Theory of personality (altntv)


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Theory of personality (altntv)

  1. 1. Chapter 3Theories of Personality Dr. Mary Streit Suffolk Community College
  2. 2. Chapter 3- Personality is defined as: the enduring or lasting patterns of behavior and thought (across time and situation).In this chapter we will discuss the following personality theories: 1. Trait theory (Cattell, Allport) 2. Sigmund Freud: Psychodynamic theoryThe Neo-Freudians: 3. Carl Jung: Analytical psychology 4. Alfred Adler: Individual psychology 5. Karen Horney: Feminine psychology
  3. 3. Chapter 3 - Personality6. Behavioral theory: B.F. Skinner andoperant conditioning7. The Humanistic theory: a. Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of needs b. Carl Rogers: Person-centered therapy8. Cognitive: Albert Bandura’s Social learning theory9. Biological theories of personality
  4. 4. Chapter 3Trait theory uses two different methods of research: Idiographic approach: defines traits by studying individuals in depth and focuses on the distinctive qualities of their personalities (Gordon Allport) Nomothetic approach: studies groups of people in the attempt to identify personality traits that tend to appear in clusters. This approach uses the statistical technique called factor analysis (Raymond Cattell)
  5. 5. Chapter 31. Trait theory. Gordon Allport. Considered patterns of traits to be the unique attributes of individuals. Allport conducted thorough and detailed studies of individuals in depth, often through long-term case studies. His idiographic research led him to conclude that all people have certain traits, or dispositions, that are the building blocks of personality (1937, 1961, 1965, 1966). Can you think of some of the traits that are unique attributes of who you are? Lets make a list.
  6. 6. Chapter 3Examples of Individual traits- Honesty- Kindness- Compassion- Courage- Loyalty- Responsible- Social- Talkative- Sensitive
  7. 7. Chapter 3Allport described three different types of traits: 1. Cardinal traits: Traits that are so much a part of who the person is, you can define the person by the trait (e.g. – Honest Abe Lincoln) 2. Central traits: Major characteristics of our personality such as: sensitivity, honesty, and generosity. These traits are quite generalized and enduring, and it is these traits that form the building blocks of our personality. Allport found that most people could be characterized by a fairly small number of central traits (usually five to ten). 3. Secondary traits: less generalized and far less enduring traits that affect our behaviors in specific circumstances. Examples include our dress style preferences.
  8. 8. Chapter 3 - PersonalityApply your learning.Allport would consider the list of traits we made together as a class to be:a. Cardinal traitsb. Secondary traitsc. Surface traitsd. Central traits
  9. 9. Chapter 3 - PersonalityRaymond Cattell also began his work by identifying certain obvious personality traits, such as integrity, friendliness, and tidiness (1950, 1965, 1973, 1982). He called these dimensions of personality surface traits. Cattell then obtained extensive data about surface traits from a large number of people ( nomothetic approach). Statistical analysis of these data revealed that certain surface traits seemed to occur in clusters or groups. Cattell theorized that these clusters indicated a single underlying trait. Cattell derived a list of 16 primary or source traits that he considered to be at the center or core of personality. He listed each of these traits as a pair of polar opposites (16PF).
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  11. 11. Chapter 3 - PersonalityTrait theory.Hans Eysenck (1906-1997). Disagreed with Allport and Cattell. He believed that there are only two major dimensions to personality: 1. Intraversion-Extraversion 2. Neuroticism-Stability
  12. 12. Chapter 3 - PersonalityThe five-factor theory of personality by McCrae and Costa (1997) is the most recent addition to trait theory. They believe in five core dimensions: Openness to Experience–creative & willing to try new things Conscientiousness – reliable, responsible, thorough, dependable, hard-working Extraversion – outgoing, social, active, talkative Agreeableness – easy to get along with, pleasant, sympathetic, warm, cooperative Neuroticism – emotional stabilityAcronym: OCEANClick on the link below to see how you score on their test!
