I seem to hear things that other people can’t hear’ (TRUE) = Schizophrenia.  Measures aspects of personality that, if extreme, suggest a problem:  Extreme suspiciousness may indicate paranoia.
  • 72. + How do we measure personality? (4) Projective Test Assessment  A projective personality test is one in which the subject is given an ambiguous stimulus and asked to respond spontaneously.  pictures or inkblots.  No clear answer.  The ambiguous stimulus allows test takers to project their own needs, dreams, feelings into their response.  The observer’s responses to the stimulus are then used to infer information about the observer’s personality.
  • 73. + How do we measure personality? (4) Projective Test Assessment (continued)  All projective tests are based on the projective hypothesis which states that the individual's response to an ambiguous stimulus represents a projection of his or her own inner, often unconscious, feelings and needs.  Indirect method of personality assessment:  Based on psychoanalytic assumptions: assumptions  Personality is mostly unconscious.  People are unaware of contents of unconscious.
  • 74. + How do we measure personality? (4) Projective Test Assessment (continued):  The 2 most frequently used projective tests are: • the Rorschach: reactions to inkblots are employed to Rorschach classify personality types. • the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): stories about (TAT) ambiguous pictures are used to draw inferences about the storyteller’s personality.
  • 75. + Rorschach Inkblot Test  Most popular projective technique.  Respond to inkblot: “What could this be?”
  • 76. + THE END