SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Presented By-
Jasleen Kaur Brar
Introduction
 Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) born in
Vienna was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the
founding father of psychoanalysis.
 Sigmund Freud developed the best-known theory of
personality focused upon internal growth or psychodynamics’.
The theory stresses the influence of unconscious fears,
desires and motivation on thoughts and behavior. Freud
psychoanalysis became both a theory of personality and a
method of psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic theory has three
major parts:
 A theory of the structure of personality, in which the id, ego
and superego are the principal parts.
 A theory of personality dynamics, in which conscious and
unconscious motivation and ego- defense mechanisms play a
major role.
 A theory of psychosexual development, in which different
motives and body regions influence the child at different
stages of growth, with effects persisting in the form of adult
personality traits.
Structure of personality:
Freud thought of personality as being based upon a
structure of three parts: the id, the ego and the
superego.
ID – Pleasure
EGO – Reality
SUPEREGO – For perfection/ideal
Psycho Analytic Model
ID (primitive, instinctive component of personality) –
 Latin word of Id is ‘It’ Id is the original source of personality,
which is present in a newborn.
 The Id, the most primitive part, can be thought of as a sort
of storehouse of biologically based urges: to eat, drink,
eliminate, and especially, to be sexually stimulated.
 The sexual energy that underlies these urges is called the
libido.
 Id is present in the deepest level of the unconscious and
represents the inner world of subjective experience.
 It is unconcerned with objective reality and is unaffected
by the environment Id is completely selfish; concerned with
immediate gratification of instinctual needs, and the
biological drives, like hunger, sex.
 The id operates according to the pleasure principle,
seeking to reduce tension, avoid pain, and obtain
pleasure. In a formal gathering if a person is feeling
very hungry and may start eating without the formal
invitation for starting the meal or a student may start
eating his lunch in the class when the teacher is
teaching disregarding his classroom act as Id.
 The pleasure principle attempts to reduce tension by
wish fulfillment. In other words, it is referred to as
primary process thinking. Whatever comes first in
the person’s mind, he or she wants to satisfy that
desire immediately.
 If the demands of Id are blocked for a longer time,
frustrations occur.
Ego (the decision-making component) –
 The Latin word of ego is ‘I’ which means ‘self’.
 The ego acts as a mediator or balancer between the
demands of Id and superego.
 Ego is based on the Reality Principle.
 Ego delays the discharge of tension. It postponed the
desires. This adaptive measure of Ego is refereed as
secondary process thinking.
 Process Thinking – Ego waits for the right moment for the
satisfaction of desire, whereas id satisfies desires
immediately.
 Ego develops from Id and works for Id. Ego is an
executive, which mediate between the demands of id and
realities of world and demands of super ego
Functions of Ego –
 Control and regulation of instinctual derives.
 Relation to reality
o Sense of reality
o Reality testing
o Adaptation to reality
 Primary autonomous function
o Perception
o Thinking
o Speaking
o IQ
o Memory
 Intuition
Superego (the moral component ) –
 It is ideal rather than real.
 The superego is that part of personality that
represents internalized value, ideals and moral
attitude of society.
 It is outgrowth of learning the taboos and moral
values of society. It is refer to conscience and is
concerned with right and wrong.
 It inhabits the ID desires. Sex and aggressive
superego operates through the ego system and
compel the ego to inhibit desires that are considering
wrong or immoral.
 Its psychiatric function is expresses as guilt, self-
criticism and consciences.
 Rewarding functions – ego ideal- superego
develops with Oedipus complex. It strives for
perfection. It is society himself. It is extreme of Id and
it is for self-preservation by society norms.
 Consciences: negative part of superego. It is
developed by punishment, lack of reward,
conditioning of childhood brings conscience. It gives
guilt and self-criticism. Child takes or interjects the
moral standards of parents.
 Ego Ideal: It is rewarding function of superego. It is
by positive reinforcement for i.e. copy, menu rimes of
father or any beloved person.
Example
LEVELS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Conscious level
Preconscious level
Unconscious part
 Conscious level, which relates to the awareness of
an individual to his environment.
 It function when the individual is awake.
 It is concerned with thought, feelings and sensations,
memory, IQ. Conscious as sense organ of attention. It
is only 1/9 of total mind.
 Through attention, person becomes conscious of
perceptual stimuli from the outside world within the
organism.
 Only elements in pre conscious enter consciousness.
It is one-way traffic to unconscious mind.
 Conscious part of mind is aware of here and now as it
relates individual and his environment.
 Preconscious level is described as that part of
mind in which ideas and reactions are stored and
partially forgotten.
 It also acts as a watchman because it prevents
certain painful, unpleasant, unacceptable, distributing
unconscious memories from reaching the conscious
mind.
 Slip of tongue, slip of pen. Preconscious region of
mind is not present at birth but develops in childhood.
It is accessible to both unconscious and conscious
mind.
 Elements of unconscious mind are accessible to
conscious through preconscious. So, it works as
censor for a person’s wishes and desires.
 It is associated with mental activity i.e. secondary
process of thinking. Aims of secondary thinking are to
avoid unpleasantness and delaying instinctual
discharge.
 It respects logical connection. It is associated with
reality principle. It works accordingly demands of
external reality and person’s moral values etc.
 Unconscious part is the largest part of mind (9/10).
 It is hidden part of iceberg that floats under water. It
contains repressed ideas and affects.
 Elements of unconscious mind are in accessible to
consciousness.
 They become conscious only through preconscious mind.
Repressed ideas may reach to consciousness when
censor is over powered or relaxed (dream state).
 It is storehouse for all the memories, feelings and
responses experienced by the individual during his entire
life.
 Unconscious is associated with particular form of
mental activities that is primary process – with
fulfillment and instinctual discharge.
 It is associated with pleasure principle. Primary
process thinking has no conception of time, logic,
circumstances and needs immediate gratification of
their desires, which is very common in infancy.
 Memories in unconscious mind lose their connection
with verbal expressions.
 They can reach consciousness once words are
reapplied to forgotten memory.
Psychosexual Development
 Freud believed that personality develops through
a series of childhood stages in which the
pleasure-seeking energies of the id become
focused on certain erogenous areas. This
psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as
the driving force behind behavior.
 If these psychosexual stages are completed
successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If
certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate
stage, fixation can occur.
 According to Freud, all human being pass through a series of
five psychosexual stages:
 Oral stage 0 to 2 years – During the first year of life the mouth
is the principal organ. Gratification is by sucking the breast of
mother and bottle.
 Anal stage 2 to 3 years – Membranes of the anal region provide
pleasure. Not passing fecal matter also gives pleasure to the
child.
 Phallic stage 3 to 6 years – self-manipulation of the genital
organs; the child also identifies group to which he belongs’; what
is the difference between him and his younger sister.
 Latency stage of 6 to 12 years – this is a stage of
psychosexual development when overt sexual interest is
repressed and sublimated. The child’s attention is focused on
learning skills and other peer activities.
 Genital stage – This is the final stage of psychosexual
development reached in puberty when the deepest feelings of
pleasure are said to come from heterosexual relations.
 Freud believed that gratification during each stage in
important if the individual is not to be fixated at that
level.
 A fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier
psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the
individual will remain "stuck" in this stage.
 For example, a person who is fixated at the oral
stage may be over-dependent on others and may
seek oral stimulation through smoking, drinking, or
eating.
 A person fixated at the anal stage may be abnormally
concerned with cleanliness and orderliness.
Development of Personality:
 First 6 years in a child’s life contribute the most to
personality development. These years provide the