  13. 13. Chapter 3 - PersonalityProblems with trait theory:- Circular reasoning: Which comes first the behavior, or the trait?- Lack of situational consistency (Mischel)- No explanation for what causes these many different traits to occur- Lack of agreement on the number and type of traits
  14. 14. Chapter 3 – Personality: Matching Reviewa. Believed in the existence of cardinal traits: “honest 1. Gordon Allport Abe” 2. Raymond Cattellb. Proposed the most recent five factor model of trait theory 3. Hans Eynseckc. Advocated the nomothetic approach by analyzing 4. McCrae & Costa large groups of people and using factor analysis 5. Secondary traitsd. Distinguished between surface and source traits 6. Surface traitse. Believed in only two underlying dimensions to human 7. Source traits personality: introversion – extroversion; and 8. Central traits neuroticism-stability 9. Cardinal traitsf. Believed there are 16 personality factorsg. Advocated the idiographic approach by studying individuals in depth using case studiesh. Allport’s name for a trait that changes in different situations – e.g. – style of clothingi. Allport’s name for the traits that most of us have that make us unique. He believed most people have about 5 of these types of traits.j. Cattell’s name for the traits that most of us have that make up the larger personality factors.k. Believed in Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism as the most important traits
  15. 15. Chapter 3 - Personality Sigmund Freud MD (neurologist) Psychodynamic Theory Vienna, Austria (1856-1939). Techniques used: hypnosis, catharsis, dream- analysis, free-association, parapraxes Freudian slips or parapraxes – everything we do and say, even by accident, has hidden meaning Believed in the importance of the “unconscious” mind
  16. 16. Chapter 3 - Personality“unconscious” forces are animalisticsexual/aggressive drives that motivate most ofhuman behaviorThese “unconscious” drives operate withoutconscious awareness. This is because ourunconscious desires are too difficult or toopainful to face directlyFreud referred to these unconscious motivescollectively as the “id”Freud believed there is a reason behindeverything we do
  17. 17. Chapter 3 - PersonalityThe three major forces of the psyche are the: 1. Id = unconscious = pleasure principle- Primary process thinking: wish fulfillment- Thanatos – aggressive /Eros - sexual- I want it now! Instant gratification- Are we an id driven society?- Part of the iceberg that is submerged underwater 2. Ego = conscious = reality principle- What are the real-world consequences of my actions?- secondary process thinking: reality testing- part of the iceberg that is above water and aware of reality 3. Superego = preconscious = morality principle- What is the proper way to behave? Mom/Dad/Society- Ego-ideal: shoulds- Conscience: should nots- Part of the iceberg that is just under the water but can sometimes surface
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  20. 20. Chapter 3 - Personality How would the id, ego, and superego respond to the following dilemma?Should you go out with yourfriends to a great party, orshould you stay home andstudy for your psychologyexam tomorrow?
  21. 21. Chapter 3 - PersonalityFreud’s psychodynamic theory can be summed up quite nicely with the visual image of a driver and a horse- drawn carriage with two horses.- Imagine the horse on the right is called “Id” and keeps pulling to the right to go down Pleasure Road- The horse on the left is called “Superego” and keeps pulling to the left to go down Morality Way.- The drivers name is “ego” and his job is to keep both horses traveling straight ahead on the road called Reality.**Extra credit for the artist: draw me a picture**
  22. 22. Chapter 3 – PersonalityWhich horse is the Id? Superego?
  23. 23. Chapter 3 - PersonalityFreud’s Psychosexual Stages.- According to Freud, as we age, different parts of the body are used to fuel the id with pleasure (libido = energy source).1. Birth – 1 ½ years: Oral stage gratification is gained by oral stimulation (Breastfeeding).2. 1 ½ - 3 years old: Anal stage pleasure is gained by being able to control feces. (Potty-training)
  24. 24. Chapter 3 - Personality3. 3 – 6 years old: Phallic stage: awakening of sexuality a. Oedipus complex for boys: when a male child wants to kill his father so he can have sex with his mother. (from the Greek tragedy “Oedipus Rex” by Sophocoles) - Freud believed boys would eventually overcome this conflict by identifying and bonding with the father. b. Electra complex for girls: girls are jealous of their father because they don’t have a penis, and they really want one (from Greek myth of “Electra” who plotted with her brother “Orestes” to kill their mother “Clytemnestra”). - Freud believed that the only possible way for a girl to overcome this conflict would be to become pregnant with a male child
  25. 25. Chapter 3 - Personality4. 6-12 years old: Latency stage pleasure is gained through same-sex peer friendships5. 12+ years old: Genital stage: pleasure is gained through sexual intercourse with non-relatives
  26. 26. Chapter 3 - Personality Fixation. Freud believed that you can get stuck or fixated at a stage if you were either under or over stimulated during this stage. According to Freud, personality traits are attached to these types of individuals.A few examples: Oral fixation: nail biters, gum chewers, smokers, etc. Overly optimistic, dependent, and passive. Anal retentive: Excessive need for order, control and neatness. (modern day OCD) Anal expulsive: emotionally volatile, unstable, spiteful and vindictive
  27. 27. Chapter 3 – PersonalityDefense Mechanisms: 1. Protect the ego from anxiety due to the unconscious starting to break through to the conscious 2. Deny or distort reality 3. Operate unconsciously 4. Cause people who are using them to be absolutely convinced of the correctness of their viewpoint. 5. can be healthy IF used in moderation. 6. Were originally developed by Anna Freud (she never married).
