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Chairperson G. Anupma
Dr A.Ravi & Dr K.Veer
VIMHANS
Vijayawada
What is personality..?
the enduring or lasting patterns of behavior and thought
(across time and situation).
‘”dynamic organization within the individual of those
psychophysical systems that determine his/her unique
adjustment to his/her environment.” (Allport)
Personality theories
Type and Trait approaches
Psychodynamic approaches
Learning and Behavioral approaches
Humanistic approaches.
personality theories:
1. Trait : Alport and Cartell
2. Psychodynamic theory: Sigmund Freud
The Neo-Freudians:
3. Carl Jung: Analytical psychology
4. Alfred Adler: Individual psychology
5. Karen Horney: Feminine psychology
Type theories
Focuses on the people’s personal characteristics.
One of the first type theories was proposed by
Hippocrates, he divided people into 4 types
SANGUINE – cheerful,confidently optimistic
MELANCHOLIC – depressed, morose
CHOLERIC – short tempered
PHLEGMETIC –slow moving, calm,unexcitable
Type is simply a class of individuals said to share a
common collection of characteristics.e.g.
Introverts –shy,social withdrawal and tendency not
to talk much
Extroverts – outgoing ,friendly and talkative
Trait theory uses two different methods of research:
Idiographic approach: defines traits by studying
individuals in depth and focuses on the
distinctive qualities of their personalities (Gordon
Allport)
Nomothetic approach: studies groups of people
in the attempt to identify personality traits that
tend to appear in clusters. This approach uses the
statistical technique called factor analysis
(Raymond Cattell)
1. Trait theory.
Gordon Allport. Considered patterns of traits to
be the unique attributes of individuals.
Allport conducted thorough and detailed studies
of individuals in depth, often through long-term
case studies.
His idiographic research led him to conclude
that all people have certain traits, or dispositions,
that are the building blocks of personality (1937,
1961, 1965, 1966).
Can you think of some of the traits that are
unique attributes of who you are?
Examples of Individual traits
- Honesty
- Kindness
- Compassion
- Courage
- Loyalty
- Responsible
- Social
- Talkative
- Sensitive
Allport described three different types of traits:
1. Cardinal traits: Traits that are so much a part of
who the person is, you can define the person by the trait
(e.g. – Honest Abe Lincoln)
2. Central traits: Major characteristics of our
personality such as: sensitivity, honesty, and generosity.
These traits are quite generalized and enduring, and it is
these traits that form the building blocks of our
personality. Allport found that most people could be
characterized by a fairly small number of central traits
(usually five to ten).
3. Secondary traits: less generalized and far less
enduring traits that affect our behaviors in specific
circumstances. Examples include our dress style
preferences.
Trait theory.
Hans Eysenck (1906-1997). Disagreed with Allport and
Cattell. He believed that there are only two major
dimensions to personality:
1. Intraversion-Extraversion
2. Neuroticism-Stability
Problems with trait theory:
- Circular reasoning: Which comes
first the behavior, or the trait?
- Lack of situational consistency
(Mischel)
- No explanation for what causes
these many different traits to occur
- Lack of agreement on the number
and type of traits
Psychodynamic approaches
Emphasize on ongoing interactions among motives ,
impulses and psychological process.
Sigmund Freud MD (neurologist)
Psychodynamic Theory
Vienna, Austria (1856-1939).
Techniques used: hypnosis, catharsis, dream-
analysis, free-association, parapraxes
Freudian slips or parapraxes – everything we do
and say, even by accident, has hidden meaning
Believed in the importance of the “unconscious”
mind
“unconscious” forces are animalistic
sexual/aggressive drives that motivate most of
human behavior
These “unconscious” drives operate without
conscious awareness. This is because our
unconscious desires are too difficult or too painful
to face directly
Freud referred to these unconscious motives
collectively as the “id”
Freud believed there is a reason behind
everything we do
Personality structure
The three major forces of the psyche are the:
1. Id = unconscious = pleasure principle
- Primary process thinking: wish fulfillment
- Thanatos – aggressive /Eros - sexual
- I want it now! Instant gratification
- Are we an id driven society?
- Part of the iceberg that is submerged underwater
2. Ego = conscious = reality principle
- What are the real-world consequences of my actions?
- secondary process thinking: reality testing
- part of the iceberg that is above water and aware of reality
3. Superego = preconscious = morality principle
- What is the proper way to behave? Mom/Dad/Society
- Ego-ideal: shoulds
- Conscience: should nots
- Part of the iceberg that is just under the water but can sometimes surface
Chapter 3 - Personality
How would the id, ego, and superego respond to the
following dilemma?
Should you go out with your
friends to a great party, or
should you stay home and
study for your psychology
exam tomorrow?
Freud’s psychodynamic theory can be summed up quite
nicely with the visual image of a driver and a horse-drawn
carriage with two horses.
- Imagine the horse on the right is called “Id” and keeps
pulling to the right to go down Pleasure Road
- The horse on the left is called “Superego” and keeps
pulling to the left to go down Morality Way.
- The drivers name is “ego” and his job is to keep both
horses traveling straight ahead on the road called Reality.
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages.
- According to Freud, as we age, different parts of
the body are used to fuel the id with pleasure
(libido = energy source).
1. Birth – 1 ½ years: Oral stage
gratification is gained by oral stimulation
(Breastfeeding).
2. 1 ½ - 3 years old: Anal stage
pleasure is gained by being able to
control feces. (Potty-training)
3. 3 – 6 years old: Phallic stage: awakening of sexuality
a. Oedipus complex for boys: when a male child wants to kill his
father so he can have sex with his mother. (from the Greek tragedy
“Oedipus Rex” by Sophocoles)
- Freud believed boys would eventually overcome this conflict by
identifying and bonding with the father.
b. Electra complex for girls: girls are jealous because they don’t
have a penis, and they really want one (from Greek myth of
“Electra” who plotted with her brother “Orestes” to kill their
mother “Clytemnestra”).
4. 6-12 years old: Latency stage
pleasure is gained through same-sex peer
friendships
5. 12+ years old: Genital stage:
pleasure is gained through sexual intercourse with
non-relatives
Fixation. Freud believed that you can get stuck or fixated
at a stage if you were either under or over stimulated
during this stage. According to Freud, personality traits
are attached to these types of individuals.