foundation for future patterns of behavior.
1-Infancy -0 year to 18 months
 Freud called it as oral stage because child’s libidinal
energy is focused on his oral cavity.
 Infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the
mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially
important.
 Singular focus on self is referred as primary narcissism
means self-love. 1st few months infant is not able to
differentiate between him and environment.
 He feels that he causes all that happens to him. This
feeling of being all-powerful is called Omnipotence.
 He is bundle of Id impulses. When need arises, tension
is raised and he gets relief from this tension by using his
mouth, lips and tongue to cry, suck and swallow. These
activities give him pleasures.
 Infant is depended on mother that meets his need for
sucking and gets milk to swallow so his raised
tension, which was caused by hunger, is over.
Accidentally he finds his thumb and discovers that he
can meet his need of sucking himself. Sucking his
own thumb gives him pleasure but it also gives
experience that it is different from mother. Through
this simple realization infant differentiate himself from
environment. So ego develops.
 With weaning child is forced to recognize reality and
its demands. When weaning start, infant receives less
oral satisfaction. When cup or solid food is substituted
for the breast or bottle, infant feels frustration. He
reacts to it in an aggressive, destructive way and
begins to bite.
 He may seek symbolic oral gratification by sucking
and biting others, teeth provides tool for oral
aggression because love and food are given
simultaneously during oral period.
 Oral needs become synonyms with protective love
and security by closed mother child relationship.
When child gets love and food by loving mother
unconditionally, he learns to trust her.
 Basic sense of trust in mother starts which is a basis
for future trusting relationship.
 If child’s experience with mother is anxious and
conditional he learns to mistrust her. So this basic
mistrust gives paranoid idea in adult hood.
 Maternal Depression cause personality disorder
 Mask mothering or rejection cause
schizophrenia in later life.
 Oral fixation personality relieves their tension
by excessive eating or drinking alcohol so they
become drunkard.
 Mistrust cause suspicious nature and paranoid
personality disorder.
2-Early Childhood:
 Anal phase/(1 year to 3 year). Freud called it as anal
phase because libidinal energy shifts from oral cavity to
anus and urethra. Child gratifies his love of self with the
pleasurable sensation involved in evacuation of bladder
and bowel without restriction. He drives his greatest
pleasure from anus and urethra.
 Superego develops when mother begins to insist that child
should have certain control regarding toileting. He faces
his 1st major frustration of his Id drives. To retain the love
of his mother the child must learn to post-pone the
immediate pleasure of urinating or evacuation until
appropriate time and place are available. Child starts
having ambivalent feelings towards her. If his toilet
training is very strict and mother insists him to be clean he
may grow up to be compulsive or dissolve his anxiety by
reaction formation and become very untidy and
unconcerned about cleanliness in his adult life.
 According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses
can result in negative outcomes. Rigid toilet training
include stubbornness, excessive concern with bowel
function and sadistic.
 Strict toilet training gives rise to O.C.N. personality,
perfectionist, stubborn, sadistic etc. If parents take an
approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that
an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which
the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive
personality.
 If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too
early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive
personality develops in which the individual is
stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.
3-Later childhood –Phallic stage
(3-6year)
 Freud called this period the phallic stage.
 Pleasurable sensations shifted from mouth and excretory
organs to the genitalia and child begins to identify with
parents of same sex and wishes to replace that parent in
family situation.
 They begin to examine their own bodies and others. They
get pleasure sensation from manipulation of penis or
clitoris.
 Difference between sexual structure of men and woman is
of great interest to them. They feel that girl has lost that
organ. Anxiety about loss of sex organs developed. It is
called Castration anxiety.
 A little girl notice that she has no penis and concludes that
she has lost it or it has been taken away. This attitude is
called penis envy. It is sometime basic to the problems of
sibling rivalry.
 Little boy begins to feel very possessive towards mother.
He wants her for himself and resents the close tie that he
feels exists between his mother and father. He develops
competitive feeling towards his father and tries to become
a rival with him for his mother’s love. But father figure is
great opponent and child has fear of him. This situation is
called Oedipus complex. He fears that father may punish
him.
 So he resolves this anxiety by becoming like his
father, he can get mother’s love and attention. He
begins to take on masculine behaviour of his father.
This is called identification.
 Similarly little girl begins to identify with feminine
role. If there is arrival of another child if increase their
problems. Sibling rivalry usually develops. Super ego
development also develops at its height.
4- Latency- 6-12 yrs
 Freud refers it as latency stage.
 During the latent period, the libido interests are
suppressed.
 The development of the ego and superego contribute to
this period of calm.
 The stage begins around the time that children enter into
school and become more concerned with peer
relationships, hobbies and other interests.
 The latent period is a time of exploration in which the
sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other
areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions.
 This stage is important in the development of social and
communication skills and self-confidence. Temporary intra-
psychic equilibrium established by id, ego and super ego.
5-Puberty/ adolescence/ genital
stage 12-18
 Sexual glands are developing in this stage.
 Libidinal energy is focused on genital organs.
 Satisfactory hetrosexual relationship with a mate
should develop.
 It is a problematic stage of personality. He is drawn
towards parents and driven away from parent, which
cause ambivalence, which comes in the form of
conflict.
Defense Mechanisms/ Ego
Mechanisms
 Defenses are unconscious mental process that ego uses to
resolve conflicts among instincts (wish or need}. When
defense is most effective they abolish anxiety and
depression. Defenses are dynamic and reversible.
 Ego defense mechanisms are mental mechanism, used
when individual unconsciously experiences a basic conflict
between id-impulses and demands of superego.
 The ego unconsciously uses some of its energy to initiate a
defense mechanism that effect a compromise between id and
super ego, thereby relieving anxiety. Sullivan, those called
into play when anxiety is a response to a threat to the self-
concept, calls another form of mental mechanism security
operation.
 They act without awareness of the individual employing them.
Use of mental mechanism is healthy and lowers/reduce the
anxiety and It is a normal process of adjustment. Method of
self-protection is by Ego Mechanisms.
 COMPENSATION:
Compensation a pattern of adaptive behaviors by
which anxiety from feeling of inadequacy or
weakness is relieved as individual emphasizes of
intensive training of some personal or social
attribute that over shadows his inadequacy and
gain social approval .It can be seen in infant who
substitute his thumb for nipple to relieve tension
and compensate for some pleasurable sensation
of sucking.
 A Polio child can be an artist and painter or
develop his muscles of upper limbs and becomes
archery expert.
 DISPLACEMENT:
When an individual unconsciously believes he would be in
great danger of that person knew his feelings about same
person. He discharge of feelings on to a person or object
entirely different from the one to which they actually
belong. He displaces his emotion to other person or object
which is less anxiety producing. Example {1}; -Teacher,
who is angry with supervisor, cannot show his feelings but
reacts with unreasonable anger when a student breaks a
windowpane. Actually teacher has unconsciously
substituted the student for supervisor and displaced his
feelings. Example {2}; -Husband got annoyed with boss
came home, scolds the wife unnecessarily and wife beats
the child when he ask for a sweet. In this emotional feeling
is transferred to person or object that is less dangerous
than who initially aroused the emotion.
 SUBLIMATION:
In mechanism of sublimation the energy involved in anxiety
produced primitive impulses is unconsciously redirected
into constructive and socially acceptable channels. It is
one of positive adaptation to anxiety and responsible for
much of artistic and cultural achievements of civilized
