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Creativity Stimulation &
     Management

                 By
       Dr. Vijay Kr Khurana
Management of Creativity
Many factors block / hinder / stifle creativity; thus its
   management is important.
Creativity is a resource which has to be managed at firm’s
   level for obtaining continuous improvement and
   innovation by:….
a) Providing right organizational support
b) Supporting inventive individuals by respecting
   individual initiatives viz. through rewards, recognitions
   etc.
c) Setting an inventive environment
d) Using Techniques for Stimulating Creativity
Management of Creativity
c). Setting an inventive environment …..
• Encourage calculated risk by allowing room for failures
   and tolerance for honest mistakes
• Encourage people to talk to each other and promote the
   cross-pollination of ideas.
• Minimize competitive turf issues and inter-functional
   squabbles.
• Recognize that creative people tend to be different from
   most other people and tolerate their idiosyncrasies.
• Supporting participatory decision-making and
   employees’ contribution
Management of Creativity
Contd ….c). Setting an inventive environment…..
• Provide fast evaluation and feedback of ideas when they
  are submitted.
• Be willing to consider partially thought out ideas and
  give people time to develop them further.
• Maintain an openness to creative ideas from outsiders,
  recognizing that not everything has to be invented
  internally-ensure contacts with external sources of
  information
• Willingness to experiment with new ideas
• Keep channels of communication open
• Allowing independence, encourage initiatives
How to Stimulate Creativity
According to Higgins (1999) factors for encouraging the
  creative work climate are:
• A secure environment with minimal administrative
  interference.
• An organisational culture that makes it attractive and
  easy for people to discover and solve problems.
• Rewards for employee performance and enhancement of
  intrinsic motivation.
• Managerial willingness to take risks for creativity and
  innovation, as well as an open and flexible attitude on the
  part of management.
• Providing people with formal and informal training to
  enhance creativity.
How to Stimulate Creativity
• Important conditions for implementation of creative
  techniques within work groups in a company are also the
  existence of well-trained human resources, a clear
  strategic definition of the company and to focus on the
  core competencies of the company (European
  Commission 1998).
• Solving complex problems, may require inputs from
  many areas, i.e. marketing, engineering, design, etc. for
  which the company should preferably employ
  multidisciplinary teams.
How to Stimulate Creativity
d). Following Techniques for Stimulating Creativity
• Analytical techniques vs intuitive techniques
• Techniques for stimulating individual creativity vs.
   group creativity
• Techniques for Creative techniques that rely upon
   divergent thinking and techniques that rely upon
   convergent thinking.
• Aleatory techniques exploiting randomness are also
   common
How to Stimulate Creativity
Fundamental concepts for all creative techniques are:
• The suspension of premature judgement and the lack of
  filtering of ideas.
• Use the intermediate impossible.
• Create analogies and metaphors, through symbols, etc., by
  finding similarities between the situation, which we wish to
  understand and another situation, which we have already
  understood.
• Relate things or ideas which were previously unrelated
• Build imaginative and ideal situations (invent the ideal
  vision).
• Find ways to make the ideal vision happen.
• Generate multiple solutions to a problem.
How to Stimulate Individual
             Creativity
Techniques for stimulating individual creativity
• Encouraging Lateral Thinking
• Using Check Lists
• Morphological Analysis
Stimulating Individual Creativity
LATERAL THINKING
• In traditional type of thinking i.e. Linear Thinking, there
  is forward movement by taking a number of sequential
  steps, each of which must be justified. Only relevant /
  right / justified step is selected at each stage in order to
  achieve a correct / planned solution. These steps are
  taken in planned direction. These steps influence the
  outcome of thinking process. This forward movement
  can be both in vertical directions (downward along
  supply chain or upward along distribution chain) and
  horizontal directions (increasing product range / product
  line). These are called vertical linear thinking and
  horizontal linear thinking respectively.
•
Stimulating Individual Creativity
LATERAL THINKING
• The term Lateral Thinking was coined by Edward de
  Bono. Lateral thinking is concerned with generation of
  new ideas and "breaking out of the prisons of old ideas."
• In Lateral Thinking, one may deliberately seek out
  irrelevant information and one may use that information
  not for its own sake but for its effect. One may have to be
  knowingly wrong at some stage in order to achieve an
  innovative and correct solution.