A few examples:
Oral fixation: nail biters, gum chewers, smokers, etc.
Overly optimistic, dependent, and passive.
Anal retentive: Excessive need for order,
control and neatness. (modern day OCD)
Anal expulsive: emotionally volatile, unstable,
spiteful and vindictive
Defense Mechanisms:
1. Protect the ego from anxiety
due to the unconscious starting to
break through to the conscious
2. Deny or distort reality
3. Operate unconsciously
4. Cause people who are using
them to be absolutely convinced of
the correctness of their viewpoint.
5. can be healthy IF used in
moderation.
6. Were originally developed by
Anna Freud .
Defense Mechanisms.
Denial: blocking external events from awareness.
If a situation is too much to handle, the person refuses
to experience it. Examples: the failure to recognize the
death of a loved one, or students who fail to find out
their test grades!  [ you know who you are]
Repression: not being able to recall a threatening situation, person,
or event. Example: someone almost drowns as a child, but can't
remember the event even when people try to remind him -- but he
does have a fear of open water! [many fears and phobias]
Displacement: the redirection of an impulse onto a safer substitute
target. For example, someone who hates his or her mother may
repress that hatred and direct it instead towards women in general.
Projection: the tendency to see your own unacceptable desires in
other people. Examples: A faithful husband finds himself terribly
attracted to the lady next door. Rather than acknowledge his own
feelings, he becomes increasingly jealous of his wife, constantly
worried about her faithfulness.
Reaction formation: what Anna Freud called "believing the
opposite“. Changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite.
Example: “I hate Mom” becomes “I really love Mom a lot!!!”. The
individual will often go above and beyond in their expression of love
in order to alleviate feelings of guilt and anxiety.
Regression: a movement back in psychological time when one is
faced with stress. When we are troubled or frightened, our behaviors
often become more childish or primitive. A child may begin to suck
their thumb again or wet the bed.
Rationalization: the cognitive distortion of "the facts" to make an
impulse more acceptable. We do it often enough on a fairly conscious
level when we provide ourselves with excuses. Many of us are quite
prepared to believe our lies.
Sublimation: the transforming of an unacceptable impulse, whether
it be sex, anger, or fear, into a socially acceptable and productive form.
So someone with a great deal of hostility may become a hunter, a
butcher, a football player, or a mercenary. For Freud, all positive
creative activities were sublimations mostly of the sex drive.
Limitations of Freud’s theory:
- Untestable: How can you objectively measure the
“unconscious”? Does not follow the scientific
method.
- Almost all of his case studies were upper-class
Austrian women: sample bias?
- Did not allow for prediction of future behaviors
- Placed too much emphasis on early childhood
experiences in shaping personality
When a student asked him what the significance of his
cigar was, Freud replied “sometimes a cigar is just a
cigar”.
Neo-Freudians: students of Freud who eventually started
their own school of thought due to major disagreements
with some of Freud’s ideas.
Carl Jung: 1875-1961. (pronounced – Young).
- Analytical psychology
- Born in Switzerland, trained as a psychiatrist
- Believed Freud placed too much emphasis on sexuality as a
motive for behavior
Famous quote:
“Anyone who wants to know the human psyche will learn
next to nothing from experimental psychology. He would
be better advised to abandon exact science, put away his
scholar's gown, bid farewell to his study, and wander with
human heart throughout the world. There in the horrors
of prisons, lunatic asylums and hospitals, in drab suburban
pubs, in brothels and gambling-hells, in the salons of the
elegant, the Stock Exchanges, socialist meetings, churches,
revivalist gatherings and ecstatic sects, through love and
hate, through the experience of passion in every form in
his own body, he would reap richer stores of knowledge
than text-books a foot thick could give him, and he will
know how to doctor the sick with a real knowledge of the
human soul”. -- Carl Jung
Jung’s Analytical Psychology broke the unconscious down further
into 2 parts:
a. Personal unconscious (similar to Freud’s id)
b. Collective unconscious ** (new concept)
collective unconscious: a kind of universal memory bank that
contains all the ancestral memories, images, symbols, and ideas
that humankind has accumulated throughout time
Jung used the term collective to stress that the content of this
part of the unconscious mind is the same for all humans – it is
genetic.
He placed particular emphasis on one key component of the
collective unconscious called archetypes, which consist of
powerful, emotionally charged, universal images or concepts
that are inherited or passed down from generation to generation
The four main Jungian archetypes are:
the self
the shadow or the dark side of the human psyche
the anima (the female counterpart to the male
psyche)
and the animus (the male counterpart to the female
psyche).
For example: According to Jung, we create war
and conflict in order to fulfill the needs of the
collective unconscious.
We need the hero! We need the villain!
According to Jung, these are all archetypes that
have been inherited from our ancestors
**Question: Does history repeats itself because of
the collective unconscious and the archetypes?
Alfred Adler: Individual psychology.
1870-1937 (Vienna, Austria): MD (opthamologist).
“Behind everyone who behaves as if he were superior to
others, we can suspect a feeling of inferiority which calls for
very special efforts of concealment. It is as if a man feared
that he was too small and walked on his toes to make
himself seem taller.“ - Alfred Adler
Adler coined the term “inferiority complex”
Adler came to believe in the importance of “feelings of
inferiority” in motivating human behavior
To be a human being," he wrote, "means to feel oneself
inferior." Adler believed that inferiority feelings are the source
of all human striving. All individual progress, growth and
development result from the attempt to compensate for one's
inferiorities.
Style of life = an individuals unique pattern of “striving for
superiority” to overcome feelings of inferiority
Inferiority complex - When an inability to overcome
inferiority feelings heightens and intensifies them.
Adler disagreed with Freud about:
- the emphasis on sexuality
- the importance of the unconscious
- “a stream of consciousness” – Adler believed that
all three parts of the psyche are constantly
interacting & do NOT act alone.
- While Adler believed our childhood experiences
were important, he also believed in what he called
“teleology” or being motivated towards future
goals.
- Alder felt Freud placed too much emphasis on the
past. Some consider Adler the forefather of
humanism.
Karen Horney. 1885 – 1952. nee Hamburg, Germany
Studied to be an MD. In 1909 she entered the University of
Freiburg .