people. It is when woman redirects her sexual desires into
successful career of poetess. Example {1}; - Maha Devi
Verma and Tulsi dass are example of this sublimation.
Tulsidass after scolded by his wife, turned his psychic
energy / libido energy into poetry. Sublimation is a positive
mechanism in which the primitive impulses are transferred
or directed to a socially useful goal. Unacceptable desires
find an acceptable out let. Example {2}; - Man with strong
sex desire utilize in painting a nude woman.
 SUBSTITUTION:
Mechanism used to reduce tension resulting from
frustration. Substituting action must have certain
similarities to the frustrated one. Example {1}; a
student who has not been able to get admission
in M.B.B.S. may try to substitute it with other
course of physiotherapy or Nursing.
 FIXATIONS:
It is arrest of emotional development at a stage.
Fixation refers to the point in the individual’s
development at certain aspects of emotional
development cease to advance. Further development
is blocked. They cannot bypass that phase, he is
always handicapped in proceeding to the stages that
follow. Example {1}; Child who is not breast-fed and
did not get love and security, he will achieve
gratification through oral cavity. He may overeat, or
take huge quantity of alcohol and becomes drunkard.
They are called as oral personality individual. Thumb
sucking in adult life is an example of it.
 DENIAL:.
It is a process where the individual truly does not
recognize the existence of an event or feeling.
Denial is used in Schizophrenia. It is often seen
as a reaction of the healthy person when he is
confronted by a disastrous situation. Example
{1}-Sudden death of husband in road accident
but wife refused to accept it. She says that he
had breakfast with me, you are mistaken. Please
excuse me. In cardiac case or cancer, it is a
response to sudden passive amount of anxiety.
Denial is not lying; individual does not accept
existence of something that’s disturbing.
 IDENTIFICATION:
It useful mechanism because it plays a large part in
development of a child personality. Through this
process individual defends against anxiety resulting
from feeling of inadequacy by unconsciously taking on
desirable attributes found in people for whom he has
admiration and affection. He integrates these
attributes into his own personality. Example {1}- A
child takes on masculine attributes that he admires in
his father. Another form of identification is observed
when an individual develops unreasonable sympathy
for a criminal because of an unconscious sense of
guilt.
 INTROJECTIONS:
Mechanism of introjections is closely related to
identification. Introjection tends to replace all or part of
personality. Introjection is that entire personality of a
second person has been incorporated and has
replaced the original personality. Introjections may
operate in a less constructive way than identification.
Example {1}- Psychotic patient acts as Moses, his
own personality had given up. A depressed person
may have unconsciously incorporated another person
and attempt to commit suicide to kill the interjected
person whom he unconsciously hates. Example {2}-
After marriage lady takes all values of husband and
thinks its own. she incorporate the personality of her
husband.
 ISOLATION:
Where feelings are detached from the event in
the individual’s memory, enabling the person to
recall the event without anxiety. It is found in
(OCN) compulsive personality. They value
efficiency, cleanliness and punctuality Example
{1}- giving death pack to a patient without any
emotions by nursing staff.
 RATIONALIZATION:
Rationalization is a mental mechanism that is almost
universally employed. It is an attempt to make his behavior
as result of logical thinking rather than result of
unconscious desires that are anxiety producing. It is a face
saving device that may or may not deal with the actual
truth. Rationalization is almost unconscious avoidance. It
relieves anxiety temporarily but not an effective
mechanism of adjustment because it helps the person to
avoid facing the reality. Person gives logical excuse.
Student says that due to sickness she could not pass. It is”
grapes are sour mechanism.”
 Example {1}-Alcoholic will say that due to lack of sleep, he
take drinks.
 Example {2}-Paranoid patient will say that people are after
me because I have lot of money.
 REGRESSION:
{Hebephrenic , depression} Regression occurs when
an individual is faced with anxiety from a conflict, that
cannot to solved by using the adaptive mechanism
with which he used to solve problems. In such a
situation, he may unconsciously return to the patterns
of behavior appropriate to an earlier developmental
stage. Any retreat into a state of dependency on
others to avoid facing acute problems “Crying on
someone shoulder” is symbolic of infants seeking
comfort on maternal bosom.
 Example {1}- When a grown up girl failed and cries,
lies on floor and have tamper tantrum. It is found in
Hebephrenic Schizophrenia when patient regress
backs into infant stage. He smears his hands with
own stool.
 REPRESSION:
Painful experiences unacceptable thoughts and
impulses are dismissed from conscious mind to
unconscious mind. During child hood they are
repressed and becomes unconscious source of
emotional conflict in later life. Selfish, hostile,
sexual feeding are repressed. Such repression
cause internal conflict.
 Example {1}-Mother’s death and trauma was
repressed in unconscious mind. These
Repressed conflicts may come out through
conversion into physical symptoms. This is
common in Hysteria and Hypochondrias
 PROJECTION :
Projection is transferring the responsibility for
unacceptable ideas, wishes or thoughts to another
person when individual’s own aggressive thoughts are
unacceptable to him and cause anxiety, he blames
some one else for it. It is used in paranoid, he is
suspicious about infidelity of his wife when actually he
lack of fidelity in his mind. Example {1}- Student
blame the teacher that he has failed me. I have done
well but he has some thing against me, so he has
failed me. Example {2}- Paranoid person may project
his own inner hate of others by saying that group of
people is plotting to kill him or intending to exploit him.
 CONVERSION:
Conversion refers to the expression of emotional conflict through
physical symptoms for which there is no organic basis. It is
preceded after repression. All painful experience repressed into
unconscious mind when the conflict reappears as physical
symptoms, pt. is not aware of connection between two
pheromones. Although physical symptoms is symbolically related
to the nature of conflict. This symptom always serves to distract
attention from his real problem. He gains two ways.
 His anxiety is relieved (primary gain).
 He gains attention and sympathy of others (secondary gain).
 Example {1}- A child who sees the conflicts between parents,
both of them loves him. He became blind. Example {2}- A soldier
who loves his country but don’t like killings, get paralysis of right
hand. So he is not able to pull the trigger. Example {2}- A child
who has to go to boarding next day. He got paralysis of legs. So
she is saved from going away from parents and get attention
also. It is used in hysteria.
 SYMBOLIZATION AND CONDENSATION.
Symbol is an idea or object used by conscious mind in lieu
of actual idea or object. Instinctual desires may appear
through symbols, the meanings of which are not clear to
conscious mind. Example {1}- “Phallic symbolism of large
automobiles serves to reassure this individual about his
adequacy as a male. Symbols are the language of
unconscious mind, such symbols appear in dreams or
fantasy. Condensations represent a wide range of anxiety
producing ideas that become lumped together. When they
rise to conscious level they take the form of an apparently
incoherent jumble of words, real meaning of which is
hidden in the unconscious mind. Example {1}-In
schizophrenic patient has irrational language. This
condensation has meaning for themselves only (word
salad).
 REACTION FORMATION:
When individual experiences anxieties resulting from
unconscious feeling that are unacceptable to him and
relieve the anxiety by doing in a may that is directly
opposite to which he really feels. Example {1}- People
who behave extremely friendly and polite have
unconscious feelings of anger and hatred. These true
feelings may be evident in slips of tongue. Example {2}-
Reaction formation develops out of rigid toilet training
experience. He wants love of his mother but don’t want to
expel the stool and enjoy anal retention. If he does not
expel mother is angry with him so he does against his wish
and expel it to gain love of mother. Example {3}- OCN
person may be very untidy unorganized in adult life
because his mother was very strict to cleanliness. He will
do opposite what he wants to do really.
Summarization
 Introduction
 Structure of personality
 Level of consciousness
 Psychosexual development
 Defense mechanisms
Bibliography
 Michael W. Eyesenck & cara
Flanagan.Psychology for A2 Level;[1];306-24
 Fernald/Fernald. Munn’s Introduction to
Psychology. [5];241-65
 Carole Wade, Carol Tavris. Psychology.[8];407-15
 Clifford T. Morgan, Richard A. King, John R.
Weisz, John Schopler. Introduction to
Psychology;[8]64-87
Freud theory

