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Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. CHAPTER 7 MOTIVATION By- Aastha Tyagi
  2. 2. <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>“ A great man is one who can make a small man feel great, and perform great.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. MOTIVATION ??? <ul><li>it is defined as a driving force that initiates and directs behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>motivation is a kind of internal energy which drives a person to do something in order to achieve something. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a temporal or dynamic state within a person which is not concerned with his/her personality </li></ul>
  4. 4. MOTIVATION <ul><li>Derived from Latin word movere , which means to move . </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen P. robbins --- “the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual needs.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. MOTIVATION PROCESS Physiological/ psychological deficiency (NEED) Individual behaves in certain manner (DRIVE / MOTIVE) Achieves a particular goal (INCENTIVE)
  6. 6. <ul><li>NEED:-- a physiological or psychological imbalance leads to creation of need. </li></ul><ul><li>DRIVES (MOTIVES):-- propel individuals to attain their goals or satisfy their need </li></ul><ul><li>INCENTIVES:-- anything that can mitigate a need and decrease the intensity of a drive </li></ul>
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF MOTIVES <ul><li>1. Primary Motives :-- </li></ul><ul><li>Not learned </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological based. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>2. General Motives (Stimulus motives):-- </li></ul><ul><li>Nether purely primary nor secondary. </li></ul><ul><li>Not learned and not physiologically based. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate tension within a person </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity, manipulation & activity motives </li></ul><ul><li>Affection motives (love ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>3. Secondary motives:-- </li></ul><ul><li>Are learned or acquired over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Power Motive </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Motive (TAT) </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation Motive </li></ul><ul><li>Security Motive </li></ul><ul><li>Status Motive </li></ul>- Moderate degree of risk taking - Need for prompt and precise feedback - Satisfaction with achievement than rewards - Dedication towards the task NOTE: STATUS – rank a person holds relative to others within a group, organization or society
  10. 12. CONTENT THEORY (“what”) <ul><li>1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy:-- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower-order (external): physiological, safety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS Food, drink, shelter, sex, warmth, physical comfort MOST NEEDS HAVE TO DO WITH SURVIVAL PHYSICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY
  12. 14. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS Job security, safety regulations
  13. 15. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS Friendship, love, affection, belongingness
  14. 16. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS LOVE, AFFECTION, AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS ESTEEM NEEDS Ego, status, respect, prestige, promotion, influence, power, recognition,et.
  15. 17. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SELF- ACTUALIZATION NEED FOR MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF ACTUALIZATION IS A HEALTHY I NDIVIDUAL’S PRIME MOTIVATION It explains why people write poetry, plays, book and music, play music, act in films, take up hobbies, climb mountains, take part in charity activies, etc.
  16. 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SELF- ACTUALIZATION NEED FOR MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF ACTUALIZATION IS A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S PRIME MOTIVATION SELF-ACTUALIZATION MEANS ACTUALIZING ONE’S POTENTIAL BECOMING ALL ONE IS CAPABLE OF BECOMING Challenging projects, opportunity for innovation and creativity
  17. 19. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS LOVE, AFFECTION, AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS ESTEEM NEEDS SELF- ACTUALIZATION
  18. 20. 2. Herzberg’s 2 factor Theory <ul><li>Critical Incident Method. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewed 200 accountants </li></ul><ul><li>When did you feel good about your job? </li></ul><ul><li>When did you feel exceptionally bad about your job? </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hygiene factors (job context factors): extrinsic ( job environment) factors that create job dissatisfaction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivators (job content): intrinsic (psychological factors/job content ) factors that create job satisfaction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Satisfaction vs. Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul>Hygiene Compensation Fringes Supervision Work Conditions
  21. 23. Exhibit 16–3 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction
  22. 24. 3. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence needs relatedness needs Growth needs
  23. 25. Maslow’s Herzberg’s Alderfer’s motivational hygiene physiological needs safety and security belonginess and social needs esteem and status Self actualisation Working condition pay Company policy Job security relationships Advancement Recognition status Work itself Achievement Growth responsibility existence Relatedness Growth
  24. 26. THE PROCESS THEORIES
  25. 27. 1. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory <ul><li>VIE theory </li></ul><ul><li>Valence: strength of individual’s preference for expected outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentality : degree to which a first-level outcome would help in attaining the desired second level. </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy: probability that performing a specific action would produce a particular first level outcome. </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Effort-performance relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Performance-reward relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards-personal goals relationship </li></ul>
  27. 29. 2. Porter Lawler Model <ul><li>Tried to explore the complex relationship between motivation, satisfaction and performance and pointed out the efforts put in by an employee did not directly result in performance. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Performance is dependent on: </li></ul><ul><li>Employee desire to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Ability and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Clear perception of role </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Important variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul>
  30. 32. CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION
  31. 33. 1. Equity theory <ul><li>The degree of equity or inequity perceived by an employee with reference to his work situation plays a major role in work performance and satisfaction. </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>EQUITY: </li></ul><ul><li>Person’s outcomes = other’s outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>person’s inputs other’s inputs </li></ul><ul><li>INEQUITY: </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>Self-inside </li></ul><ul><li>Self-outside </li></ul><ul><li>Other-inside </li></ul><ul><li>Other-outside </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>Choices in front of an employee: </li></ul><ul><li>Change in inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Change in outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Distort perceptions of self </li></ul><ul><li>Distort perceptions of others </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a different referent </li></ul><ul><li>leave the field </li></ul>
  35. 37. 2. Attribution Theory <ul><li>It identifies attributions made by people as the basis for their motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Explains the relationship between personal perception and interpersonal behavior </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus, consistency and distinctiveness have an impact on the type of attributions made by persons </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>Findings: </li></ul><ul><li>External factors: </li></ul><ul><li>- Bad-luck attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Good-luck attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Internal factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging goals </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for achievement </li></ul>
  38. 40. OTHER EMERGING THEORIES <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive phenomenon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control function (integral part of management process) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Agency theory </li></ul>
  39. 41. MOTIVATING PERFORMANCE THROUGH JOB DESIGN <ul><li>Job engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Job enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>Job rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of work life </li></ul><ul><li>Job characteristics - skill variety </li></ul><ul><li>- task identity </li></ul><ul><li>- task significance </li></ul><ul><li>- autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>- feedback </li></ul>
  40. 42. MOTIVATING PERFORMANCE THROUGH GOAL SETTING <ul><li>Goal should be specific </li></ul><ul><li>goal should be difficult and challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Goal must be owned and accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Goals must have a specific time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Goals should be measurable </li></ul>
  41. 43. Barriers to effective goal setting <ul><li>Lack of top management support </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Content of goal </li></ul><ul><li>Technical incompetence </li></ul>
  42. 44. Application of goal setting to organizational system performance <ul><li>The process </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus on key goals </li></ul><ul><li>Plan of action </li></ul><ul><li>Control behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic appraisal and reviews </li></ul>

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