  28. 28. Chapter 3 - PersonalityDefense Mechanisms. Denial: blocking external events from awareness. If a situation is too much to handle, the person refuses to experience it. Examples: the failure to recognize the death of a loved one, or students who fail to find out their test grades!  [ you know who you are] Repression: not being able to recall a threatening situation, person, or event. Example: someone almost drowns as a child, but cant remember the event even when people try to remind him -- but he does have a fear of open water! [many fears and phobias] Displacement: the redirection of an impulse onto a safer substitute target. For example, someone who hates his or her mother may repress that hatred and direct it instead towards women in general. Projection: the tendency to see your own unacceptable desires in other people. Examples: A faithful husband finds himself terribly attracted to the lady next door. Rather than acknowledge his own feelings, he becomes increasingly jealous of his wife, constantly worried about her faithfulness.
  29. 29. Chapter 3 - PersonalityReaction formation: what Anna Freud called "believing theopposite“. Changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite.Example: “I hate Mom” becomes “I really love Mom a lot!!!”. Theindividual will often go above and beyond in their expression of lovein order to alleviate feelings of guilt and anxiety.Regression: a movement back in psychological time when one isfaced with stress. When we are troubled or frightened, ourbehaviors often become more childish or primitive. A child maybegin to suck their thumb again or wet the bed.Rationalization: the cognitive distortion of "the facts" to make animpulse more acceptable. We do it often enough on a fairlyconscious level when we provide ourselves with excuses. Many ofus are quite prepared to believe our lies.Sublimation: the transforming of an unacceptable impulse, whetherit be sex, anger, or fear, into a socially acceptable and productiveform. So someone with a great deal of hostility may become ahunter, a butcher, a football player, or a mercenary. For Freud, allpositive creative activities were sublimations mostly of the sex drive.
  30. 30. Chapter 3 - PersonalityLimitations of Freud’s theory:- Untestable: How can you objectively measure the “unconscious”? Does not follow the scientific method.- Almost all of his case studies were upper-class Austrian women: sample bias?- Viewed women as inferior- Did not allow for prediction of future behaviors- Placed too much emphasis on early childhood experiences in shaping personality
  31. 31. Chapter 3 – PersonalityWhen a student asked him what the significance ofhis cigar was, Freud replied “sometimes a cigar is just a cigar”.
  32. 32. Chapter 3 - PersonalityNeo-Freudians: students of Freud who eventually started their own school of thought due to major disagreements with some of Freud’s ideas.Carl Jung: 1875-1961. (pronounced – Young).- Analytical psychology- Born in Switzerland, trained as a psychiatrist- Believed Freud placed too much emphasis on sexuality as a motive for behavior
  33. 33. Chapter 3 - PersonalityFamous quote: “Anyone who wants to know the human psyche will learn next to nothing from experimental psychology. He would be better advised to abandon exact science, put away his scholars gown, bid farewell to his study, and wander with human heart throughout the world. There in the horrors of prisons, lunatic asylums and hospitals, in drab suburban pubs, in brothels and gambling-hells, in the salons of the elegant, the Stock Exchanges, socialist meetings, churches, revivalist gatherings and ecstatic sects, through love and hate, through the experience of passion in every form in his own body, he would reap richer stores of knowledge than text-books a foot thick could give him, and he will know how to doctor the sick with a real knowledge of the human soul”. -- Carl Jung
  34. 34. Chapter 3 - PersonalityJung’s Analytical Psychology broke the unconscious down further into 2 parts: a. Personal unconscious (similar to Freud’s id) b. Collective unconscious ** (new concept) collective unconscious: a kind of universal memory bank that contains all the ancestral memories, images, symbols, and ideas that humankind has accumulated throughout time Jung used the term collective to stress that the content of this part of the unconscious mind is the same for all humans – it is genetic. He placed particular emphasis on one key component of the collective unconscious called archetypes, which consist of powerful, emotionally charged, universal images or concepts that are inherited or passed down from generation to generation
  35. 35. Chapter 3 - PersonalityThe four main Jungian archetypes are: the self the shadow or the dark side of the human psyche the anima (the female counterpart to the male psyche) and the animus (the male counterpart to the female psyche).