More Related Content

What's hot

Humanistic theory
Humanistic theoryHumanistic theory
Humanistic theory
Maria Cristina Payofelin
 
theory of personality by sigmund freud
theory of personality by sigmund freudtheory of personality by sigmund freud
theory of personality by sigmund freud
Momna Rani
 
1. theories of personality
1. theories of personality1. theories of personality
1. theories of personality
Vivie Chabie
 
Psychosexual theory by Sigmund Freud
Psychosexual theory by Sigmund FreudPsychosexual theory by Sigmund Freud
Psychosexual theory by Sigmund Freud
Dr. Purshottam Jaspa
 
Erik Erikson’s theory of personality
Erik Erikson’s theory of personalityErik Erikson’s theory of personality
Erik Erikson’s theory of personality
Chakshu Sang
 
History of Psychology
History of PsychologyHistory of Psychology
History of Psychology
Joe Ann Damagan
 
Psychology
PsychologyPsychology
Psychology
Aashish Parihar
 
Psychoanalysis
PsychoanalysisPsychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
critprac
 
Freud and the Unconscious
Freud and the UnconsciousFreud and the Unconscious
Freud and the Unconscious
Sam Georgi
 
Functionalism in Psychology
Functionalism in PsychologyFunctionalism in Psychology
Functionalism in Psychology
Simrat Simrat
 
Trait theories personality theories
Trait theories   personality theories Trait theories   personality theories
Trait theories personality theories
Manu Melwin Joy
 
Experimental Psychology
Experimental PsychologyExperimental Psychology
Experimental Psychology
University of the Punjab
 
The Nature of Psychology
The Nature of PsychologyThe Nature of Psychology
The Nature of Psychology
neda marie maramo
 
Hans Eysenck theory of Personality
Hans Eysenck theory of PersonalityHans Eysenck theory of Personality
Hans Eysenck theory of Personality
Tami Binger
 
Psychosexual development
Psychosexual developmentPsychosexual development
Psychosexual development
Aarti Sareen
 
Structures of personality
Structures of personalityStructures of personality
Structures of personality
Richie Mark-Hyun Neul Kim
 
Schools of Psychology
Schools of PsychologySchools of Psychology
Schools of Psychology
candice santiago
 
Psychoanalysis
PsychoanalysisPsychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
Archana tripathy
 
Psychodynamic approach (Strengths and weaknesses)
Psychodynamic approach (Strengths and weaknesses)Psychodynamic approach (Strengths and weaknesses)
Psychodynamic approach (Strengths and weaknesses)
Hafiza Samath
 
Analytical Psychology - C. G. Jung
Analytical Psychology - C. G. JungAnalytical Psychology - C. G. Jung
Analytical Psychology - C. G. Jung
Melvin Jacinto
 

What's hot (20)

Humanistic theory
Humanistic theoryHumanistic theory
Humanistic theory
 
theory of personality by sigmund freud
theory of personality by sigmund freudtheory of personality by sigmund freud
theory of personality by sigmund freud
 
1. theories of personality
1. theories of personality1. theories of personality
1. theories of personality
 
Psychosexual theory by Sigmund Freud
Psychosexual theory by Sigmund FreudPsychosexual theory by Sigmund Freud
Psychosexual theory by Sigmund Freud
 
Erik Erikson’s theory of personality
Erik Erikson’s theory of personalityErik Erikson’s theory of personality
Erik Erikson’s theory of personality
 
History of Psychology
History of PsychologyHistory of Psychology
History of Psychology
 
Psychology
PsychologyPsychology
Psychology
 
Psychoanalysis
PsychoanalysisPsychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
 
Freud and the Unconscious
Freud and the UnconsciousFreud and the Unconscious
Freud and the Unconscious
 
Functionalism in Psychology
Functionalism in PsychologyFunctionalism in Psychology
Functionalism in Psychology
 
Trait theories personality theories
Trait theories   personality theories Trait theories   personality theories
Trait theories personality theories
 
Experimental Psychology
Experimental PsychologyExperimental Psychology
Experimental Psychology
 
The Nature of Psychology
The Nature of PsychologyThe Nature of Psychology
The Nature of Psychology
 
Hans Eysenck theory of Personality
Hans Eysenck theory of PersonalityHans Eysenck theory of Personality
Hans Eysenck theory of Personality
 
Psychosexual development
Psychosexual developmentPsychosexual development
Psychosexual development
 
Structures of personality
Structures of personalityStructures of personality
Structures of personality
 
Schools of Psychology
Schools of PsychologySchools of Psychology
Schools of Psychology
 
Psychoanalysis
PsychoanalysisPsychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
 
Psychodynamic approach (Strengths and weaknesses)
Psychodynamic approach (Strengths and weaknesses)Psychodynamic approach (Strengths and weaknesses)
Psychodynamic approach (Strengths and weaknesses)
 
Analytical Psychology - C. G. Jung
Analytical Psychology - C. G. JungAnalytical Psychology - C. G. Jung
Analytical Psychology - C. G. Jung
 

Similar to Freud theory

PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptxPSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
ROSYCHAWLA2
 
SIGMUND FREUD- PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY
SIGMUND FREUD- PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORYSIGMUND FREUD- PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY
SIGMUND FREUD- PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY
SANA FATIMA
 
 Answer each question thoroughly and clearly, and ground it in c
 Answer each question thoroughly and clearly, and ground it in c Answer each question thoroughly and clearly, and ground it in c
 Answer each question thoroughly and clearly, and ground it in c
rochellscroop
 
Child psychology1
Child psychology1Child psychology1
Child psychology1
Indian dental academy
 
Child psychology in pedodontics by Dr Savita Satyaprsad ,KVG DENTAL COLL,SULLIA
Child psychology in pedodontics by Dr Savita Satyaprsad  ,KVG DENTAL COLL,SULLIAChild psychology in pedodontics by Dr Savita Satyaprsad  ,KVG DENTAL COLL,SULLIA
Child psychology in pedodontics by Dr Savita Satyaprsad ,KVG DENTAL COLL,SULLIA
ALLWINPEDO
 
Psychoanalytic theory sigmundfreUd
Psychoanalytic theory sigmundfreUdPsychoanalytic theory sigmundfreUd
Psychoanalytic theory sigmundfreUd
Boyet Aluan
 
Psychoanalytic theory by sheena bernal
Psychoanalytic theory by sheena bernalPsychoanalytic theory by sheena bernal
Psychoanalytic theory by sheena bernal
Edi sa puso mo :">
 
Child psychology by Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad.
Child psychology by Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad.Child psychology by Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad.
Child psychology by Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad.
ALLWINPEDO
 
Lesson 1_Personality Psych.ppt
Lesson 1_Personality Psych.pptLesson 1_Personality Psych.ppt
Lesson 1_Personality Psych.ppt
TracyLewis47
 
1589181759OWOEYE_ABUAD_PSYCHOLOGY_1.ppt
1589181759OWOEYE_ABUAD_PSYCHOLOGY_1.ppt1589181759OWOEYE_ABUAD_PSYCHOLOGY_1.ppt
1589181759OWOEYE_ABUAD_PSYCHOLOGY_1.ppt
ssuser2dbef31
 
kkkkkkkkkk.pptmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
kkkkkkkkkk.pptmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmkkkkkkkkkk.pptmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
kkkkkkkkkk.pptmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
moytopo
 
Psychodynamic paradigm of abnormal behavior
Psychodynamic paradigm of abnormal behaviorPsychodynamic paradigm of abnormal behavior
Psychodynamic paradigm of abnormal behavior
teenetanu
 
FREUDkakkakakakakakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
FREUDkakkakakakakakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkFREUDkakkakakakakakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
FREUDkakkakakakakakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
Rogie David
 
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE NEW.pptx
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE   NEW.pptxBEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE   NEW.pptx
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE NEW.pptx
FELIX975317
 
The-Psychoanalytic-Theory-of-Sigmund-Freud.pptx
The-Psychoanalytic-Theory-of-Sigmund-Freud.pptxThe-Psychoanalytic-Theory-of-Sigmund-Freud.pptx
The-Psychoanalytic-Theory-of-Sigmund-Freud.pptx
damimida678
 
Theories of Counselling .pptx
Theories of Counselling            .pptxTheories of Counselling            .pptx
Theories of Counselling .pptx
nathanieladdoquaye
 
Which one of the theories discussed in this weeks readings do y
Which one of the theories discussed in this weeks readings do yWhich one of the theories discussed in this weeks readings do y
Which one of the theories discussed in this weeks readings do y
jonghollingberry
 