Feminine psychology. Argued strongly against Freud’s
notion of both the Oedipus and Electra complex
Disagreed with Freud’s psychosexual stages
Did not accept Freud’s division of the psyche into the id,
ego, and superego
Countered Freud’s idea of “penis envy” with what she
called “womb envy”
Agreed with Freud on the importance of the unconscious
and early childhood
Believed that personality could continue to develop and
change throughout life
Humanistic psychology
 focused on uniquely human issues such as: the
self, health, hope, love, creativity, nature, and
individuality.
 Believed in innate goodness – born good
 Derived somewhat from existentialism: a strong
belief in free-will and conscious rational
decision-making
 Arose in reaction to behaviorism and
psychodynamic theory
Self concept or self image
Self as a object
Self as a process
Humanistic Approaches to
Personality
Humanistic psychology
An approach to personality that focuses on the
self, subjective experience, and the capacity
for fulfillment
Humanist psychologists:
1. Abraham Maslow
2. Carl Rogers
3. Rollo May
Maslow developed his famous “Hierarchy of Needs”
Differentiated between Deficiency needs and Growth needs:
Deficiency needs are the bottom four levels in the hierarchy:
these needs must be met or filled before other growth needs
can take over
Maslow believed deficiency needs must be met in order of the
hierarchy – e.g. – physiological 1st
, safety 2nd
, etc.
Growth needs or being needs – the highest motive in
the hierarchy for human behavior. This motive takes over
only when all other deficiency needs are met
Some growth needs that Maslow discussed are:
- Truth, rather than dishonesty
- Aliveness, not deadness or the mechanization of life
- Uniqueness, not bland uniformity
- Perfection and necessity, not sloppiness,
inconsistency, or accident.
- Justice and order, not injustice and lawlessness.
- Simplicity, not unnecessary complexity.
- Self-sufficiency, not dependency.
Abraham Maslow. (1908-1970). Born in Brooklyn,
New York. One of seven children of Russian
immigrants. Graduated University of Wisconsin with
PhD (worked with Harry Harlow)
Returned to NY to work with Edward Thorndike at
Columbia University
"A musician must make music, an artist must
paint, a poet must write, if he is to be at peace
with himself. What a man can be, he must be.
This is the need we may call self-actualization ...
It refers to man's desire for fulfillment, namely to
the tendency for him to become actually in what
he is potentially: to become everything that one
is capable of becoming ..." - Abraham Maslow
Maslow’s Characteristics of Self-Actualizers:
Reality focused and problem-centered
The journey is often more important than the ends.
They enjoy solitude, and are comfortable being alone.
Enjoy deeper personal relations with a few close
friends and family members
Value autonomy, a relative independence from
physical and social needs.
They have an unhostile sense of humor -- preferring
to joke at their own expense, or at the human condition,
and never directing their humor at others.
spontaneity and simplicity: They prefer being
themselves rather than being pretentious or artificial.
They have a sense of humility and respect towards others
They have a certain freshness of appreciation, an ability to
see things, even ordinary things, with wonder.
They are creative, inventive, and original.
tend to have more peak experiences than the average person.
[A peak experience is one that takes you out of yourself, that
makes you feel very tiny, or very large, to some extent one with
life or nature or God. It gives you a feeling of being a part of the
infinite and the eternal. These experiences tend to leave their
mark on a person, change them for the better, and many people
actively seek them out. They are also called mystical
experiences, and are an important part of many religious and
philosophical traditions].
Their values are "natural" and seem to flow effortlessly from
their personalities
Maslow identified the following historical figures as self-actualizers:
- Abraham Lincoln
- Thomas Jefferson
- Benjamin Franklin
- George Washington
- Albert Einstein
- Aldous Huxley
- William James
- Spinoza
- Goethe
- Pierre Renoir
- Robert Browning
- Walt Whitman
- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
- Eleanor Roosevelt
The Humanistic Approach
Abraham Maslow
The State of Self-Actualization
Csikszentmihalyi
studied this, based on
Maslow’s writings.
A state of “flow”
arises when engaging
in activities
demanding skill and
challenge, but are not
too difficult.
Flow, The Optimal
Experience
Your turn
You are on your way to a restaurant to meet some
friends, and you are hungry. As you are walking
from your car to the restaurant, you are looking
forward to talking with your friends. Just then, you
hear a gunshot. According to Maslow, your primary
motivation would be determined by
1. Your hunger
2. Your desire to converse with your friends
3. Your desire for safety
chapter 2
Carl Rogers. 1902-1987
Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park,
Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six
children. His father was a successful civil
engineer and his mother was a housewife and
devout Christian.
In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and
Psychotherapy.
1945, he was invited to set up a counseling center
at the University of Chicago. It was while working
there that in 1951 he published his major work,
Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he outlined his
basic theory.
Phenomenal field??
View of people as basically good
The “actualizing tendency” is the basic force of life –
we are always trying to better ourselves in some way
True self: who you are today
Ideal self: who you want to become
Self-actualization is the process of becoming your
ideal self
The Humanistic Approach
Carl Rogers
The Personality Theory of Carl Rogers
Humanistic Psychology:
Carl Rogers
Interested in fully functioning individuals
Congruence
this is displayed by fully functioning people and is a harmony
between the image they project to others and their true
feelings or wishes
To become fully functioning we need:
Unconditional positive regard
A situation in which the acceptance and love one receives
from significant others is unqualified, no strings attached
Unfortunately many children and adults are treated
with:
Conditional positive regard
A situation in which the acceptance and love one receives
from significant others is contingent upon one’s behavior
chapter 2
Unconditional positive regard: a feeling of
total love and acceptance – like that of a child for
a parent, or a pet to its owner. No matter what
you say or do, you will be loved and accepted.
Rogers believed if a child received unconditional
positive regard, he/she would be able to self-
actualize and become his/her ideal self
If self-actualization is blocked, mental illness
would ensue
Conditions of worth: if…then contingencies.
I will love and accept you if…;Rogers believed this is
another pathway to mental illness
The individual who is raised with “conditions of
worth” will not actualize into their ideal self.
The individual who is raised with conditions of worth
will actualize into another persons’ vision of their
ideal self.
How much of what you say and do is based on
conditions of worth?
What must parents do to avoid using “conditions of
worth” when raising their children? Society at large?
