Personality is: Personality includes all the special qualities people have that make them different from each other. These include: charm, energy, disposition, attitude, temperament, cleverness, and all feelings and behaviors they exhibit.
Personality is: Personality is the reasonably stable patterns of thoughts, emotions, and behavior that distinguish one person from another.
Personality What does personality assessment achieve?
Personality Assessment Personality Assessment assists counselors in: Understanding the behavior of a particular individual Helps counselor come to a conclusion about a possible future course of action Helps counselor make predictions about a person’s unique future behavior.
Traits, States, and Types There are three fundamental terms related to personality Traits States Types
Traits Personality Traits can be viewed as the distinguishing characteristics or qualities possessed by the individual. Traits are “dimensions” of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings and actions.
States Personality States refer to a temporary behavioral tendency. Eg. A student may be described as being in an anxious state before finals. Whereas trait refers to an enduring personality characteristic, state usually refers to a temporary behavioral tendency.
Personality Types Personality Types are regarded as a general description of a person. Eg. Extroverted/Introverted.
Personality Inventories Inventories are commonly used to identify the structure and features of one’s personality, or one’s characteristic way of thinking, feelings and behaving.
Examples A career counselor administers an inventory in order to help a person choose a career. A psychologist wants to look at symptoms to possibly diagnose a disorder A school counselor implements inventors to see if a student is suffering from academic problems.
Examples (continued) An employment counselor uses inventories to see if an individual meets the right requirements and performance. A neurophysiologist administers an inventory to determine the extent of a possible brain injury.
Approaches to Personality InventoryDevelopment Personality inventories may differ in the approach by which they are constructed. Four common approaches to personality inventory development are Rational, Theory- Based, Criterion Group, and Factor Analysis.
Rational Approach Rational Approach is one of the oldest methods of personality test construction. Here, we use the use of reason and deductive logic to construct test items. Eg. Woodsworth Personal Data Sheet, from 1920, which contained a 116-item self report in response to needs for psychiatric screening during the U.S. entry into WWI.
Theory-Based Approach This approach is founded on an established theory of personality, unlike Rational Approach. The psychodynamic theory of personality is followed and the unconscious/inner conflicts play a significant role. Clients are believed to eventually project or express unconcious fears, conflicts, or inner needs.
Criterion Group Approach C.G.A. is an empirical method of personality test construction that involves selecting items that can discriminate between relevant criterion groups and control groups. Control Groups are usually studied alongside Criterion Groups to identify items that distinguish the groups from one another.
Factor Analysis Another empirical approach that uses statistical procedures to analyze interrelationships among a large number of variables. Eg. Personality Traits.
Categories of Personality Inventories Structured Personality Inventories: standardized, usually self-report instruments. Use selected response items (true/false, multiple choice) or rating scales. No right or wrong answer (i.e., true may indicate a trait – “outgoing”). Broad scope inventories are very comprehensive (1 to 2 hrs); for example, the MMPI-2. Narrow scope inventories focus on targeted aspects of personality (i.e. BDI-II).
Structured InventoryThe Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) 567 true/false questions 18 years and older Takes 60 to 90 minutes to complete Has 10 clinical scales that assess dimensions of personality and psychopathology , pg 254 Has 9 validity scales to detect response styles (i.e. unanswered questions), pg 253. Available in English, Hmong, French and Spanish.
MMPI-2 (Example questions)Source: https://antipolygraph.org/cgi-bin/forums/YaBB.pl?num=1109032158/0#01.I like mechanics magazines 11.A person should try to understand his2.I have a good appetite dreams and be guided by or take warning3.I wake up fresh & rested most from themmornings 12.I enjoy detective or mystery stories4.I think I would like the work of a 13.I work under a great deal of tensionlibrarian 14.I have diarrhea once a month or more5.I am easily awakened by noise 15.Once in a while I think of things too6.I like to read newspaper articles on bad to talk aboutcrime 16.I am sure I get a raw deal from life7.My hands and feet are usually warm 17.My father was a good manenough 18.I am very seldom troubled by8.My daily life is full of things that constipationkeep me interested 19.When I take a new, I like to be tipped9.I am about as able to work as I ever off on whom should be gotten next towas 20.My sex life is satisfactory10.There seems to be a lump in mythroat much of the time
Structured InventoryMillon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III): 175-item self-report 18 years and older Approx. 30 minutes to complete Designed to assist with clinical and personality disorders (Axis II on DSM-IV-TR). Consists of 28 scales (pg. 256)
Sample of the MCMI-III Name: Sample Interpretive Report ID Number: 98765 Age: 22 Gender: Female Setting: Outpatient Never Hospitalized Race: White Marital Status: Never Married Date Assessed: 04/03/2009
Sample of the MCMI-IIIPossible Diagnoses: “She appears to fit the following Axis II classifications best: Antisocial Personality Disorder, with Histrionic Personality Features, and Paranoid Personality Features. Axis I clinical syndromes are suggested by the clients MCMI-III profile in the areas of Alcohol Abuse and Psycho-active Substance Abuse NOS.” Source:http://www.pearsonassessments.com/hai/images/pa/pdfs/m cmi3interp.pdf
Structured InventoryThe California Psychological Inventory (CPI): 434 true/false statements. Ages 12 to 70. Takes about 50 to 60 minutes. Designed for “normal” people. Focus on behavior patterns, feelings and opinions, and attitudes relating to social, ethical, and family matters.