Personality Disdorders by Daniel Asare
Personality Disdorders by Daniel AsarePersonality Disdorders by Daniel Asare
Personality Disdorders by Daniel Asare
Daniel Asare
 
summary table for theories of personalit
summary table for theories of personalitsummary table for theories of personalit
summary table for theories of personalit
HeraMaeOsacdin
 
PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY BY SIGMUND FREUD
PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY BY SIGMUND FREUDPSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY BY SIGMUND FREUD
PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY BY SIGMUND FREUD
SANA FATIMA
 

Similar to Freud theory (20)

PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptxPSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
 
SIGMUND FREUD- PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY
SIGMUND FREUD- PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORYSIGMUND FREUD- PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY
SIGMUND FREUD- PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY
 
 Answer each question thoroughly and clearly, and ground it in c
 Answer each question thoroughly and clearly, and ground it in c Answer each question thoroughly and clearly, and ground it in c
 Answer each question thoroughly and clearly, and ground it in c
 
Child psychology1
Child psychology1Child psychology1
Child psychology1
 
Child psychology in pedodontics by Dr Savita Satyaprsad ,KVG DENTAL COLL,SULLIA
Child psychology in pedodontics by Dr Savita Satyaprsad  ,KVG DENTAL COLL,SULLIAChild psychology in pedodontics by Dr Savita Satyaprsad  ,KVG DENTAL COLL,SULLIA
Child psychology in pedodontics by Dr Savita Satyaprsad ,KVG DENTAL COLL,SULLIA
 
Psychoanalytic theory sigmundfreUd
Psychoanalytic theory sigmundfreUdPsychoanalytic theory sigmundfreUd
Psychoanalytic theory sigmundfreUd
 
Psychoanalytic theory by sheena bernal
Psychoanalytic theory by sheena bernalPsychoanalytic theory by sheena bernal
Psychoanalytic theory by sheena bernal
 
Child psychology by Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad.
Child psychology by Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad.Child psychology by Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad.
Child psychology by Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad.
 
Lesson 1_Personality Psych.ppt
Lesson 1_Personality Psych.pptLesson 1_Personality Psych.ppt
Lesson 1_Personality Psych.ppt
 
1589181759OWOEYE_ABUAD_PSYCHOLOGY_1.ppt
1589181759OWOEYE_ABUAD_PSYCHOLOGY_1.ppt1589181759OWOEYE_ABUAD_PSYCHOLOGY_1.ppt
1589181759OWOEYE_ABUAD_PSYCHOLOGY_1.ppt
 
kkkkkkkkkk.pptmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
kkkkkkkkkk.pptmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmkkkkkkkkkk.pptmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
kkkkkkkkkk.pptmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
 
Psychodynamic paradigm of abnormal behavior
Psychodynamic paradigm of abnormal behaviorPsychodynamic paradigm of abnormal behavior
Psychodynamic paradigm of abnormal behavior
 
FREUDkakkakakakakakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
FREUDkakkakakakakakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkFREUDkakkakakakakakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
FREUDkakkakakakakakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
 
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE NEW.pptx
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE   NEW.pptxBEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE   NEW.pptx
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE NEW.pptx
 
The-Psychoanalytic-Theory-of-Sigmund-Freud.pptx
The-Psychoanalytic-Theory-of-Sigmund-Freud.pptxThe-Psychoanalytic-Theory-of-Sigmund-Freud.pptx
The-Psychoanalytic-Theory-of-Sigmund-Freud.pptx
 
Theories of Counselling .pptx
Theories of Counselling            .pptxTheories of Counselling            .pptx
Theories of Counselling .pptx
 
Which one of the theories discussed in this weeks readings do y
Which one of the theories discussed in this weeks readings do yWhich one of the theories discussed in this weeks readings do y
Which one of the theories discussed in this weeks readings do y
 
Personality Disdorders by Daniel Asare
Personality Disdorders by Daniel AsarePersonality Disdorders by Daniel Asare
Personality Disdorders by Daniel Asare
 
summary table for theories of personalit
summary table for theories of personalitsummary table for theories of personalit
summary table for theories of personalit
 
PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY BY SIGMUND FREUD
PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY BY SIGMUND FREUDPSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY BY SIGMUND FREUD
PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY BY SIGMUND FREUD
 

More from jasleenbrar03

RIGHTS OF MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS.pptx
RIGHTS OF MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS.pptxRIGHTS OF MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS.pptx
RIGHTS OF MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS.pptx
jasleenbrar03
 
Principles of mental health nursing
Principles of mental health nursingPrinciples of mental health nursing
Principles of mental health nursing
jasleenbrar03
 
Circadian rhythms
Circadian rhythmsCircadian rhythms
Circadian rhythms
jasleenbrar03
 
Genetics in psychobiology
Genetics in psychobiologyGenetics in psychobiology
Genetics in psychobiology
jasleenbrar03
 
Toxic shock syndrome
Toxic shock syndromeToxic shock syndrome
Toxic shock syndrome
jasleenbrar03
 
Experimental research design
Experimental research designExperimental research design
Experimental research design
jasleenbrar03
 
Alcoholism
AlcoholismAlcoholism
Alcoholism
jasleenbrar03
 
Grief and grief reactions
Grief and grief reactionsGrief and grief reactions
Grief and grief reactions
jasleenbrar03
 
Psychiatric terminologies
Psychiatric terminologiesPsychiatric terminologies
Psychiatric terminologies
jasleenbrar03
 
Leadership in nursing
Leadership in nursingLeadership in nursing
Leadership in nursing
jasleenbrar03
 
Endo tracheal Suctioning
Endo tracheal SuctioningEndo tracheal Suctioning
Endo tracheal Suctioning
jasleenbrar03
 
Nursing records & reports
Nursing records & reportsNursing records & reports
Nursing records & reports
jasleenbrar03
 
Critical thinking in nursing
Critical thinking in nursingCritical thinking in nursing
Critical thinking in nursing
jasleenbrar03
 
Histrionic personality disorder
Histrionic personality disorderHistrionic personality disorder
Histrionic personality disorder
jasleenbrar03
 
Rhematoid arthiritis
Rhematoid arthiritisRhematoid arthiritis
Rhematoid arthiritis
jasleenbrar03
 
CAI & CAL
CAI & CALCAI & CAL
CAI & CAL
jasleenbrar03
 
Models of curriculum dvelopment
Models of curriculum dvelopmentModels of curriculum dvelopment
Models of curriculum dvelopment
jasleenbrar03
 
Nurse patient relationship and johari window
Nurse patient relationship and johari windowNurse patient relationship and johari window
Nurse patient relationship and johari window
jasleenbrar03
 
Standards, challenges and scope of psychiatric nursing
Standards, challenges and scope of psychiatric nursingStandards, challenges and scope of psychiatric nursing
Standards, challenges and scope of psychiatric nursing
jasleenbrar03
 
Infection control
Infection controlInfection control
Infection control
jasleenbrar03
 

More from jasleenbrar03 (20)

RIGHTS OF MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS.pptx
RIGHTS OF MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS.pptxRIGHTS OF MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS.pptx
RIGHTS OF MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS.pptx
 
Principles of mental health nursing
Principles of mental health nursingPrinciples of mental health nursing
Principles of mental health nursing
 
Circadian rhythms
Circadian rhythmsCircadian rhythms
Circadian rhythms
 
Genetics in psychobiology
Genetics in psychobiologyGenetics in psychobiology
Genetics in psychobiology
 
Toxic shock syndrome
Toxic shock syndromeToxic shock syndrome
Toxic shock syndrome
 
Experimental research design
Experimental research designExperimental research design
Experimental research design
 
Alcoholism
AlcoholismAlcoholism
Alcoholism
 
Grief and grief reactions
Grief and grief reactionsGrief and grief reactions
Grief and grief reactions
 