Stimulating Individual Creativity
LATERAL THINKING
• Lateral thinking is based on the idea that mind is a
  pattern making and self organizing system. Mind
  captures the inputs according to existing pattern of
  perceptions and mind is generally not willing to go
  beyond set pattern of perceptions thus blocking
  creativity.
Stimulating Individual Creativity
LATERAL THINKING
• Lateral Thinking is a set of related techniques primarily
  used for supporting creative thinking. Through these
  techniques, access of mind to old / existing patterns is
  temporarily blocked and attention is diverted to thinking
  and exploring some thing new and unknown.
• Lateral thinking provides a way to restructure & escape
  from obslete patterns & to develop patterns which may
  be beneficial.
• Lateral thinking techniques are part of overall creativity
  thinking techniques.
Stimulating Individual Creativity
S No   Linear Thinking                    Lateral Thinking

 1     Linear thinking is logical         Lateral thinking may be illogical
                                          or intuitive
 2     It pursues a defined path          It jumps to new paths
 3     Linear thinking is compelling      Lateral thinking forces the mind
       if the next logical step is        to look at other planes of
       available and compelling, thus     knowledge. Looking off the
       cutting off access to any          current plane is inherently non-
       alternate paths (i.e. searching    logical in nature.
       on other planes of knowledge)

  4    Usually leads to ideas for         Usually leads to radical or
       improvement in existing            different ideas for new or hybrid
       technologies, products, services   technologies, new products,
       or processes                       services or processes
Stimulating Individual Creativity
Techniques of LATERAL THINKING
• i) Suspending Judgement – Under this approach,
  evaluation / judgement of usefulness & feasibilty of
  suggested ideas is suspended in early stages so as to avoid
  killing / dropping of some good new ideas at the initial
  stage. Evaluation / judgement of suggested ideas is
  deferred to later stages.
• ii) Dismantling or fractionalisation of problem into
  parts – A big problem may be difficult to diagnose and
  deal. However its complexility can be reduced by
  dismantling / fractionalizing it into smaller parts. Focus
  on smaller parts may help in thinking up ideas for
  problem solving thus facilitating creativity.
Stimulating Individual Creativity
Techniques of LATERAL THINKING
• iii) Reversal of Problem (By turning it around viz. inside-out,
  upside-down or back to front) - This approach helps in
  thinking up ideas from opposite / different prespective and
  thus helps in finding new or different ideas for problem
  solving.
• iv) Use of Metaphors & Analogies - Metaphors are words or
  phrases applied to concepts / objects they do not literally
  denote & Analogies are used to express similarities between
  dissimilar things. Use of metaphors and analogies helps in
  thinking ideas for new / different uses and applications.
• v) Use of random words- Use of reandom words, sometimes,
  may bring out fresh association of ideas thus facilitating
  creativity.
• vi) Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
Stimulating Individual Creativity
Examples
• A metaphor is a literary figure of speech that describes a
  subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison,
  the same as another otherwise unrelated object .
• One of the most prominent examples of a metaphor in English
  literature is the ‘All the world's a stage monologue’ from ‘As
  You Like It’:
• All the world’s a stage,
• And all the men and women merely players;
• They have their exits and their entrances; — William
  Shakespeare, ‘As You Like It’, 2/7[1]
• This quote is a metaphor because the world is not literally a
  stage. By figuratively asserting that the world is a stage,
  Shakespeare uses the points of comparison between the world
  and a stage to convey an understanding about how the world
  works and the lives of the people within it.
Stimulating Individual Creativity
Examples
• Analogy (from Greek – analogia, "proportion")
  is a cognitive process of transferring information
  or meaning from a particular subject (the
  analogue or source) to another particular subject
  (the target), and a linguistic expression
  corresponding to such a process.
• Niels Bohr's model of the atom made an analogy
  between the atom and the solar system.
• Use of Random Words ….. Balloon & Cars ;;;
  Toothbrush & Cycle wheel
Stimulating Individual Creativity
CHECK LISTS
• This creative technique is used mainly for improvement or
  modification.