  36. 36. Chapter 3 - PersonalityOther popular Jungian archetypes and examples from our culture are: “The hero” – as seen in figures like Batman, Luke Skywalker, Neo, Beowulf, Jesus; “The Warrior” – as seen in historical figures such as Gladiators, samurai, Ninja, Vikings, and Knights; “The Trickster” – as seen in figures such as: Bugs Bunny, The Tramp (Charlie Chaplin), the devil, and Bart Simpson; “The Wise Old Man” – as seen in popular figures such as Merlin, Yoda, Gandalf, Chef from South Park, The Owl from Winnie the Pooh, and Dumbledore from Harry Potter; “The Anima” – as seen in the PlayStation2 video game Final Fantasy X, Rush’s song “Animate” from the album Counterparts, and Joni Mitchell’s song “Don’t Interrupt the Sorrow”. Can you think of a few others examples for each?
  37. 37. Chapter 3 - Personality For example: According to Jung, we create war and conflict in order to fulfill the needs of the collective unconscious.We need the hero! We need the villain! According to Jung, these are all archetypes that have been inherited from our ancestors**Question: Does history repeats itself because of the collective unconscious and the archetypes?
  38. 38. Chapter 3 - PersonalityAlfred Adler: Individual psychology.1870-1937 (Vienna, Austria): MD (opthamologist).“Behind everyone who behaves as if he were superior to others, we can suspect a feeling of inferiority which calls for very special efforts of concealment. It is as if a man feared that he was too small and walked on his toes to make himself seem taller.“ - Alfred Adler
  39. 39. Chapter 3 - PersonalityAdler came to believe in the importance of “feelings ofinferiority” in motivating human behaviorTo be a human being," he wrote, "means to feel oneselfinferior." Adler believed that inferiority feelings are the sourceof all human striving. All individual progress, growth anddevelopment result from the attempt to compensate for onesinferiorities.Style of life = an individuals unique pattern of “striving forsuperiority” to overcome feelings of inferiorityInferiority complex - When an inability to overcomeinferiority feelings heightens and intensifies them.
  40. 40. Chapter 3 - PersonalityHow many of you have ever felt unattractive? like youdont belong somewhere? Not strong or fit enough? Notsmart enough? Not good enough in some way? Doesthe media today fuel these feelings?According to Adler, everyone is trying to overcomesomething that is preventing them from becoming whatthey want to become. What are you trying to overcome?
  41. 41. Chapter 3 - PersonalityBiographical information: “Adler was the 2nd of 6 children.He couldnt walk until he was 4 years old due to rickets.He also suffered from pneumonia and was hit by a car atage 5. His older brother Sigmund often teased andtormented him. Adler recalls ‘feeling small, unattractive,and rejected, like he was in constant competition with hisolder brother”. believe that Adler’s childhood experiences had amajor influence on his theory (remember the method ofthe time was called….???)Adler believed that birth order was one of the majorchildhood social influences from which the individualcreates a “style of life”. What do you think? Does beingthe oldest make things harder? easier? How about theyoungest? Middle child?
  42. 42. Chapter 3 - PersonalityAdler disagreed with Freud about:- the emphasis on sexuality- the importance of the unconscious- “a stream of consciousness” – Adler believed that all three parts of the psyche are constantly interacting & do NOT act alone.- While Adler believed our childhood experiences were important, he also believed in what he called “teleology” or being motivated towards future goals.- Alder felt Freud placed too much emphasis on the past. Some consider Adler the forefather of humanism.