Psychiatric terminologies
Psychiatric terminologiesPsychiatric terminologies
Psychiatric terminologies
 
Leadership in nursing
Leadership in nursingLeadership in nursing
Leadership in nursing
 
Endo tracheal Suctioning
Endo tracheal SuctioningEndo tracheal Suctioning
Endo tracheal Suctioning
 
Nursing records & reports
Nursing records & reportsNursing records & reports
Nursing records & reports
 
Critical thinking in nursing
Critical thinking in nursingCritical thinking in nursing
Critical thinking in nursing
 
Histrionic personality disorder
Histrionic personality disorderHistrionic personality disorder
Histrionic personality disorder
 
Rhematoid arthiritis
Rhematoid arthiritisRhematoid arthiritis
Rhematoid arthiritis
 
CAI & CAL
CAI & CALCAI & CAL
CAI & CAL
 
Models of curriculum dvelopment
Models of curriculum dvelopmentModels of curriculum dvelopment
Models of curriculum dvelopment
 
Nurse patient relationship and johari window
Nurse patient relationship and johari windowNurse patient relationship and johari window
Nurse patient relationship and johari window
 
Standards, challenges and scope of psychiatric nursing
Standards, challenges and scope of psychiatric nursingStandards, challenges and scope of psychiatric nursing
Standards, challenges and scope of psychiatric nursing
 
Infection control
Infection controlInfection control
Infection control
 

Recently uploaded

How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
Celine George
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
Jean Carlos Nunes Paixão
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
Israel Genealogy Research Association
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
RAHUL
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
Katrina Pritchard
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
GeorgeMilliken2
 
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence PsychologyCognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
paigestewart1632
 
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
sayalidalavi006
 
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
PECB
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
amberjdewit93
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
adhitya5119
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Fajar Baskoro
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
Celine George
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
ak6969907
 
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
IreneSebastianRueco1
 
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHatAzure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Scholarhat
 
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICTSmart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
simonomuemu
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
 
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence PsychologyCognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
 
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
 
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
 
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
 
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHatAzure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
 
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICTSmart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
 