The Humanistic Approach
Carl Rogers
Self-Esteem
A positive or negative evaluation of the self
 Self-Schemas
Specific beliefs about the self that influence how
people interpret self-relevant information
The Humanistic Approach
Self-Esteem
Self-Discrepancy Theory
According to this theory, self-esteem is defined by the match
between how we see ourselves and how we want to see
ourselves.
Evaluating humanist
approaches
The bad:
1.Assumptions are not testable
2.Hard to operationally define many of the concepts
3.For taking people’s self-report statements at face value
4.For being too optimistic about human nature and ignoring human capacity for evil
The good:
1.Added balance to the study of personality
2.Encouraged others to focus on “positive psychology”
3.Fostered new appreciation for resilience
4.For the idea that the self-concept is the heart of personality
Cognitive Social-Learning Theory
An approach to personality that focuses on
social learning (modeling), acquired cognitive
factors (expectancies, values), and the person-
situation interaction
The Cognitive Social-Learning
Approach
Principles of Learning and Behavior
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Stimulus Generalization
Discrimination
Extinction
The Cognitive Social-Learning
Approach
Social-Learning Theory
Modeling
The social-learning process by which behavior is
observed and imitated
Locus of Control
The expectancy that one’s reinforcements are generally
controlled by internal or external factors
Self-Efficacy
The belief that one is capable of performing the
behaviors required to produce a desired outcome
The Cognitive Social-Learning
Approach
Perspectives on Cognitive Social-Learning
Theory
Reciprocal Determinism
Personality emerges
from the mutual
interactions of
individuals, their
actions, and their
environments.
Early social learning theory:
Dollard and Miller in 1930s
Learning theory on basis of Freud psychoanalytical
theories.
Conflict between approach and avoidance tendencies
Skinner’s radical behaviorism
Social learning; later
 Albert Bandura (1925-present)
 Albert Bandura was born December 4, 1925, in the
small town of Mundare in northern Alberta,
Canada.
 In 1953, he started teaching at Stanford University.
While there, he collaborated with his first graduate
student, Richard Walters, resulting in their first
book, Adolescent Aggression, in 1959.
 Emphasis on the cognitive or thoughts [covert]
Modeling; Vicarious learning; Observational learning:
learning by watching others. Thoughts matter!!
Interested in studying the effect of television violence on
aggression in children. Bandura is most famous for his
Bo-Bo doll studies.
Film: woman punching the clown, shouting “sockeroo!” She kicked it,
sat on it, hit it with a little hammer, and so on, shouting various
aggressive phrases. Bandura showed his film to groups of
kindergartners who, as you might predict, liked it a lot.
what did the observers record afterward: A lot of little kids beating the
daylights out of the bobo doll. They punched it and shouted
“sockeroo,” kicked it, sat on it, hit it with the little hammers, and so on.
In other words, they imitated the young lady in the film, “and quite
precisely at that”.
Bryan and Test, Good Samaritanism experiment
Bandura added cognition or thought to the equation
The main “person” factor that Bandura discussed
was: self-efficacy: the belief in your ability to
perform a certain task or function.
Genetic Influences on Personality
Nature vs. Nurture debate
Nature: Biology/genetics determines personality
Nurture: Experiences determines personality
Not mutually exclusive
 Biology and experience interact and shape our personalities together
How can biology influence our personality?
Genes: functional units of heredity, composed of DNA and specify
the structure of proteins
 Specify how the brain and nervous systems should develop and
function
 Influence the behaviors that make up our personality
How do psychologists measure genetic
contributions to personality?
1. Studying personality traits in other species
2. Studying temperaments of infants and children
3. Heritability studies in twins and adopted
individuals
Personality Traits in Other Species
Examine the physiology, genetics, ecology and ethology of
animals
Evidence of 4 of the Big Five traits in 64 different species
 monkeys  dogs  octopi
 Conscientiousness has only been found in humans
Puppy Personality Experiment (Gosling, 2003)
 Owners provided personality assessments of dogs and themselves
 A person who knew them both filled out a personality inventory
 Independent observers rated the dogs in a park
 All 3 ratings were very similar
Personality Traits
in Infants and Children
Temperaments
Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways
 Present in infancy, assumed to be innate
 Relatively stable over time
Temperaments:
1. Easy/Flexible: positive disposition, curious about new situations,
adaptable, low-moderate emotional intensity
40% of babies
1. Difficult/Feisty: negative moods, slow to adapt to new situations
10 % of babies
1. Slow-to-Warm: inactive, calm reactions to environment, negative
moods and withdraw from new situations, adapt slowly
15 % of babies
35 % have babies have combination of characteristics and can’t be
categorized
chapter 2
chapter 2
Dimension of Temperament Definition
1. Activity level Proportion of active to inactive time
2. Approach-Withdrawal The response to a new person or object,
based on whether the child accepts or
withdraws from the situation
3. Adaptability How easily the child is able to adapt to
changes in his or her environment
4. Quality of Mood The contrast of the amount of friendly, joyful, and
pleasant behavior with unpleasant, unfriendly
behavior
5. Attention span and persistence The amount of the time a child devotes to an activity and
the effect of distraction on that activity
6. Distractibility The degree to which stimuli in the
environment alters behavior
7. Rhythmicity (regularity) The regularity of basic functions, such as
hunger, excretion, sleep and wakefulness
8. Intensity of reaction The energy level or reaction of the child’s
response
9. Threshold of responsiveness The intensity of stimulation needed to elicit a
response
The Heritability of Personality
Traits
Heritability
a statistical estimate of how much variation in a trait
can be attributed to genetics within a given population
 0 – 1.0
 0.5 = 50 % of the variation in a personality trait can be attributed
to genetics
 1.0 = 100 % of the variation in a personality trait can be attributed
to genetics
Heritability of personality traits is about 0.5
Within a group of people, about 50% of the variation associated with a
given trait is attributable to genetic differences among individuals in
the group.
Genetic predisposition is not genetic inevitability
chapter 2
The Heritability of Personality
Traits
How is heritability studied?
 Adoption studies
 Compare correlations between traits of children and
their biological and adoptive parents
 Twin Studies
 Identical twins = share 100 % of genes
 Fraternal twins = share about ½ genes, just like
regular siblings
 Compare same-sex groups of identical and
fraternal twins
 Look at personality traits in adopted identical and
fraternal twins
chapter 2
Theories of personality

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Theories of personality

  • 1. Chairperson G. Anupma Dr A.Ravi & Dr K.Veer VIMHANS Vijayawada
  • 2. What is personality..? the enduring or lasting patterns of behavior and thought (across time and situation). ‘”dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his/her unique adjustment to his/her environment.” (Allport)
  • 3. Personality theories Type and Trait approaches Psychodynamic approaches Learning and Behavioral approaches Humanistic approaches.