  43. 43. Chapter 3 - PersonalityKaren Horney. 1885 – 1952. nee Hamburg, GermanyStudied to be an MD. In 1909 she entered the Universityof Freiburg [very unusual for a woman]Feminine psychology. Argued strongly against Freud’snotion of both the Oedipus and Electra complexDisagreed with Freud’s psychosexual stagesDid not accept Freud’s division of the psyche into the id,ego, and superegoCountered Freud’s idea of “penis envy” with what shecalled “womb envy”Agreed with Freud on the importance of the unconsciousand early childhoodBelieved that personality could continue to develop andchange throughout life
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  45. 45. Chapter 3 - Personality Horney believed “neurosis” to be a continuous process - with neuroses commonly occurring at many different points in a persons life.Key Terms. basic anxiety: the insecurity that results when children perceive their parents as indifferent, harsh, disapproving, or inconsistent in their responsiveness basic hostility: a deep resentment toward the parents that arises from basic anxiety and motivates one of three different coping strategies or patterns of interacting with others that she believed to be ineffective: 1. Moving against others: dominating others 2. Moving away from others: withdrawal from others, self-focus, aloof, isolation 3. Moving toward others: being overly compliant, driven by the need to please and gain approval from others Horney believed that for both men and women to be healthy, they need to let go of the irrational neurotic need to be prefect  !!
  46. 46. Chapter 3 – Personality: Freud and the Neo-Freudians Matching Review1. Believed in the importance of unconscious sexual a. Sigmund Freud and aggressive urges b. Anna Freud2. Came up with the concept of womb envy c. Alfred Adler3. Originated the defense mechanisms d. Karen Horney4. The part of the psyche that is in touch with reality e. Carl Jung5. The part of the psyche that is unconscious f. The id6. The part of the psyche that is concerned about g. The ego being perfect/doing right h. The superego7. Neo-Freudian who came up with the concept of the i. Fixation “inferiority complex” j. Oral stage8. Neo-Freudian who further subdivided the id into the k. Anal stage personal and collective unconscious l. Phallic stage9. Getting stuck in a phase of development due to m. Latency stage either over or under stimulation during childhood n. Genital stage10. The psychosexual stage described as gaining gratification through being able to control one’s bowels or feces11. The psychosexual stage that occurs from 3-6 years of age.
  47. 47. Chapter 3 - Review1. The conflict young boys go through a. the oral stage between 3-6 yrs of age b. The anal stage2. The conflict young girls go through c. The phallic stage between 3-6 yrs of age d. The latency stage3. The psychosexual stage that occurs between 6-12 years of age. e. The genital stage4. The psychosexual stage that occurs f. The Oedipus conflict between birth and 1 ½ yrs of age g. The Electra conflict5. Began analytical psychology h. Alfred Adler6. Began feminine psychology i. Karen Horney7. Began individual psychology j. Carl Jung8. Used concepts such as “basic k. archetypes hostility” and “basic anxiety”9. powerful, emotionally charged, universal images or concepts10. Believed in the importance of birth order
  48. 48. Chapter 3 – Personality Matching Review: Defense Mechanisms1. The redirection of an impulse onto a safer substitute target a. Denial2. Identifying unacceptable feelings in others that are b. Repression truly your own (jealous of wife when true problem c. Displacement is you are considering cheating) d. Projection3. Being unwilling to accept reality because it is too e. Sublimation difficult or painful f. Reaction4. Not being able to recall a threatening person, formation situation, or event g. Rationalization5. A cognitive distortion of the facts – or excuse h. regression making.6. the transforming of an unacceptable impulse, whether it be sex, anger, or fear, into a socially acceptable and productive form such as writing or art.7. Changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite8. a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress (e.g. – thumb sucking when you are 7yrs old).
  49. 49. Chapter 3 - Personality6. Behavioral theory.- Burrhus Frederic Skinner [1904-1990]- Operant conditioning- Focused on the overt or observable behavior- the consequences that follow a behavior were seen as critical determinants of future behavior A behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus results in an increased probability of that behavior occurring in the future [reinforcement]. A behavior no longer followed by the reinforcing stimulus results in a decreased probability of that behavior occurring in the future [extinction]. Skinner did much of his research with animals such as pigeons and rats video clip
  50. 50. Chapter 3 - Personality Disagreed with the concept of free-will Why are you taking this class? Was it your free- will? Invented the “Skinner box” – used primarily to train rats Believed in the importance of the use of reinforcement Discovered the different schedules of reinforcement and shaping [baby steps] the cat video
  51. 51. Chapter 3 - PersonalityApplications of Skinner’s theory to the real worldare many [applied research]Operant conditioning is so effective that manypsychologists were concerned about who shouldbe given this informationFor example: It has been used to train pigeonsto play ping-pong & cats to flush the toilet!Thoughts?Just remember the expression“mall rat” starts here! 