Freud theory

  • 2. Introduction  Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) born in Vienna was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis.
  • 3.  Sigmund Freud developed the best-known theory of personality focused upon internal growth or psychodynamics’. The theory stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires and motivation on thoughts and behavior. Freud psychoanalysis became both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic theory has three major parts:  A theory of the structure of personality, in which the id, ego and superego are the principal parts.  A theory of personality dynamics, in which conscious and unconscious motivation and ego- defense mechanisms play a major role.  A theory of psychosexual development, in which different motives and body regions influence the child at different stages of growth, with effects persisting in the form of adult personality traits.
  • 4. Structure of personality: Freud thought of personality as being based upon a structure of three parts: the id, the ego and the superego. ID – Pleasure EGO – Reality SUPEREGO – For perfection/ideal
  • 6. ID (primitive, instinctive component of personality) –  Latin word of Id is ‘It’ Id is the original source of personality, which is present in a newborn.  The Id, the most primitive part, can be thought of as a sort of storehouse of biologically based urges: to eat, drink, eliminate, and especially, to be sexually stimulated.  The sexual energy that underlies these urges is called the libido.  Id is present in the deepest level of the unconscious and represents the inner world of subjective experience.  It is unconcerned with objective reality and is unaffected by the environment Id is completely selfish; concerned with immediate gratification of instinctual needs, and the biological drives, like hunger, sex.
  • 7.  The id operates according to the pleasure principle, seeking to reduce tension, avoid pain, and obtain pleasure. In a formal gathering if a person is feeling very hungry and may start eating without the formal invitation for starting the meal or a student may start eating his lunch in the class when the teacher is teaching disregarding his classroom act as Id.  The pleasure principle attempts to reduce tension by wish fulfillment. In other words, it is referred to as primary process thinking. Whatever comes first in the person’s mind, he or she wants to satisfy that desire immediately.  If the demands of Id are blocked for a longer time, frustrations occur.
  • 8. Ego (the decision-making component) –  The Latin word of ego is ‘I’ which means ‘self’.  The ego acts as a mediator or balancer between the demands of Id and superego.  Ego is based on the Reality Principle.  Ego delays the discharge of tension. It postponed the desires. This adaptive measure of Ego is refereed as secondary process thinking.  Process Thinking – Ego waits for the right moment for the satisfaction of desire, whereas id satisfies desires immediately.  Ego develops from Id and works for Id. Ego is an executive, which mediate between the demands of id and realities of world and demands of super ego
  • 9. Functions of Ego –  Control and regulation of instinctual derives.  Relation to reality o Sense of reality o Reality testing o Adaptation to reality  Primary autonomous function o Perception o Thinking o Speaking o IQ o Memory  Intuition
  • 10. Superego (the moral component ) –  It is ideal rather than real.  The superego is that part of personality that represents internalized value, ideals and moral attitude of society.  It is outgrowth of learning the taboos and moral values of society. It is refer to conscience and is concerned with right and wrong.  It inhabits the ID desires. Sex and aggressive superego operates through the ego system and compel the ego to inhibit desires that are considering wrong or immoral.  Its psychiatric function is expresses as guilt, self- criticism and consciences.
  • 11.  Rewarding functions – ego ideal- superego develops with Oedipus complex. It strives for perfection. It is society himself. It is extreme of Id and it is for self-preservation by society norms.  Consciences: negative part of superego. It is developed by punishment, lack of reward, conditioning of childhood brings conscience. It gives guilt and self-criticism. Child takes or interjects the moral standards of parents.  Ego Ideal: It is rewarding function of superego. It is by positive reinforcement for i.e. copy, menu rimes of father or any beloved person.
  • 13. LEVELS OF CONSCIOUSNESS Conscious level Preconscious level Unconscious part
  • 14.  Conscious level, which relates to the awareness of an individual to his environment.  It function when the individual is awake.  It is concerned with thought, feelings and sensations, memory, IQ. Conscious as sense organ of attention. It is only 1/9 of total mind.  Through attention, person becomes conscious of perceptual stimuli from the outside world within the organism.  Only elements in pre conscious enter consciousness. It is one-way traffic to unconscious mind.  Conscious part of mind is aware of here and now as it relates individual and his environment.
  • 15.  Preconscious level is described as that part of mind in which ideas and reactions are stored and partially forgotten.  It also acts as a watchman because it prevents certain painful, unpleasant, unacceptable, distributing unconscious memories from reaching the conscious mind.  Slip of tongue, slip of pen. Preconscious region of mind is not present at birth but develops in childhood. It is accessible to both unconscious and conscious mind.  Elements of unconscious mind are accessible to conscious through preconscious. So, it works as censor for a person’s wishes and desires.
  • 16.  It is associated with mental activity i.e. secondary process of thinking. Aims of secondary thinking are to avoid unpleasantness and delaying instinctual discharge.  It respects logical connection. It is associated with reality principle. It works accordingly demands of external reality and person’s moral values etc.
  • 17.  Unconscious part is the largest part of mind (9/10).  It is hidden part of iceberg that floats under water. It contains repressed ideas and affects.  Elements of unconscious mind are in accessible to consciousness.  They become conscious only through preconscious mind. Repressed ideas may reach to consciousness when censor is over powered or relaxed (dream state).  It is storehouse for all the memories, feelings and responses experienced by the individual during his entire life.
  • 18.  Unconscious is associated with particular form of mental activities that is primary process – with fulfillment and instinctual discharge.  It is associated with pleasure principle. Primary process thinking has no conception of time, logic, circumstances and needs immediate gratification of their desires, which is very common in infancy.  Memories in unconscious mind lose their connection with verbal expressions.  They can reach consciousness once words are reapplied to forgotten memory.
  • 19. Psychosexual Development  Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages in which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving force behind behavior.  If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur.
  • 20.  According to Freud, all human being pass through a series of five psychosexual stages:  Oral stage 0 to 2 years – During the first year of life the mouth is the principal organ. Gratification is by sucking the breast of mother and bottle.  Anal stage 2 to 3 years – Membranes of the anal region provide pleasure. Not passing fecal matter also gives pleasure to the child.  Phallic stage 3 to 6 years – self-manipulation of the genital organs; the child also identifies group to which he belongs’; what is the difference between him and his younger sister.  Latency stage of 6 to 12 years – this is a stage of psychosexual development when overt sexual interest is repressed and sublimated. The child’s attention is focused on learning skills and other peer activities.  Genital stage – This is the final stage of psychosexual development reached in puberty when the deepest feelings of pleasure are said to come from heterosexual relations.
  • 21.
  • 22.  Freud believed that gratification during each stage in important if the individual is not to be fixated at that level.  A fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the individual will remain "stuck" in this stage.  For example, a person who is fixated at the oral stage may be over-dependent on others and may seek oral stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating.  A person fixated at the anal stage may be abnormally concerned with cleanliness and orderliness.
  • 23. Development of Personality:  First 6 years in a child’s life contribute the most to personality development. These years provide the foundation for future patterns of behavior.
  • 24. 1-Infancy -0 year to 18 months  Freud called it as oral stage because child’s libidinal energy is focused on his oral cavity.  Infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important.  Singular focus on self is referred as primary narcissism means self-love. 1st few months infant is not able to differentiate between him and environment.  He feels that he causes all that happens to him. This feeling of being all-powerful is called Omnipotence.  He is bundle of Id impulses. When need arises, tension is raised and he gets relief from this tension by using his mouth, lips and tongue to cry, suck and swallow. These activities give him pleasures.
  • 25.  Infant is depended on mother that meets his need for sucking and gets milk to swallow so his raised tension, which was caused by hunger, is over. Accidentally he finds his thumb and discovers that he can meet his need of sucking himself. Sucking his own thumb gives him pleasure but it also gives experience that it is different from mother. Through this simple realization infant differentiate himself from environment. So ego develops.  With weaning child is forced to recognize reality and its demands. When weaning start, infant receives less oral satisfaction. When cup or solid food is substituted for the breast or bottle, infant feels frustration. He reacts to it in an aggressive, destructive way and begins to bite.
  • 26.  He may seek symbolic oral gratification by sucking and biting others, teeth provides tool for oral aggression because love and food are given simultaneously during oral period.  Oral needs become synonyms with protective love and security by closed mother child relationship. When child gets love and food by loving mother unconditionally, he learns to trust her.  Basic sense of trust in mother starts which is a basis for future trusting relationship.
  • 27.  If child’s experience with mother is anxious and conditional he learns to mistrust her. So this basic mistrust gives paranoid idea in adult hood.  Maternal Depression cause personality disorder  Mask mothering or rejection cause schizophrenia in later life.  Oral fixation personality relieves their tension by excessive eating or drinking alcohol so they become drunkard.  Mistrust cause suspicious nature and paranoid personality disorder.
  • 28. 2-Early Childhood:  Anal phase/(1 year to 3 year). Freud called it as anal phase because libidinal energy shifts from oral cavity to anus and urethra. Child gratifies his love of self with the pleasurable sensation involved in evacuation of bladder and bowel without restriction. He drives his greatest pleasure from anus and urethra.  Superego develops when mother begins to insist that child should have certain control regarding toileting. He faces his 1st major frustration of his Id drives. To retain the love of his mother the child must learn to post-pone the immediate pleasure of urinating or evacuation until appropriate time and place are available. Child starts having ambivalent feelings towards her. If his toilet training is very strict and mother insists him to be clean he may grow up to be compulsive or dissolve his anxiety by reaction formation and become very untidy and unconcerned about cleanliness in his adult life.
  • 29.  According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes. Rigid toilet training include stubbornness, excessive concern with bowel function and sadistic.  Strict toilet training gives rise to O.C.N. personality, perfectionist, stubborn, sadistic etc. If parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality.  If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.
  • 30. 3-Later childhood –Phallic stage (3-6year)  Freud called this period the phallic stage.  Pleasurable sensations shifted from mouth and excretory organs to the genitalia and child begins to identify with parents of same sex and wishes to replace that parent in family situation.  They begin to examine their own bodies and others. They get pleasure sensation from manipulation of penis or clitoris.  Difference between sexual structure of men and woman is of great interest to them. They feel that girl has lost that organ. Anxiety about loss of sex organs developed. It is called Castration anxiety.
  • 31.  A little girl notice that she has no penis and concludes that she has lost it or it has been taken away. This attitude is called penis envy. It is sometime basic to the problems of sibling rivalry.  Little boy begins to feel very possessive towards mother. He wants her for himself and resents the close tie that he feels exists between his mother and father. He develops competitive feeling towards his father and tries to become a rival with him for his mother’s love. But father figure is great opponent and child has fear of him. This situation is called Oedipus complex. He fears that father may punish him.