  • 4. personality theories: 1. Trait : Alport and Cartell 2. Psychodynamic theory: Sigmund Freud The Neo-Freudians: 3. Carl Jung: Analytical psychology 4. Alfred Adler: Individual psychology 5. Karen Horney: Feminine psychology
  • 5. Type theories Focuses on the people’s personal characteristics. One of the first type theories was proposed by Hippocrates, he divided people into 4 types SANGUINE – cheerful,confidently optimistic MELANCHOLIC – depressed, morose CHOLERIC – short tempered PHLEGMETIC –slow moving, calm,unexcitable
  • 6. Type is simply a class of individuals said to share a common collection of characteristics.e.g. Introverts –shy,social withdrawal and tendency not to talk much Extroverts – outgoing ,friendly and talkative
  • 7. Trait theory uses two different methods of research: Idiographic approach: defines traits by studying individuals in depth and focuses on the distinctive qualities of their personalities (Gordon Allport) Nomothetic approach: studies groups of people in the attempt to identify personality traits that tend to appear in clusters. This approach uses the statistical technique called factor analysis (Raymond Cattell)
  • 8. 1. Trait theory. Gordon Allport. Considered patterns of traits to be the unique attributes of individuals. Allport conducted thorough and detailed studies of individuals in depth, often through long-term case studies. His idiographic research led him to conclude that all people have certain traits, or dispositions, that are the building blocks of personality (1937, 1961, 1965, 1966). Can you think of some of the traits that are unique attributes of who you are?
  • 9. Examples of Individual traits - Honesty - Kindness - Compassion - Courage - Loyalty - Responsible - Social - Talkative - Sensitive
  • 10. Allport described three different types of traits: 1. Cardinal traits: Traits that are so much a part of who the person is, you can define the person by the trait (e.g. – Honest Abe Lincoln) 2. Central traits: Major characteristics of our personality such as: sensitivity, honesty, and generosity. These traits are quite generalized and enduring, and it is these traits that form the building blocks of our personality. Allport found that most people could be characterized by a fairly small number of central traits (usually five to ten). 3. Secondary traits: less generalized and far less enduring traits that affect our behaviors in specific circumstances. Examples include our dress style preferences.
  • 11.
  • 12. Trait theory. Hans Eysenck (1906-1997). Disagreed with Allport and Cattell. He believed that there are only two major dimensions to personality: 1. Intraversion-Extraversion 2. Neuroticism-Stability
  • 13.
  • 14. Problems with trait theory: - Circular reasoning: Which comes first the behavior, or the trait? - Lack of situational consistency (Mischel) - No explanation for what causes these many different traits to occur - Lack of agreement on the number and type of traits
  • 15. Psychodynamic approaches Emphasize on ongoing interactions among motives , impulses and psychological process.
  • 16. Sigmund Freud MD (neurologist) Psychodynamic Theory Vienna, Austria (1856-1939). Techniques used: hypnosis, catharsis, dream- analysis, free-association, parapraxes Freudian slips or parapraxes – everything we do and say, even by accident, has hidden meaning Believed in the importance of the “unconscious” mind
  • 17. “unconscious” forces are animalistic sexual/aggressive drives that motivate most of human behavior These “unconscious” drives operate without conscious awareness. This is because our unconscious desires are too difficult or too painful to face directly Freud referred to these unconscious motives collectively as the “id” Freud believed there is a reason behind everything we do
  • 18. Personality structure The three major forces of the psyche are the: 1. Id = unconscious = pleasure principle - Primary process thinking: wish fulfillment - Thanatos – aggressive /Eros - sexual - I want it now! Instant gratification - Are we an id driven society? - Part of the iceberg that is submerged underwater 2. Ego = conscious = reality principle - What are the real-world consequences of my actions? - secondary process thinking: reality testing - part of the iceberg that is above water and aware of reality 3. Superego = preconscious = morality principle - What is the proper way to behave? Mom/Dad/Society - Ego-ideal: shoulds - Conscience: should nots - Part of the iceberg that is just under the water but can sometimes surface
  • 19. Chapter 3 - Personality
  • 20. How would the id, ego, and superego respond to the following dilemma? Should you go out with your friends to a great party, or should you stay home and study for your psychology exam tomorrow?
  • 21. Freud’s psychodynamic theory can be summed up quite nicely with the visual image of a driver and a horse-drawn carriage with two horses. - Imagine the horse on the right is called “Id” and keeps pulling to the right to go down Pleasure Road - The horse on the left is called “Superego” and keeps pulling to the left to go down Morality Way. - The drivers name is “ego” and his job is to keep both horses traveling straight ahead on the road called Reality.
  • 22. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages. - According to Freud, as we age, different parts of the body are used to fuel the id with pleasure (libido = energy source). 1. Birth – 1 ½ years: Oral stage gratification is gained by oral stimulation (Breastfeeding). 2. 1 ½ - 3 years old: Anal stage pleasure is gained by being able to control feces. (Potty-training)
  • 23. 3. 3 – 6 years old: Phallic stage: awakening of sexuality a. Oedipus complex for boys: when a male child wants to kill his father so he can have sex with his mother. (from the Greek tragedy “Oedipus Rex” by Sophocoles) - Freud believed boys would eventually overcome this conflict by identifying and bonding with the father. b. Electra complex for girls: girls are jealous because they don’t have a penis, and they really want one (from Greek myth of “Electra” who plotted with her brother “Orestes” to kill their mother “Clytemnestra”).
  • 24. 4. 6-12 years old: Latency stage pleasure is gained through same-sex peer friendships 5. 12+ years old: Genital stage: pleasure is gained through sexual intercourse with non-relatives
  • 25. Fixation. Freud believed that you can get stuck or fixated at a stage if you were either under or over stimulated during this stage. According to Freud, personality traits are attached to these types of individuals. A few examples: Oral fixation: nail biters, gum chewers, smokers, etc. Overly optimistic, dependent, and passive. Anal retentive: Excessive need for order, control and neatness. (modern day OCD) Anal expulsive: emotionally volatile, unstable, spiteful and vindictive
  • 26. Defense Mechanisms: 1. Protect the ego from anxiety due to the unconscious starting to break through to the conscious 2. Deny or distort reality 3. Operate unconsciously 4. Cause people who are using them to be absolutely convinced of the correctness of their viewpoint. 5. can be healthy IF used in moderation. 6. Were originally developed by Anna Freud .