  52. 52. Chapter 3 - Personality7. Humanistic psychology. focused on uniquely human issues such as: the self, health, hope, love, creativity, nature, and individuality. Believed in innate goodness – born good Derived somewhat from existentialism: a strong belief in free-will and conscious rational decision-making Arose in reaction to behaviorism and psychodynamic theory
  53. 53. Chapter 3 - PersonalityTwo major figures in humanistic psychology were:1. Abraham Maslow and2. Carl RogersWe will first look at the core beliefs of Maslow.
  54. 54. Chapter 3 - Personality Maslow developed his famous “Hierarchy of Needs”Differentiated between Deficiency needs and Growth needs: Deficiency needs are the bottom four levels in the hierarchy: these needs must be met or filled before other growth needs can take over Maslow believed deficiency needs must be met in order of the hierarchy – e.g. – physiological 1st, safety 2nd, etc.
  55. 55. Chapter 3 - PersonalityGrowth needs or being needs – the highest motive inthe hierarchy for human behavior. This motive takesover only when all other deficiency needs are metSome growth needs that Maslow discussed are:- Truth, rather than dishonesty- Aliveness, not deadness or the mechanization of life- Uniqueness, not bland uniformity- Perfection and necessity, not sloppiness,inconsistency, or accident.- Justice and order, not injustice and lawlessness.- Simplicity, not unnecessary complexity.- Self-sufficiency, not dependency.
  56. 56. Chapter 3 - PersonalityAbraham Maslow. (1908-1970). Born inBrooklyn, New York. One of sevenchildren of Russian immigrants.Graduated University of Wisconsin withPhD (worked with Harry Harlow)Returned to NY to work with EdwardThorndike at Columbia University
  57. 57. Chapter 3 - Personality"A musician must make music, an artistmust paint, a poet must write, if he is tobe at peace with himself. What a mancan be, he must be. This is the need wemay call self-actualization ... It refers tomans desire for fulfillment, namely tothe tendency for him to becomeactually in what he is potentially: tobecome everything that one is capableof becoming ..." - Abraham Maslow
  58. 58. Chapter 3 - Personality Maslow’s Characteristics of Self-Actualizers:Reality focused and problem-centeredThe journey is often more important than the ends.They enjoy solitude, and are comfortable beingalone.Enjoy deeper personal relations with a few closefriends and family membersValue autonomy, a relative independence fromphysical and social needs.They have an unhostile sense of humor -- preferringto joke at their own expense, or at the humancondition, and never directing their humor at others.spontaneity and simplicity: They prefer beingthemselves rather than being pretentious or artificial.
  59. 59. Chapter 3 - Personality They have a sense of humility and respect towards others They have a certain freshness of appreciation, an ability to see things, even ordinary things, with wonder. They are creative, inventive, and original. tend to have more peak experiences than the average person. [A peak experience is one that takes you out of yourself, that makes you feel very tiny, or very large, to some extent one with life or nature or God. It gives you a feeling of being a part of the infinite and the eternal. These experiences tend to leave their mark on a person, change them for the better, and many people actively seek them out. They are also called mystical experiences, and are an important part of many religious and philosophical traditions]. Their values are "natural" and seem to flow effortlessly from their personalities
  60. 60. Chapter 3 - PersonalityMaslow identified the following historical figures as self-actualizers: - Abraham Lincoln - Thomas Jefferson - Benjamin Franklin - George Washington - Albert Einstein - Aldous Huxley - William James - Spinoza - Goethe - Pierre Renoir - Robert Browning - Walt Whitman - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow - Eleanor Roosevelt
  61. 61. Chapter 3 - PersonalityWho would you consider to be someone who is self-actualized in today’s world?- Oprah?- Bono from U2?- George Bush?- Dali-lama?- ???
  62. 62. Chapter 3 - PersonalityCarl Rogers. 1902-1987 Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six children. His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and Psychotherapy. 1945, he was invited to set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago. It was while working there that in 1951 he published his major work, Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he outlined his basic theory.
