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Types of Personality Disorder




           MODIFIED BY:
Elizabeth T. Santosa, M.Psi., psi.
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER




      Harmful dysfunction” in
      which     behavior    is
      judged to be atypical,
      disturbing, maladaptive
      and unjustifiable.
EARLY THEORIES



Abnormal behavior was evil spirits trying to
                get out.
       Trephining was often used.
PERSPECTIVES AND DISORDERS

Psychological School/Perspective           Cause of the Disorder
 Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic      Internal, unconscious drives
          Humanistic               Failure to strive to one’s potential or
                                   being out of touch with one’s feelings.


           Behavioral              Reinforcement history, the
                                   environment.
           Cognitive               Irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or
                                   ways of thinking.
         Sociocultural             Dysfunctional Society
    Biomedical/Neuroscience        Organic problems, biochemical
                                   imbalances, genetic predispositions.
DSM IV


         •Diagnostic Statistical Manual
          of Mental Disorders: the big
               book of disorders.
     •DSM will classify disorders and
        describe the symptoms.
           •DSM will NOT explain the
            causes or possible cures.
TWO MAJOR CLASSIFICATIONS
                      IN THE DSM


     Neurotic Disorders              Psychotic Disorders

Distressing but one can still     Person loses contact with
function in society and act     reality, experiences distorted
         rationally.                      perceptions.




                                        John Wayne Gacy
ANXIETY DISORDERS



 •a group of conditions where
  the primary symptoms are
 anxiety or defenses against
           anxiety.
•the patient fears something
  awful will happen to them.
•They are in a state of intense
  apprehension, uneasiness,
    uncertainty, or fear.
PHOBIAS


A person experiences sudden episodes
          of intense dread.
     Must be an irrational fear.
            Phobia List
GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER
             GAD


                 An anxiety disorder in
                    which a person is
                  continuously tense,
                 apprehensive and in a
                   state of autonomic
                nervous system arousal.
                The patient is constantly
                tense and worried, feels
                      inadequate, is
                  oversensitive, can’t
                concentrate and suffers
                     from insomnia.
PANIC DISORDER




An anxiety disorder marked by a
 minutes-long episode of intense
     dread in which a person
     experiences terror and
accompanying chest pain, choking
and other frightening sensations.
OBSSESSIVE COMPULSIVE
      DISORDER


                      •Persistent unwanted
                  thoughts (obsessions) cause
                    someone to feel the need
                   (compulsion) to engage in a
                        particular action.
                   •Obsession about dirt and
                       germs may lead to
                    compulsive hand washing.
POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS
                            DISORDER
                           A.K.A. PTSD


   Flashbacks or nightmares
following a person’s involvement
     in or observation of an
  extremely stressful event.
  Memories of the even cause
             anxiety.
SOMATOFORM DISORDERS



           Occur when a person manifests
           a psychological problem through
               a physiological symptom.
                    Two types……
HYPOCHONDRIASIS


     •Has frequent physical
  complaints for which medical
doctors are unable to locate the
             cause.
 •They usually believe that the
 minor issues (headache, upset
   stomach) are indicative are
      more severe illnesses.
CONVERSION DISORDER



             Report the existence of severe
               physical problems with no
                   biological reason.
               Like blindness or paralysis.




                        Pol Pot
DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS


These disorders involve a
disruption in the conscious
         process.
      Three types….
PSYCHOGENIC AMNESIA



            •A person cannot remember
            things with no physiological
             basis for the disruption in
                      memory.
               •Retrograde Amnesia
              •NOT organic amnesia.
             •Organic amnesia can be
            retrograde or anterograde.
DISSOCIATIVE FUGUE




People with psychogenic amnesia
   that find themselves in an
    unfamiliar environment.
DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY
      DISORDER


            •Used to be known as Multiple
                Personality Disorder.
             •A person has several rather
           than one integrated personality.
             •People with DID commonly
             have a history of childhood
                  abuse or trauma.
MOOD DISORDERS



Experience extreme or inappropriate emotion.
MAJOR DEPRESSION



           A.K.A. unipolar depression
         Unhappy for at least two weeks
            with no apparent cause.
         Depression is the common cold
          of psychological disorders.
SEASONAL AFFECTIVE
                         DISORDER