• It involves applying a series of words, verbs, adjectives or
  phrases contained in checklists or tables to an existing
  product or service or its attributes or area of interest .
• Check lists involve listing of all attributes of interest like
  adapt, modify, magnify, minify, substitute, rearrange,
  reverse, combine.
• Through this listing, focus can be narrowed down to key
  areas; and ideas for improvement in focussed areas can be
  developed.
Stimulating Individual Creativity
Contd … CHECK LISTS
• Osborn’s Checklist is the best known and includes the
  verbs: put to other uses, adapt, modify, magnify, minify,
  substitute, rearrange, reverse and combine. Each verb
  contains also an expanded definition in the form of
  questions. For example, the description of the verb
  substitute is: Who else instead? What else instead? Other
  ingredient? Other material? Other process? Other
  power? Other place? Other approach? Other tone of
  voice?
Stimulating Individual Creativity
CHECK LISTS
• Another checklist technique is Van Gundy’s PICL
  (product improvement checklist).
• Used in the same way as Osborn’s list, gives many
  options containing 792 words, both standard and unique,
  that can be applied to existing products or services, and
  102 stimulation questions
Stimulating Individual Creativity
MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
• Morphological analysis combines concepts of
  fractionalisation of problem into smaller parts & use of
  checklists.
• It can be used for stimulating both individual creativity
  and group creativity.
Stimulating Individual Creativity
MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS – CLOCK
   Alternates   1            2          3            4
   Parameters
   Energy       Manual       Battery    Solar
   Source       Winding
   Energy       Weight       Spring     Bimetallic   No Store
   Store        Store        Store      Coil
   Motor        Spring       Electric
                Motor        Motor
   Regulator    Balance      Pendulum   Tuning       Quartz
                Wheel                   Fork
   Gearing      Pinion       Chain Drive Worm
                Drive                    Drive
   Indicator    Dial Hands   Slide Marks Liquid      Light
   Device                                Quartz      Indicators
How to Stimulate Group
              Creativity
• Scientists / Technologists / Experts often work as
   members of a Group / Team. Some of the techniques
   used for stimulating group creativity are as under:
1. BRAINSTORMING
2. SLIP WRITING
Stimulating Group Creativity
BRAINSTORMING
• It is a method of getting a large number of ideas from a group
  of people in a short time.
• Brainstorming sessions may take place in a group of 6-10 or
  required number of people. Members are usually experts /
  experienced persons drawn from relevant fields /
  departments / functions.
• A leader / convener is necessary to stimulate the generation of
  ideas, as well as to plan for preparation phase.
• Through this technique, members of the group are asked to
  respond to a central problem or theme. Members are asked to
  avoid criticism of each other.
• Sessions may be free-wheeling & wild ideas may be
  generated.
Stimulating Group Creativity
BRAINSTORMING - General rules
• Focus on generation of large quantity of ideas
• Withhold criticism of ideas
• Welcome unusual ideas
• Combine and improve ideas
Stimulating Group Creativity
BRAINSTORMING - Many variants
• Nominal group technique
• Group passing technique
• Team idea mapping method
• Electronic brainstorming
• Directed brainstorming
• Guided brainstorming
• Question brainstorming
• PMI brainstorming - in which the participants are directed to
  brainstorm the Plus points, then the Minus points and finally the
  Interesting points
• Individual brainstorming
Stimulating Group Creativity
Some of the common problems associated with brainstorming
  are:
• Free riding: Individuals may feel that their ideas are less
  valuable when combined with the ideas of the group at large.
• Evaluation apprehension: Evaluation apprehension occurs
  only in instances of personal evaluation.
• Blocking: Blocking describes the reality that only one person
  may gainfully voice his or her ideas in a group at any given
  time & ideas of others may be blocked at that time.
• Social matching effect: The social matching effect is the
  tendency for individuals in a group to match the level of
  productivity & thinking of others in the group.
• Illusion of group productivity: Members of groups often
  overestimate their productivity, a tendency known as the
  illusion of group productivity & hence, they may not
  contribute effectively.