  63. 63. Chapter 3 - PersonalityView of people as basically goodThe “actualizing tendency” is the basic force of life – we are always trying to better ourselves in some wayTrue self: who you are todayIdeal self: who you want to becomeSelf-actualization is the process of becoming your ideal self
  64. 64. Chapter 3 - Personality Unconditional positive regard: a feeling of total love and acceptance – like that of a child for a parent, or a pet to its owner. No matter what you say or do, you will be loved and accepted. Rogers believed if a child received unconditional positive regard, he/she would be able to self- actualize and become his/her ideal self If self-actualization is blocked, mental illness would ensue
  65. 65. Chapter 3 - Personality Conditions of worth: if…then contingencies. I will love and accept you if…;Rogers believed this is another pathway to mental illness The individual who is raised with “conditions of worth” will not actualize into their ideal self. The individual who is raised with conditions of worth will actualize into another persons’ vision of their ideal self. How much of what you say and do is based on conditions of worth? What must parents do to avoid using “conditions of worth” when raising their children? Society at large?
  66. 66. Chapter 3 - Personality8. Social-Cognitive Theory. Albert Bandura (1925-present) Albert Bandura was born December 4, 1925, in the small town of Mundare in northern Alberta, Canada. In 1953, he started teaching at Stanford University. While there, he collaborated with his first graduate student, Richard Walters, resulting in their first book, Adolescent Aggression, in 1959. Emphasis on the cognitive or thoughts
  67. 67. Chapter 3 - Personality Modeling; Vicarious learning; Observational learning : learning by watching others. Thoughts matter!! Interested in studying the effect of television violence on aggression in children. Bandura is most famous for his Bo-Bo doll studies. [see video link] Film: woman punching the clown, shouting “sockeroo!” She kicked it, sat on it, hit it with a little hammer, and so on, shouting various aggressive phrases. Bandura showed his film to groups of kindergartners who, as you might predict, liked it a lot. what did the observers record afterward: A lot of little kids beating the daylights out of the bobo doll. They punched it and shouted “sockeroo,” kicked it, sat on it, hit it with the little hammers, and so on. In other words, they imitated the young lady in the film, “and quite precisely at that”. [link to full text study]
  68. 68. Chapter 3 - Personality Bandura added cognition or thought to the equation The main “person” factor that Bandura discussed was: self-efficacy: the belief in your ability to perform a certain task or function.
  69. 69. Chapter 3 -Personality9. Biological theories of personality. Identical twin studies Adoption studies Heritability estimates Family tree or pedigree studies DNA – Human genome project Evolutionary forces Can we ever know if nature or nurture is the primary force?
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  71. 71. Chapter 3 – Personality: Review1. The belief in our ability to perform a a. Albert Bandura specific task b. B. F. Skinner2. Believed in the importance of the c. Abraham Maslow consequences of our actions d. Carl Rogers3. The interaction between environment, e. Biological theory person, and behavior f. Reinforcement4. Learning by watching others g. Extinction5. Pedigree studies of personality traits h. Reciprocal6. The process of becoming your ideal determinism self i. Self-efficacy7. Feeling loved and accepted no matter what j. Deficiency needs8. If…then contingencies for love and k. Growth needs acceptance l. Observational learning9. Needs that must be satisfied in order m. Self-actualization when the organism is lacking in these n. Unconditional positive such as safety, security, love, esteem regard10. Needs that are fulfilled in order to o. Conditions of worth achieve self-actualization
  72. 72. Chapter 3 – Personality Review1. Proposed the “Hierarchy of Needs” a. Albert Bandura2. Believed in innate goodness b. B. F. Skinner3. Responsible for the famous “BoBo” doll studies c. Abraham Maslow4. Interested in the effects of media violence on behavior in children d. Carl Rogers5. Emphasized the importance of reinforcement on e. Extinction future behaviors f. Reinforcement6. A behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus g. True self results in an increased probability of that h. Ideal self behavior occurring in the future i. Biological theory7. The person that you are today – with all your flaws8. The person who you would some day like to aspire to become9. Emphasis on identical twin and adoption studies10. First to emphasize the importance of covert cognitive factors on behavior
  73. 73. Chapter 3 - PersonalityMeasures of Personality.- reliability: consistency or stability of a measure over time.- Validity: accuracy or truth of a measure. Is it measuring what it is supposed to?- You must have high levels of reliability in order to have validity.
  74. 74. Chapter 3Dart Throwing Analogy.- The goal is to hit the bulls eye. The person who throws the dart and hits the bullseye is a valid dart thrower.- What would be a reliable dart thrower?- Someone who can throw the dart in the same place each time.- Can you be a reliable dart thrower, but not a valid one? 
  75. 75. Chapter 3 - PersonalityTypes of Personality Measures.Two categories:1. Objective – paper and pencil self-report tests. These measures are clear to all what a specific response means.Examples:a. MMPI-2: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Over 500 item test that is used to detect mental illness.b. CPI: California Personality Inventory. Self-report measure that is used to detect normal and successful patterns of behavior.