Experience depression during
     the winter months.
Based not on temperature, but
    on amount of sunlight.
 Treated with light therapy.
BIPOLAR DISORDER


          Formally manic depression.
              Involves periods of
             depression and manic
                   episodes.
            Manic episodes involve
         feelings of high energy (but
          they tend to differ a lot…
            some get confident and
              some get irritable).
           Engage in risky behavior
           during the manic episode.
PERSONALITY DISORDERS


Well-established, maladaptive
   ways of behaving that
 negatively affect people’s
     ability to function.
Dominates their personality.
ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY
      DISORDER


                   Lack of empathy.
               Little regard for other’s
                        feelings.
             View the world as hostile and
               look out for themselves.
DEPENDENT PERSONALITY
                         DISORDER


Rely too much on the attention
      and help of others.
HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY
       DISORDER


              Needs to be the center of
                     attention.
            Whether acting silly or dressing
                   provocatively.
NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY
                         DISORDER


Having an unwarranted sense of
       self-importance.
  Thinking that you are the
    center of the universe.
OBSSESSIVE COMPULSIVE
PERSONALITY DISORDER


            Overly concerned with certain
              thoughts and performing
                  certain behaviors.
           Not as extreme as OCD anxiety.
SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS




•About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed
            with schizophrenia.
    Symptoms of Schizophrenia
       1.Disorganized thinking.
      2.Disturbed Perceptions
   3.Inappropriate Emotions and
                 Actions
DISORGANIZED THINKING



            •The thinking of a person with
             Schizophrenia is fragmented
            and bizarre and distorted with
                     false beliefs.
            •Disorganized thinking comes
            from a breakdown in selective
            attention.- they cannot filter
                  out information.
DELUSIONS (FALSE BELIEFS)


Delusions of Persecution       Delusions of Grandeur
DISTURBED PERCEPTIONS



  hallucinations- sensory
experiences without sensory
        stimulation.
INAPPROPRIATE EMOTIONS
      AND ACTIONS


             Laugh at inappropriate times.
                     Flat Effect
              Senseless, compulsive acts.
             Catatonia- motionless Waxy
                     Flexibility
POSITIVE V. NEGATIVE
     SYMPTOMS



               Negative Symptoms
               •Absence of
               appropriate ones.


             Positive Symptoms
             •Presence of
             inappropriate symptoms
TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
DISORGANIZED
                             SCHIZOPHRENIA


•disorganized speech or behavior, or
    flat or inappropriate emotion.
          •Clang associations
          •"Imagine the worst
        Systematic, sympathetic
Quite pathetic, apologetic, paramedic
       Your heart is prosthetic"
PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA



            preoccupation with delusions or
                    hallucinations.
              Ex: Somebody is out to get
                       me!!!!
CATATONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA



      Flat effect
   Waxy Flexibility
parrot like repeating of
 another’s speech and
      movements
UNDIFFERENTIATED
 SCHIZOPHRENIA


                   Many and varied
                     Symptoms.
OTHER DISORDERS


•Paraphilias (pedophilia,
zoophilia, hybristophilia)
      •Fetishism
   •sadist, masochist
   •Eating Disorders
•Substance use disorders
         •ADHD
THE ROSENHAN STUDY



           Rosenhan’s associates were
            Malingering symptoms of
                 hearing voices.
          They were ALL admitted for
                 schizophrenia.
             None were exposed as
                   imposters.
          They all left diagnosed with
           schizophrenia in remission.
             What are some of the
            questions raised by this
                     study?
THERAPY




  It used to be that if someone
exhibited abnormal behavior, they
      were institutionalized.
 Because of new drugs and better
therapy, the U.S. went to a policy
    of deinstitutionalization.
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY


              Psychoanalysis (manifest
                 and latent content
              through…. hypnosis free
                 association, dream,
                   interpretation).
                    Unconscious
                   Transference
             Other therapies will result
              in symptom substitution.
HUMANISTIC THERAPY

 Client-Centered Therapy
       by Carl Rogers
 These are non-directive
 therapies and use active
        listening.
Self-actualization, free-will
 and unconditional positive
          regard.
 Gestalt Therapy by Fritz
 Perls encourage clients to
get in touch with whole self.
BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES



                  Counterconditioning
                 •Classical Conditioning
                1.Aversive Conditioning
              2.Systematic desensitization
                       3.Flooding
                 Operant Conditioning
                    •Token Economy
COGNITIVE THERAPY



Change the way we view the
world (change our schemas)
       Aaron Beck
 Albert Ellis and Rational
    Emotive Therapy
SOMATIC THERAPIES



               Psychopharmacology
            Antipsychotics (thorazine,
                     haldol)
              Anti-anxiety (valium,
              barbiturates, Xanax)
           Mood Disorders (serotonin
             reuptake inhibitors)
                 Bipolar (lithium)
SOMATIC THERAPY


•Electroconvulsive Therapy
  (ECT)- for depression.
      •Psychosurgury
   1.Prefontal lobotomy
GROUP THERAPY

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2.abnormal psychology

  • 1. Types of Personality Disorder MODIFIED BY: Elizabeth T. Santosa, M.Psi., psi.
  • 2. PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER Harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable.
  • 3. EARLY THEORIES Abnormal behavior was evil spirits trying to get out. Trephining was often used.
  • 4. PERSPECTIVES AND DISORDERS Psychological School/Perspective Cause of the Disorder Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Internal, unconscious drives Humanistic Failure to strive to one’s potential or being out of touch with one’s feelings. Behavioral Reinforcement history, the environment. Cognitive Irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking. Sociocultural Dysfunctional Society Biomedical/Neuroscience Organic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions.
  • 5. DSM IV •Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: the big book of disorders. •DSM will classify disorders and describe the symptoms. •DSM will NOT explain the causes or possible cures.
  • 6. TWO MAJOR CLASSIFICATIONS IN THE DSM Neurotic Disorders Psychotic Disorders Distressing but one can still Person loses contact with function in society and act reality, experiences distorted rationally. perceptions. John Wayne Gacy
  • 7. ANXIETY DISORDERS •a group of conditions where the primary symptoms are anxiety or defenses against anxiety. •the patient fears something awful will happen to them. •They are in a state of intense apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear.
  • 8. PHOBIAS A person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread. Must be an irrational fear. Phobia List
  • 9. GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER GAD An anxiety disorder in which a person is continuously tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. The patient is constantly tense and worried, feels inadequate, is oversensitive, can’t concentrate and suffers from insomnia.
  • 10. PANIC DISORDER An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking and other frightening sensations.
  • 11. OBSSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER •Persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) cause someone to feel the need (compulsion) to engage in a particular action. •Obsession about dirt and germs may lead to compulsive hand washing.
  • 12. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER A.K.A. PTSD Flashbacks or nightmares following a person’s involvement in or observation of an extremely stressful event. Memories of the even cause anxiety.
  • 13. SOMATOFORM DISORDERS Occur when a person manifests a psychological problem through a physiological symptom. Two types……
  • 14. HYPOCHONDRIASIS •Has frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate the cause. •They usually believe that the minor issues (headache, upset stomach) are indicative are more severe illnesses.
  • 15. CONVERSION DISORDER Report the existence of severe physical problems with no biological reason. Like blindness or paralysis. Pol Pot
  • 16. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS These disorders involve a disruption in the conscious process. Three types….
  • 17. PSYCHOGENIC AMNESIA •A person cannot remember things with no physiological basis for the disruption in memory. •Retrograde Amnesia •NOT organic amnesia. •Organic amnesia can be retrograde or anterograde.
  • 18. DISSOCIATIVE FUGUE People with psychogenic amnesia that find themselves in an unfamiliar environment.
  • 19. DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER •Used to be known as Multiple Personality Disorder. •A person has several rather than one integrated personality. •People with DID commonly have a history of childhood abuse or trauma.
  • 20. MOOD DISORDERS Experience extreme or inappropriate emotion.
  • 21. MAJOR DEPRESSION A.K.A. unipolar depression Unhappy for at least two weeks with no apparent cause. Depression is the common cold of psychological disorders.