  • 32.  So he resolves this anxiety by becoming like his father, he can get mother’s love and attention. He begins to take on masculine behaviour of his father. This is called identification.  Similarly little girl begins to identify with feminine role. If there is arrival of another child if increase their problems. Sibling rivalry usually develops. Super ego development also develops at its height.
  • 33. 4- Latency- 6-12 yrs  Freud refers it as latency stage.  During the latent period, the libido interests are suppressed.  The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm.  The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests.  The latent period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions.  This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence. Temporary intra- psychic equilibrium established by id, ego and super ego.
  • 34. 5-Puberty/ adolescence/ genital stage 12-18  Sexual glands are developing in this stage.  Libidinal energy is focused on genital organs.  Satisfactory hetrosexual relationship with a mate should develop.  It is a problematic stage of personality. He is drawn towards parents and driven away from parent, which cause ambivalence, which comes in the form of conflict.
  • 35. Defense Mechanisms/ Ego Mechanisms  Defenses are unconscious mental process that ego uses to resolve conflicts among instincts (wish or need}. When defense is most effective they abolish anxiety and depression. Defenses are dynamic and reversible.  Ego defense mechanisms are mental mechanism, used when individual unconsciously experiences a basic conflict between id-impulses and demands of superego.  The ego unconsciously uses some of its energy to initiate a defense mechanism that effect a compromise between id and super ego, thereby relieving anxiety. Sullivan, those called into play when anxiety is a response to a threat to the self- concept, calls another form of mental mechanism security operation.  They act without awareness of the individual employing them. Use of mental mechanism is healthy and lowers/reduce the anxiety and It is a normal process of adjustment. Method of self-protection is by Ego Mechanisms.
  • 36.  COMPENSATION: Compensation a pattern of adaptive behaviors by which anxiety from feeling of inadequacy or weakness is relieved as individual emphasizes of intensive training of some personal or social attribute that over shadows his inadequacy and gain social approval .It can be seen in infant who substitute his thumb for nipple to relieve tension and compensate for some pleasurable sensation of sucking.  A Polio child can be an artist and painter or develop his muscles of upper limbs and becomes archery expert.
  • 37.  DISPLACEMENT: When an individual unconsciously believes he would be in great danger of that person knew his feelings about same person. He discharge of feelings on to a person or object entirely different from the one to which they actually belong. He displaces his emotion to other person or object which is less anxiety producing. Example {1}; -Teacher, who is angry with supervisor, cannot show his feelings but reacts with unreasonable anger when a student breaks a windowpane. Actually teacher has unconsciously substituted the student for supervisor and displaced his feelings. Example {2}; -Husband got annoyed with boss came home, scolds the wife unnecessarily and wife beats the child when he ask for a sweet. In this emotional feeling is transferred to person or object that is less dangerous than who initially aroused the emotion.
  • 38.  SUBLIMATION: In mechanism of sublimation the energy involved in anxiety produced primitive impulses is unconsciously redirected into constructive and socially acceptable channels. It is one of positive adaptation to anxiety and responsible for much of artistic and cultural achievements of civilized people. It is when woman redirects her sexual desires into successful career of poetess. Example {1}; - Maha Devi Verma and Tulsi dass are example of this sublimation. Tulsidass after scolded by his wife, turned his psychic energy / libido energy into poetry. Sublimation is a positive mechanism in which the primitive impulses are transferred or directed to a socially useful goal. Unacceptable desires find an acceptable out let. Example {2}; - Man with strong sex desire utilize in painting a nude woman.
  • 39.  SUBSTITUTION: Mechanism used to reduce tension resulting from frustration. Substituting action must have certain similarities to the frustrated one. Example {1}; a student who has not been able to get admission in M.B.B.S. may try to substitute it with other course of physiotherapy or Nursing.
  • 40.  FIXATIONS: It is arrest of emotional development at a stage. Fixation refers to the point in the individual’s development at certain aspects of emotional development cease to advance. Further development is blocked. They cannot bypass that phase, he is always handicapped in proceeding to the stages that follow. Example {1}; Child who is not breast-fed and did not get love and security, he will achieve gratification through oral cavity. He may overeat, or take huge quantity of alcohol and becomes drunkard. They are called as oral personality individual. Thumb sucking in adult life is an example of it.
  • 41.  DENIAL:. It is a process where the individual truly does not recognize the existence of an event or feeling. Denial is used in Schizophrenia. It is often seen as a reaction of the healthy person when he is confronted by a disastrous situation. Example {1}-Sudden death of husband in road accident but wife refused to accept it. She says that he had breakfast with me, you are mistaken. Please excuse me. In cardiac case or cancer, it is a response to sudden passive amount of anxiety. Denial is not lying; individual does not accept existence of something that’s disturbing.
  • 42.  IDENTIFICATION: It useful mechanism because it plays a large part in development of a child personality. Through this process individual defends against anxiety resulting from feeling of inadequacy by unconsciously taking on desirable attributes found in people for whom he has admiration and affection. He integrates these attributes into his own personality. Example {1}- A child takes on masculine attributes that he admires in his father. Another form of identification is observed when an individual develops unreasonable sympathy for a criminal because of an unconscious sense of guilt.
  • 43.  INTROJECTIONS: Mechanism of introjections is closely related to identification. Introjection tends to replace all or part of personality. Introjection is that entire personality of a second person has been incorporated and has replaced the original personality. Introjections may operate in a less constructive way than identification. Example {1}- Psychotic patient acts as Moses, his own personality had given up. A depressed person may have unconsciously incorporated another person and attempt to commit suicide to kill the interjected person whom he unconsciously hates. Example {2}- After marriage lady takes all values of husband and thinks its own. she incorporate the personality of her husband.
  • 44.  ISOLATION: Where feelings are detached from the event in the individual’s memory, enabling the person to recall the event without anxiety. It is found in (OCN) compulsive personality. They value efficiency, cleanliness and punctuality Example {1}- giving death pack to a patient without any emotions by nursing staff.
  • 45.  RATIONALIZATION: Rationalization is a mental mechanism that is almost universally employed. It is an attempt to make his behavior as result of logical thinking rather than result of unconscious desires that are anxiety producing. It is a face saving device that may or may not deal with the actual truth. Rationalization is almost unconscious avoidance. It relieves anxiety temporarily but not an effective mechanism of adjustment because it helps the person to avoid facing the reality. Person gives logical excuse. Student says that due to sickness she could not pass. It is” grapes are sour mechanism.”  Example {1}-Alcoholic will say that due to lack of sleep, he take drinks.  Example {2}-Paranoid patient will say that people are after me because I have lot of money.
  • 46.  REGRESSION: {Hebephrenic , depression} Regression occurs when an individual is faced with anxiety from a conflict, that cannot to solved by using the adaptive mechanism with which he used to solve problems. In such a situation, he may unconsciously return to the patterns of behavior appropriate to an earlier developmental stage. Any retreat into a state of dependency on others to avoid facing acute problems “Crying on someone shoulder” is symbolic of infants seeking comfort on maternal bosom.  Example {1}- When a grown up girl failed and cries, lies on floor and have tamper tantrum. It is found in Hebephrenic Schizophrenia when patient regress backs into infant stage. He smears his hands with own stool.
  • 47.  REPRESSION: Painful experiences unacceptable thoughts and impulses are dismissed from conscious mind to unconscious mind. During child hood they are repressed and becomes unconscious source of emotional conflict in later life. Selfish, hostile, sexual feeding are repressed. Such repression cause internal conflict.  Example {1}-Mother’s death and trauma was repressed in unconscious mind. These Repressed conflicts may come out through conversion into physical symptoms. This is common in Hysteria and Hypochondrias
  • 48.  PROJECTION : Projection is transferring the responsibility for unacceptable ideas, wishes or thoughts to another person when individual’s own aggressive thoughts are unacceptable to him and cause anxiety, he blames some one else for it. It is used in paranoid, he is suspicious about infidelity of his wife when actually he lack of fidelity in his mind. Example {1}- Student blame the teacher that he has failed me. I have done well but he has some thing against me, so he has failed me. Example {2}- Paranoid person may project his own inner hate of others by saying that group of people is plotting to kill him or intending to exploit him.
  • 49.  CONVERSION: Conversion refers to the expression of emotional conflict through physical symptoms for which there is no organic basis. It is preceded after repression. All painful experience repressed into unconscious mind when the conflict reappears as physical symptoms, pt. is not aware of connection between two pheromones. Although physical symptoms is symbolically related to the nature of conflict. This symptom always serves to distract attention from his real problem. He gains two ways.  His anxiety is relieved (primary gain).  He gains attention and sympathy of others (secondary gain).  Example {1}- A child who sees the conflicts between parents, both of them loves him. He became blind. Example {2}- A soldier who loves his country but don’t like killings, get paralysis of right hand. So he is not able to pull the trigger. Example {2}- A child who has to go to boarding next day. He got paralysis of legs. So she is saved from going away from parents and get attention also. It is used in hysteria.
  • 50.  SYMBOLIZATION AND CONDENSATION. Symbol is an idea or object used by conscious mind in lieu of actual idea or object. Instinctual desires may appear through symbols, the meanings of which are not clear to conscious mind. Example {1}- “Phallic symbolism of large automobiles serves to reassure this individual about his adequacy as a male. Symbols are the language of unconscious mind, such symbols appear in dreams or fantasy. Condensations represent a wide range of anxiety producing ideas that become lumped together. When they rise to conscious level they take the form of an apparently incoherent jumble of words, real meaning of which is hidden in the unconscious mind. Example {1}-In schizophrenic patient has irrational language. This condensation has meaning for themselves only (word salad).
  • 51.  REACTION FORMATION: When individual experiences anxieties resulting from unconscious feeling that are unacceptable to him and relieve the anxiety by doing in a may that is directly opposite to which he really feels. Example {1}- People who behave extremely friendly and polite have unconscious feelings of anger and hatred. These true feelings may be evident in slips of tongue. Example {2}- Reaction formation develops out of rigid toilet training experience. He wants love of his mother but don’t want to expel the stool and enjoy anal retention. If he does not expel mother is angry with him so he does against his wish and expel it to gain love of mother. Example {3}- OCN person may be very untidy unorganized in adult life because his mother was very strict to cleanliness. He will do opposite what he wants to do really.
  • 52. Summarization  Introduction  Structure of personality  Level of consciousness  Psychosexual development  Defense mechanisms
  • 53. Bibliography  Michael W. Eyesenck & cara Flanagan.Psychology for A2 Level;[1];306-24  Fernald/Fernald. Munn’s Introduction to Psychology. [5];241-65  Carole Wade, Carol Tavris. Psychology.[8];407-15  Clifford T. Morgan, Richard A. King, John R. Weisz, John Schopler. Introduction to Psychology;[8]64-87