  • 27. Defense Mechanisms. Denial: blocking external events from awareness. If a situation is too much to handle, the person refuses to experience it. Examples: the failure to recognize the death of a loved one, or students who fail to find out their test grades!  [ you know who you are] Repression: not being able to recall a threatening situation, person, or event. Example: someone almost drowns as a child, but can't remember the event even when people try to remind him -- but he does have a fear of open water! [many fears and phobias] Displacement: the redirection of an impulse onto a safer substitute target. For example, someone who hates his or her mother may repress that hatred and direct it instead towards women in general. Projection: the tendency to see your own unacceptable desires in other people. Examples: A faithful husband finds himself terribly attracted to the lady next door. Rather than acknowledge his own feelings, he becomes increasingly jealous of his wife, constantly worried about her faithfulness.
  • 28. Reaction formation: what Anna Freud called "believing the opposite“. Changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite. Example: “I hate Mom” becomes “I really love Mom a lot!!!”. The individual will often go above and beyond in their expression of love in order to alleviate feelings of guilt and anxiety. Regression: a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress. When we are troubled or frightened, our behaviors often become more childish or primitive. A child may begin to suck their thumb again or wet the bed. Rationalization: the cognitive distortion of "the facts" to make an impulse more acceptable. We do it often enough on a fairly conscious level when we provide ourselves with excuses. Many of us are quite prepared to believe our lies. Sublimation: the transforming of an unacceptable impulse, whether it be sex, anger, or fear, into a socially acceptable and productive form. So someone with a great deal of hostility may become a hunter, a butcher, a football player, or a mercenary. For Freud, all positive creative activities were sublimations mostly of the sex drive.
  • 29. Limitations of Freud’s theory: - Untestable: How can you objectively measure the “unconscious”? Does not follow the scientific method. - Almost all of his case studies were upper-class Austrian women: sample bias? - Did not allow for prediction of future behaviors - Placed too much emphasis on early childhood experiences in shaping personality
  • 30. When a student asked him what the significance of his cigar was, Freud replied “sometimes a cigar is just a cigar”.
  • 31. Neo-Freudians: students of Freud who eventually started their own school of thought due to major disagreements with some of Freud’s ideas. Carl Jung: 1875-1961. (pronounced – Young). - Analytical psychology - Born in Switzerland, trained as a psychiatrist - Believed Freud placed too much emphasis on sexuality as a motive for behavior
  • 32. Famous quote: “Anyone who wants to know the human psyche will learn next to nothing from experimental psychology. He would be better advised to abandon exact science, put away his scholar's gown, bid farewell to his study, and wander with human heart throughout the world. There in the horrors of prisons, lunatic asylums and hospitals, in drab suburban pubs, in brothels and gambling-hells, in the salons of the elegant, the Stock Exchanges, socialist meetings, churches, revivalist gatherings and ecstatic sects, through love and hate, through the experience of passion in every form in his own body, he would reap richer stores of knowledge than text-books a foot thick could give him, and he will know how to doctor the sick with a real knowledge of the human soul”. -- Carl Jung
  • 33. Jung’s Analytical Psychology broke the unconscious down further into 2 parts: a. Personal unconscious (similar to Freud’s id) b. Collective unconscious ** (new concept) collective unconscious: a kind of universal memory bank that contains all the ancestral memories, images, symbols, and ideas that humankind has accumulated throughout time Jung used the term collective to stress that the content of this part of the unconscious mind is the same for all humans – it is genetic. He placed particular emphasis on one key component of the collective unconscious called archetypes, which consist of powerful, emotionally charged, universal images or concepts that are inherited or passed down from generation to generation
  • 34. The four main Jungian archetypes are: the self the shadow or the dark side of the human psyche the anima (the female counterpart to the male psyche) and the animus (the male counterpart to the female psyche).
  • 35. For example: According to Jung, we create war and conflict in order to fulfill the needs of the collective unconscious. We need the hero! We need the villain! According to Jung, these are all archetypes that have been inherited from our ancestors **Question: Does history repeats itself because of the collective unconscious and the archetypes?
  • 36. Alfred Adler: Individual psychology. 1870-1937 (Vienna, Austria): MD (opthamologist). “Behind everyone who behaves as if he were superior to others, we can suspect a feeling of inferiority which calls for very special efforts of concealment. It is as if a man feared that he was too small and walked on his toes to make himself seem taller.“ - Alfred Adler Adler coined the term “inferiority complex”
  • 37. Adler came to believe in the importance of “feelings of inferiority” in motivating human behavior To be a human being," he wrote, "means to feel oneself inferior." Adler believed that inferiority feelings are the source of all human striving. All individual progress, growth and development result from the attempt to compensate for one's inferiorities. Style of life = an individuals unique pattern of “striving for superiority” to overcome feelings of inferiority Inferiority complex - When an inability to overcome inferiority feelings heightens and intensifies them.
  • 38. Adler disagreed with Freud about: - the emphasis on sexuality - the importance of the unconscious - “a stream of consciousness” – Adler believed that all three parts of the psyche are constantly interacting & do NOT act alone. - While Adler believed our childhood experiences were important, he also believed in what he called “teleology” or being motivated towards future goals. - Alder felt Freud placed too much emphasis on the past. Some consider Adler the forefather of humanism.
  • 39. Karen Horney. 1885 – 1952. nee Hamburg, Germany Studied to be an MD. In 1909 she entered the University of Freiburg . Feminine psychology. Argued strongly against Freud’s notion of both the Oedipus and Electra complex Disagreed with Freud’s psychosexual stages Did not accept Freud’s division of the psyche into the id, ego, and superego Countered Freud’s idea of “penis envy” with what she called “womb envy” Agreed with Freud on the importance of the unconscious and early childhood Believed that personality could continue to develop and change throughout life
  • 40.