  76. 76. Chapter 3 - Personality2. Projective tests – intentionally vague or ambiguous stimuli are used to encourage projection of unconscious materials. [Freud] a. Rorschach inkblots (Hermann Rorschach, 1927) b. TAT [Thematic Apperception Test] (Henry Murray, 1943)
  77. 77. Rorschach inkblotsWhat do you see?
  78. 78. More blotsWhat do you see?
  79. 79. More blots
  80. 80. Thematic Apperception Test
  81. 81. Thematic Apperception Test
  82. 82. Chapter 3 – Personality: OptionalOPTIONAL: Self-Actualization poem: by Dunbar 2005.There’s no need to strive for perfection ‘Cause you’re perfect the way you areThere’s no need to look for outside affection‘Cause if you look inside yourself it will not be farThere’s no need to changeTo meet the expectations everyone puts on youAnd though that may seem strangeIt’s because you’ve been programmed toBelieve in a certain way about how you live your lifeAnd act in a way others think you shouldBut all that does is cause stress and strifeAnd affects you in ways you never thought it couldLike causing you to think your self-esteem is lowOr that you’re insecureThen it causes you to doubt what about yourself you knowAnd shuts down your efforts to ever go for moreSo if you think you would like to improveDo it for you and no one elseBecause you have nothing to loseBy improving yourselfSo when that all becomes clear inside your mindYou’ll become the person you’ve kept hiddenAnd a peace within yourself you’ll find‘Cause now you know being you isn’t forbidden
  83. 83. Chapter 3 - Personality**OPTIONAL** In case you want to know more about Karen Horney.Horney named ten patterns of neurotic needs. The ten needs are classified according to her coping strategies:Moving Toward People 1. The need for affection and approval; pleasing others and being liked by them. 2. The need for a partner; one who can love and solve all problems.Moving Against People 3. The need to restrict life practices to within narrow borders; to live as inconspicuous a life as possible. 4. The need for power; the ability to bend wills and achieve control over others -the neurotic may be desperate for it. 5. The need to exploit others; to get the better of them. To become manipulative, fostering the belief that people are there simply to be used. 6. The need for social recognition; prestige and limelight. 7. The need for personal admiration; for both inner and outer qualities -- to be valued. 8. The need for personal achievement; though virtually all persons wish to make achievements, the neurotic may be desperate for achievement.Moving Away from People 9. The need for self sufficiency and independence; while most desire some autonomy, the neurotic may simply wish to discard other individuals entirely. 10. Lastly, the need for perfection; while many are driven to perfect their lives in the form of well being, the neurotic may display a fear of being slightly flawed.
  84. 84. Chapter 3 - Personality***Optional [in case you are interested – but not required for the exam]*** Asceticism: the renunciation of needs. Relevant today with the emergence of the disorder called anorexia. Preadolescents, when they feel threatened by their emerging sexual desires, may unconsciously try to protect themselves by denying, not only their sexual desires, but all desires. They get involved in some kind of ascetic (monk-like) lifestyle wherein they renounce their interest in what other people enjoy. Isolation or intellectualization: involves stripping the emotion from a difficult memory or threatening impulse. A person may, in a very cavalier manner, acknowledge that they had been abused as a child, or may show a purely intellectual curiosity in their newly discovered sexual orientation. Something that should be a big deal is treated as if it were not. Altruistic surrender is a form of projection that at first glance looks like its opposite: Here, the person attempts to fulfill his or her own needs vicariously, through other people. A common example of this is the friend (weve all had one) who, while not seeking any relationship himself, is constantly pushing other people into them, and is particularly curious as to "what happened last night" and "how are things going?" The extreme example of altruistic surrender is the person who lives their whole life for and through another. Undoing involves "magical" gestures or rituals that are meant to cancel out unpleasant thoughts or feelings after theyve already occurred. Example: if you feel the need to take three or four complete showers after sex -- perhaps there is more to it. Introjection, sometimes called identification, involves taking into your own personality characteristics of someone else, because doing so solves some emotional difficulty. For example, a child who is left alone frequently, may in some way try to become "mom" in order to lessen his or her fears. You can sometimes catch them telling their dolls or animals not to be afraid. And we find the older child or teenager imitating his or her favorite star, musician, or sports hero in an effort to establish an identity.