Structured InventoryThe Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Another non-pathological inventory. Designed based on Carl Jung’s typological theory. Extraversion - Introversion Sensing – Intuitive Thinking – Feeling Judging – PerceivingThey’re often referred to by an abbreviation of 4 letters, indicating the 4 type preferences ESTJ: Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging. INFP: Introversion, Intuition, Feeling, Perceiving.
Projective Instruments Require the client to answer questions using pictures, phrases, or inkblots. Associated with the psychodynamic theory of personality – the unconscious mind (i.e., hidden emotions, internal conflicts). Two well-known instruments are the Rorschach and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
Projective InstrumentsThe Rorschach Inkblot Test Measures client’s view of his/her world. Clients are asked to look at inkblots and to describe what they see. The test has 10 bilaterally symmetrical inkblots printed on separate cards. Requires examiners to be thoroughly trained.
Rorschach Inkblot CardCommon Responses: Heads of women or children Human head
Projective TestsThematic Apperception Test (TAT) Contains 31 black and white pictures The usual number of cards shown to the client is between 10 and 14 Administration of the TAT usually takes an hour Client is asked to make a story about each picture Examiner asks client several questions in order to better understand his/her story
Image similar to the ones used in TAThttp://www.macalester.edu/psychology/whathap/ubnrp/intelligence05/Dpersonality.html
Projective InstrumentsVerbal Projective Techniques Require verbal and/or written responses; therefore, clients must have good verbal and written skills. Examples of questions: If you had three wishes, what would you wish for? If you could be anything you wanted to be, what would you be?
Projective InstrumentsSentence Completion Examples of sentence completion I wish _________. I love _________. A husband should ______. My nerves are made of _________. I hate _________.
Projective InstrumentsProjective Drawings Perhaps the oldest category of projective assessments used with children and adolescents. A very common technique is the “Draw-a- Person” test (pg. 267). Another technique is the House-Tree-Person Technique (pg. 267).
Projective InstrumentsIssues Subject to the examiner’s opinion and judgment. They have failed to provide research support for their reliability and validity.
Questions1. The MMPI-2 is: a. an IQ test b. a neurological test c. a projective personality test d. a standardized personality test2. In a projective test the client is shown a. something which is highly reinforcing b. something which is highly charged from an emotional standpoint c. a and b d. neutral stimuli
Questions3. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator reflects the work of a. Raymond B. Cattell b. Carl Jung c. William Glasser d. Oscar K. Buros4. The counselor who favors projective measures would most likely be a a. Rogerian b. Strict behaviorist c. TA therapist d. Psychodynamic clinician
Questions5. One of the oldest methods of personality test construction is a. Rational approach b. Theory-based approach c. Criterion Group approach d. Factor analysis6. Personality Assessment assists counselors in: a. Understanding the behavior of a particular individual b. Coming to a conclusion about a possible future course of action c. Making predictions about a person’s unique future behavior. d. All of the above
Outside Sources Butcher, J.N., Hstetler, K. (1990). Abbreviating MMPI Item Administration. What Can Be Learned From the MMPI for the MMPI-2? Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, March 1990 Vol. 2. No. 1.12-21 Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III Interpretive Report with Grossman Facet Scales. Theodore Millon, PhD, DSc (http://www.pearsonassessments.com/hai/images/pa/pdfs/mcmi3i nterp.pdf) Narron, M. C. (2005). Updating the TAT: A Photographic Revision of the Thematic Apperception Test, Dissertations Abstract International, DAI-B 66/01, p. 568, Jul 2005.
THANK YOU Questions?carlos@carlosFmartinez.com