  • 22. SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER Experience depression during the winter months. Based not on temperature, but on amount of sunlight. Treated with light therapy.
  • 23. BIPOLAR DISORDER Formally manic depression. Involves periods of depression and manic episodes. Manic episodes involve feelings of high energy (but they tend to differ a lot… some get confident and some get irritable). Engage in risky behavior during the manic episode.
  • 24. PERSONALITY DISORDERS Well-established, maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect people’s ability to function. Dominates their personality.
  • 25. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER Lack of empathy. Little regard for other’s feelings. View the world as hostile and look out for themselves.
  • 26. DEPENDENT PERSONALITY DISORDER Rely too much on the attention and help of others.
  • 27. HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER Needs to be the center of attention. Whether acting silly or dressing provocatively.
  • 28. NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER Having an unwarranted sense of self-importance. Thinking that you are the center of the universe.
  • 29. OBSSESSIVE COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER Overly concerned with certain thoughts and performing certain behaviors. Not as extreme as OCD anxiety.
  • 30. SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS •About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed with schizophrenia. Symptoms of Schizophrenia 1.Disorganized thinking. 2.Disturbed Perceptions 3.Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
  • 31. DISORGANIZED THINKING •The thinking of a person with Schizophrenia is fragmented and bizarre and distorted with false beliefs. •Disorganized thinking comes from a breakdown in selective attention.- they cannot filter out information.
  • 32. DELUSIONS (FALSE BELIEFS) Delusions of Persecution Delusions of Grandeur
  • 33. DISTURBED PERCEPTIONS hallucinations- sensory experiences without sensory stimulation.
  • 34. INAPPROPRIATE EMOTIONS AND ACTIONS Laugh at inappropriate times. Flat Effect Senseless, compulsive acts. Catatonia- motionless Waxy Flexibility
  • 35. POSITIVE V. NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS Negative Symptoms •Absence of appropriate ones. Positive Symptoms •Presence of inappropriate symptoms
  • 37. DISORGANIZED SCHIZOPHRENIA •disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion. •Clang associations •"Imagine the worst Systematic, sympathetic Quite pathetic, apologetic, paramedic Your heart is prosthetic"
  • 38. PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations. Ex: Somebody is out to get me!!!!
  • 39. CATATONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA Flat effect Waxy Flexibility parrot like repeating of another’s speech and movements
  • 40. UNDIFFERENTIATED SCHIZOPHRENIA Many and varied Symptoms.
  • 41. OTHER DISORDERS •Paraphilias (pedophilia, zoophilia, hybristophilia) •Fetishism •sadist, masochist •Eating Disorders •Substance use disorders •ADHD
  • 42. THE ROSENHAN STUDY Rosenhan’s associates were Malingering symptoms of hearing voices. They were ALL admitted for schizophrenia. None were exposed as imposters. They all left diagnosed with schizophrenia in remission. What are some of the questions raised by this study?
  • 43. THERAPY It used to be that if someone exhibited abnormal behavior, they were institutionalized. Because of new drugs and better therapy, the U.S. went to a policy of deinstitutionalization.
  • 44. PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY Psychoanalysis (manifest and latent content through…. hypnosis free association, dream, interpretation). Unconscious Transference Other therapies will result in symptom substitution.
  • 45. HUMANISTIC THERAPY Client-Centered Therapy by Carl Rogers These are non-directive therapies and use active listening. Self-actualization, free-will and unconditional positive regard. Gestalt Therapy by Fritz Perls encourage clients to get in touch with whole self.
  • 46. BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES Counterconditioning •Classical Conditioning 1.Aversive Conditioning 2.Systematic desensitization 3.Flooding Operant Conditioning •Token Economy
  • 47. COGNITIVE THERAPY Change the way we view the world (change our schemas) Aaron Beck Albert Ellis and Rational Emotive Therapy
  • 48. SOMATIC THERAPIES Psychopharmacology Antipsychotics (thorazine, haldol) Anti-anxiety (valium, barbiturates, Xanax) Mood Disorders (serotonin reuptake inhibitors) Bipolar (lithium)
  • 49. SOMATIC THERAPY •Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)- for depression. •Psychosurgury 1.Prefontal lobotomy