  • 41. Humanistic psychology  focused on uniquely human issues such as: the self, health, hope, love, creativity, nature, and individuality.  Believed in innate goodness – born good  Derived somewhat from existentialism: a strong belief in free-will and conscious rational decision-making  Arose in reaction to behaviorism and psychodynamic theory
  • 42. Self concept or self image Self as a object Self as a process
  • 43. Humanistic Approaches to Personality Humanistic psychology An approach to personality that focuses on the self, subjective experience, and the capacity for fulfillment Humanist psychologists: 1. Abraham Maslow 2. Carl Rogers 3. Rollo May
  • 44. Maslow developed his famous “Hierarchy of Needs” Differentiated between Deficiency needs and Growth needs: Deficiency needs are the bottom four levels in the hierarchy: these needs must be met or filled before other growth needs can take over Maslow believed deficiency needs must be met in order of the hierarchy – e.g. – physiological 1st , safety 2nd , etc.
  • 45. Growth needs or being needs – the highest motive in the hierarchy for human behavior. This motive takes over only when all other deficiency needs are met Some growth needs that Maslow discussed are: - Truth, rather than dishonesty - Aliveness, not deadness or the mechanization of life - Uniqueness, not bland uniformity - Perfection and necessity, not sloppiness, inconsistency, or accident. - Justice and order, not injustice and lawlessness. - Simplicity, not unnecessary complexity. - Self-sufficiency, not dependency.
  • 46. Abraham Maslow. (1908-1970). Born in Brooklyn, New York. One of seven children of Russian immigrants. Graduated University of Wisconsin with PhD (worked with Harry Harlow) Returned to NY to work with Edward Thorndike at Columbia University
  • 47. "A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be at peace with himself. What a man can be, he must be. This is the need we may call self-actualization ... It refers to man's desire for fulfillment, namely to the tendency for him to become actually in what he is potentially: to become everything that one is capable of becoming ..." - Abraham Maslow
  • 48. Maslow’s Characteristics of Self-Actualizers: Reality focused and problem-centered The journey is often more important than the ends. They enjoy solitude, and are comfortable being alone. Enjoy deeper personal relations with a few close friends and family members Value autonomy, a relative independence from physical and social needs. They have an unhostile sense of humor -- preferring to joke at their own expense, or at the human condition, and never directing their humor at others. spontaneity and simplicity: They prefer being themselves rather than being pretentious or artificial.
  • 49. They have a sense of humility and respect towards others They have a certain freshness of appreciation, an ability to see things, even ordinary things, with wonder. They are creative, inventive, and original. tend to have more peak experiences than the average person. [A peak experience is one that takes you out of yourself, that makes you feel very tiny, or very large, to some extent one with life or nature or God. It gives you a feeling of being a part of the infinite and the eternal. These experiences tend to leave their mark on a person, change them for the better, and many people actively seek them out. They are also called mystical experiences, and are an important part of many religious and philosophical traditions]. Their values are "natural" and seem to flow effortlessly from their personalities
  • 50. Maslow identified the following historical figures as self-actualizers: - Abraham Lincoln - Thomas Jefferson - Benjamin Franklin - George Washington - Albert Einstein - Aldous Huxley - William James - Spinoza - Goethe - Pierre Renoir - Robert Browning - Walt Whitman - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow - Eleanor Roosevelt
  • 51. The Humanistic Approach Abraham Maslow The State of Self-Actualization Csikszentmihalyi studied this, based on Maslow’s writings. A state of “flow” arises when engaging in activities demanding skill and challenge, but are not too difficult. Flow, The Optimal Experience
  • 52. Your turn You are on your way to a restaurant to meet some friends, and you are hungry. As you are walking from your car to the restaurant, you are looking forward to talking with your friends. Just then, you hear a gunshot. According to Maslow, your primary motivation would be determined by 1. Your hunger 2. Your desire to converse with your friends 3. Your desire for safety chapter 2
  • 53. Carl Rogers. 1902-1987 Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six children. His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and Psychotherapy. 1945, he was invited to set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago. It was while working there that in 1951 he published his major work, Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he outlined his basic theory. Phenomenal field??
  • 54. View of people as basically good The “actualizing tendency” is the basic force of life – we are always trying to better ourselves in some way True self: who you are today Ideal self: who you want to become Self-actualization is the process of becoming your ideal self
  • 55. The Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers The Personality Theory of Carl Rogers
  • 56. Humanistic Psychology: Carl Rogers Interested in fully functioning individuals Congruence this is displayed by fully functioning people and is a harmony between the image they project to others and their true feelings or wishes To become fully functioning we need: Unconditional positive regard A situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is unqualified, no strings attached Unfortunately many children and adults are treated with: Conditional positive regard A situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is contingent upon one’s behavior chapter 2
  • 57. Unconditional positive regard: a feeling of total love and acceptance – like that of a child for a parent, or a pet to its owner. No matter what you say or do, you will be loved and accepted. Rogers believed if a child received unconditional positive regard, he/she would be able to self- actualize and become his/her ideal self If self-actualization is blocked, mental illness would ensue
  • 58. Conditions of worth: if…then contingencies. I will love and accept you if…;Rogers believed this is another pathway to mental illness The individual who is raised with “conditions of worth” will not actualize into their ideal self. The individual who is raised with conditions of worth will actualize into another persons’ vision of their ideal self. How much of what you say and do is based on conditions of worth? What must parents do to avoid using “conditions of worth” when raising their children? Society at large?
  • 59. The Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers Self-Esteem A positive or negative evaluation of the self  Self-Schemas Specific beliefs about the self that influence how people interpret self-relevant information
  • 60. The Humanistic Approach Self-Esteem Self-Discrepancy Theory According to this theory, self-esteem is defined by the match between how we see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves.
  • 61. Evaluating humanist approaches The bad: 1.Assumptions are not testable 2.Hard to operationally define many of the concepts 3.For taking people’s self-report statements at face value 4.For being too optimistic about human nature and ignoring human capacity for evil The good: 1.Added balance to the study of personality 2.Encouraged others to focus on “positive psychology” 3.Fostered new appreciation for resilience 4.For the idea that the self-concept is the heart of personality
  • 62.