Stimulating Group Creativity
Contd … problems …. brainstorming:
• Process may delay evaluation of ideas
• Dominant groups may try to monopolize the process
• Undue focus on attaining consensus amongst members
  can undermine creativity
• No reference material may be provided beforehand to
  participating members
• There could be emotional involvement of some of
  participants, leading to conflicts etc
Stimulating Group Creativity
SLIP WRITING
• In this technique, each member of group is given 3x5
  inch index cards or slips of paper.
• Problem is stated and group is asked to refrain from
  judgement /evaluation [in early stages].
• Each member is asked to write as many ideas he / she can
  write in allotted time.
• Each idea is written on separate sheet / card.
• The ideas generated are sorted into various categories.
• Therafter these ideas are evaluated in terms of usefulness
  and feasibility.
Stimulating Group Creativity
Some benefits of SLIP WRITING technique are :
• It preserves anonymity of person contributing the ideas
• It overcomes many problems associated with
  brainstorming like domination by a particular group,
  chances of emotional involvement etc.
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
• The Six Thinking Hats is a method devised by Edward
  De Bono and meant to improve the results of thinking
  and discussion.
• It may be used either by oneself or in a group.
• As per Edward De Bono .. .. by separating six different
  types of thinking we can make our thinking clearer and
  more thorough.
• These six thinking hats / perspectives are : White Hat,
  Green Hat, Yellow Hat, Black Hat, Red Hat, Blue Hat
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
White Hat represents facts, information, and statistical
  data, as well as identifying missing information and from
  which sources it may be collected.
White Hat Thinking- Facts Oriented
• Information and data
• Neutral and objective
• What do I know?
• What do I need to find out?
• How will I get the information I need?
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats

Yellow Hat signifies positive rationality, and is
  used to look at the positive aspects of a situation
  or idea, on the potential benefits of the suggested
  course of action, and on the parties who are
  expected to profit from it.
Yellow Hat Thinking- Benefits
• Positives, plus points
• Logical reasons are given.
• Why an idea is useful
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
Black Hat is in a way the opposite of the Yellow
  Hat. It is used for discussing the negative
  repercussions of the plan, the potential dangers,
  and any criticism on the logic of arguments made
  in its support.
Black Hat Thinking - Cautions
• Focus on difficulties, weaknesses, dangers
• Spotting the risks
• Logical reasons are given.
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
Green Hat stands for creativity and
  unconventional thinking. Under this
  perspective / hat, people are encouraged to think
  creatively
Green Hat Thinking - Creativity
• Ideas, alternatives, possibilities
• Thought Provocation
• Solutions to black hat problems
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
Red Hat symbolizes emotions and feelings. Under this
  perspective / hat, people are “encouraged" to express
  their feelings about the subject or to share their general
  mood, which might be affecting their participation or
  lack of it.
Red Hat Thinking - Feelings
• Intuition, hunches, gut instinct
• Our Feelings right now.
• Feelings can change.
• No reasons may be given.
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
Blue Hat - This perspective / hat is used for directing the
  discussion, for switching hats when necessary, for
  summarizing the major points of the discussion, as well
  as for making decisions.
Blue Hat Thinking- Controlling Process
• Thinking about thinking
• What thinking is needed?
• Organizing the thinking
• Planning for action
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
Example:
• Step 1: Present the facts of the case (White Hat).
• Step 2: Generate ideas on how the case could be handled
  (Green Hat).
• Step 3: Evaluate the merits of the ideas- List the benefits
  (Yellow Hat), List the drawbacks (Black Hat).
• Step 4: Get everybody’s gut feelings about the
  alternatives (Red Hat).
• Step 5: Summarize and adjourn the meeting (Blue Hat).
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
Main benefits … contd :
• Allow to say things without risk.
• Create awareness that there are multiple perspectives on
  the issue at hand.
• Convenient mechanism for ‘switching gears’ from one
  perspective to another.
• Rules for the game of thinking.
• Focussed thinking.
• Leads to more creative thinking.
• Leads to Improved communication.
• Leads to Improved decision making.
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
Main benefits … contd ..:
• De Bono’s Six Hats represent six very different ways of
  thinking. By using this model one will be able to easily
  find several ways for getting a message through.
• We can save time in thinking about the ideas, and use a
  clear methodology for producing new ideas whenever we
  need them.
