Allan Paivio Proposed that presenting information in both visual and verbal form enhances recall and recognition (Shelly, Gunter, & Gunter, 2012). Dual Coding Theory: assumes that people process information in two different ways; processing of images and processing of languages. (Shelly, et al., 2012).
Robert Gagne Came up with 5 categories of learning (Shelly, et al., 2012).1. Verbal Information: can state what has been heard2. Intellectual Skills: can discriminate between facts and follow directions3. Cognitive Strategies: reads books4. Motor Skills: can use a mouse5. Attitudes: learners enjoy reading
Howard Gardner Theory of multiple Intelligences Gardner has identified 8 intelligences: linguistic, logical, spatial, kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist He believes that an individual is capable of having all 8 intelligences, but some intelligences will be more dominant than others (Shelly, et al., 2012).
Benjamin Bloom Shelly (2012) says that Bloom defined the cognitive domain as a students’ intellectual level, in other words, what students know and how they organize ideas and thoughts. From Bloom’s research, he concluded that every child has the ability to learn.
Key Points of the Theory Shelly (2012) stated that, “According to the cognitive theory, activities like thinking and remembering seem like a behavior, thus providing an avenue to use behavior analysis to measure their effect on learning”(p.261). Atherton (2011) says cognitive theory is interested in how people understand material. Aptitude and capacity to learn
Classroom Implications Students need to stray away from lecturing and get the students to actively participate. Teachers should understand and incorporate different learning styles. Each student has a different type of intelligence. They should use their dominant intelligence, while also working to improve their non dominant intelligences.
What I think about the Theory As a teacher I will incorporate cognitive learning into my lesson plans. I believe that students gain from classroom participation. I will find ways to incorporate different learning styles to benefit every child. I strongly stress this theory over behaviorism. Students are NOT just “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli.
References – Atherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Cognitive theories of learning [On- line: UK] retrieved 12 November 2012 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/cog nitive.htm – Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology in a Connected World (7th Ed.), Shelly, Cashman, Gunter, and Gunter (2012).
Photo Resources http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons1. Taken by Aban Nesta taken on December 21, 20062. Taken by Kerry Ball on August 15, 20083. Taken by Nikki Jane on July 17, 2008