  • 63. Cognitive Social-Learning Theory An approach to personality that focuses on social learning (modeling), acquired cognitive factors (expectancies, values), and the person- situation interaction
  • 64. The Cognitive Social-Learning Approach Principles of Learning and Behavior Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Stimulus Generalization Discrimination Extinction
  • 65. The Cognitive Social-Learning Approach Social-Learning Theory Modeling The social-learning process by which behavior is observed and imitated Locus of Control The expectancy that one’s reinforcements are generally controlled by internal or external factors Self-Efficacy The belief that one is capable of performing the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome
  • 66. The Cognitive Social-Learning Approach Perspectives on Cognitive Social-Learning Theory Reciprocal Determinism Personality emerges from the mutual interactions of individuals, their actions, and their environments.
  • 67. Early social learning theory: Dollard and Miller in 1930s Learning theory on basis of Freud psychoanalytical theories. Conflict between approach and avoidance tendencies Skinner’s radical behaviorism
  • 68. Social learning; later  Albert Bandura (1925-present)  Albert Bandura was born December 4, 1925, in the small town of Mundare in northern Alberta, Canada.  In 1953, he started teaching at Stanford University. While there, he collaborated with his first graduate student, Richard Walters, resulting in their first book, Adolescent Aggression, in 1959.  Emphasis on the cognitive or thoughts [covert]
  • 69. Modeling; Vicarious learning; Observational learning: learning by watching others. Thoughts matter!! Interested in studying the effect of television violence on aggression in children. Bandura is most famous for his Bo-Bo doll studies. Film: woman punching the clown, shouting “sockeroo!” She kicked it, sat on it, hit it with a little hammer, and so on, shouting various aggressive phrases. Bandura showed his film to groups of kindergartners who, as you might predict, liked it a lot. what did the observers record afterward: A lot of little kids beating the daylights out of the bobo doll. They punched it and shouted “sockeroo,” kicked it, sat on it, hit it with the little hammers, and so on. In other words, they imitated the young lady in the film, “and quite precisely at that”. Bryan and Test, Good Samaritanism experiment
  • 70. Bandura added cognition or thought to the equation The main “person” factor that Bandura discussed was: self-efficacy: the belief in your ability to perform a certain task or function.
  • 71.
  • 72. Genetic Influences on Personality Nature vs. Nurture debate Nature: Biology/genetics determines personality Nurture: Experiences determines personality Not mutually exclusive  Biology and experience interact and shape our personalities together How can biology influence our personality? Genes: functional units of heredity, composed of DNA and specify the structure of proteins  Specify how the brain and nervous systems should develop and function  Influence the behaviors that make up our personality
  • 73. How do psychologists measure genetic contributions to personality? 1. Studying personality traits in other species 2. Studying temperaments of infants and children 3. Heritability studies in twins and adopted individuals
  • 74. Personality Traits in Other Species Examine the physiology, genetics, ecology and ethology of animals Evidence of 4 of the Big Five traits in 64 different species  monkeys  dogs  octopi  Conscientiousness has only been found in humans Puppy Personality Experiment (Gosling, 2003)  Owners provided personality assessments of dogs and themselves  A person who knew them both filled out a personality inventory  Independent observers rated the dogs in a park  All 3 ratings were very similar
  • 75. Personality Traits in Infants and Children Temperaments Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways  Present in infancy, assumed to be innate  Relatively stable over time Temperaments: 1. Easy/Flexible: positive disposition, curious about new situations, adaptable, low-moderate emotional intensity 40% of babies 1. Difficult/Feisty: negative moods, slow to adapt to new situations 10 % of babies 1. Slow-to-Warm: inactive, calm reactions to environment, negative moods and withdraw from new situations, adapt slowly 15 % of babies 35 % have babies have combination of characteristics and can’t be categorized chapter 2
  • 76. chapter 2 Dimension of Temperament Definition 1. Activity level Proportion of active to inactive time 2. Approach-Withdrawal The response to a new person or object, based on whether the child accepts or withdraws from the situation 3. Adaptability How easily the child is able to adapt to changes in his or her environment 4. Quality of Mood The contrast of the amount of friendly, joyful, and pleasant behavior with unpleasant, unfriendly behavior 5. Attention span and persistence The amount of the time a child devotes to an activity and the effect of distraction on that activity 6. Distractibility The degree to which stimuli in the environment alters behavior 7. Rhythmicity (regularity) The regularity of basic functions, such as hunger, excretion, sleep and wakefulness 8. Intensity of reaction The energy level or reaction of the child’s response 9. Threshold of responsiveness The intensity of stimulation needed to elicit a response
  • 77. The Heritability of Personality Traits Heritability a statistical estimate of how much variation in a trait can be attributed to genetics within a given population  0 – 1.0  0.5 = 50 % of the variation in a personality trait can be attributed to genetics  1.0 = 100 % of the variation in a personality trait can be attributed to genetics Heritability of personality traits is about 0.5 Within a group of people, about 50% of the variation associated with a given trait is attributable to genetic differences among individuals in the group. Genetic predisposition is not genetic inevitability chapter 2
  • 78. The Heritability of Personality Traits How is heritability studied?  Adoption studies  Compare correlations between traits of children and their biological and adoptive parents  Twin Studies  Identical twins = share 100 % of genes  Fraternal twins = share about ½ genes, just like regular siblings  Compare same-sex groups of identical and fraternal twins  Look at personality traits in adopted identical and fraternal twins chapter 2

Editor's Notes

  1. Allport elaborated on this definition by explaining that the expression “dynamic organization” emphasizes that personality is an organized system (“unitas multiplex”) that is constantly evolving and changing. The phrase “within the individual” means that personality refers to intrapsychic processes, not judgmental comparisons of one person to another. The term “psychophysical” means that personality is neither exclusively mental nor exclusively neural but a combination of the two. The expression “unique adjustment to the environment” has both functional and evolutionary significance in pointing to personality as a mode of survival and, more generally, of learning and adaptation, which is unique to each individual. Allport's use of the verb “determine” suggests that personality traits are determining dispositions that limit a person's behavioral repertoire.
  2. People attitude towards themselves. Their picture of the way they look and act. i.i attitude,feelings, perceptions and evalution of self Also on executive functions
  3. Figure 15-8 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper & Row.
  4. Subjective frame of reff, may or may not correspond to external reality
  5. Figure 15-6 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  6. Figure 15-7 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  7. Section outline
  8. After Figure 15-5 from Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  9. Given by mary rothbart