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
Main benefits .. Contd …:
• This matches the real life differences in different persons
  that different persons are influenced by different kinds
  of communication. Some are deeply affected by emotion,
  while others are more susceptive to logical reasoning,
  and a third group may need a fair amount of objective
  information in order to make their own judgment.
• By using creative communication ideas covering all types
  of thinking, we will be able to choose those that best fit
  our audience, or even to use all types of thinking to
  ensure that anyone can find what they are looking for in
  our message.
Creativity Stimulation &
     Management

                 By
       Dr. Vijay Kr Khurana

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Creativity stimulation & management

  • 1. Creativity Stimulation & Management By Dr. Vijay Kr Khurana
  • 2. Management of Creativity Many factors block / hinder / stifle creativity; thus its management is important. Creativity is a resource which has to be managed at firm’s level for obtaining continuous improvement and innovation by:…. a) Providing right organizational support b) Supporting inventive individuals by respecting individual initiatives viz. through rewards, recognitions etc. c) Setting an inventive environment d) Using Techniques for Stimulating Creativity
  • 3. Management of Creativity c). Setting an inventive environment ….. • Encourage calculated risk by allowing room for failures and tolerance for honest mistakes • Encourage people to talk to each other and promote the cross-pollination of ideas. • Minimize competitive turf issues and inter-functional squabbles. • Recognize that creative people tend to be different from most other people and tolerate their idiosyncrasies. • Supporting participatory decision-making and employees’ contribution
  • 4. Management of Creativity Contd ….c). Setting an inventive environment….. • Provide fast evaluation and feedback of ideas when they are submitted. • Be willing to consider partially thought out ideas and give people time to develop them further. • Maintain an openness to creative ideas from outsiders, recognizing that not everything has to be invented internally-ensure contacts with external sources of information • Willingness to experiment with new ideas • Keep channels of communication open • Allowing independence, encourage initiatives
  • 5. How to Stimulate Creativity According to Higgins (1999) factors for encouraging the creative work climate are: • A secure environment with minimal administrative interference. • An organisational culture that makes it attractive and easy for people to discover and solve problems. • Rewards for employee performance and enhancement of intrinsic motivation. • Managerial willingness to take risks for creativity and innovation, as well as an open and flexible attitude on the part of management. • Providing people with formal and informal training to enhance creativity.
  • 6. How to Stimulate Creativity • Important conditions for implementation of creative techniques within work groups in a company are also the existence of well-trained human resources, a clear strategic definition of the company and to focus on the core competencies of the company (European Commission 1998). • Solving complex problems, may require inputs from many areas, i.e. marketing, engineering, design, etc. for which the company should preferably employ multidisciplinary teams.
  • 7. How to Stimulate Creativity d). Following Techniques for Stimulating Creativity • Analytical techniques vs intuitive techniques • Techniques for stimulating individual creativity vs. group creativity • Techniques for Creative techniques that rely upon divergent thinking and techniques that rely upon convergent thinking. • Aleatory techniques exploiting randomness are also common
  • 8. How to Stimulate Creativity Fundamental concepts for all creative techniques are: • The suspension of premature judgement and the lack of filtering of ideas. • Use the intermediate impossible. • Create analogies and metaphors, through symbols, etc., by finding similarities between the situation, which we wish to understand and another situation, which we have already understood. • Relate things or ideas which were previously unrelated • Build imaginative and ideal situations (invent the ideal vision). • Find ways to make the ideal vision happen. • Generate multiple solutions to a problem.
  • 9. How to Stimulate Individual Creativity Techniques for stimulating individual creativity • Encouraging Lateral Thinking • Using Check Lists • Morphological Analysis
  • 10. Stimulating Individual Creativity LATERAL THINKING • In traditional type of thinking i.e. Linear Thinking, there is forward movement by taking a number of sequential steps, each of which must be justified. Only relevant / right / justified step is selected at each stage in order to achieve a correct / planned solution. These steps are taken in planned direction. These steps influence the outcome of thinking process. This forward movement can be both in vertical directions (downward along supply chain or upward along distribution chain) and horizontal directions (increasing product range / product line). These are called vertical linear thinking and horizontal linear thinking respectively. •
  • 11. Stimulating Individual Creativity LATERAL THINKING • The term Lateral Thinking was coined by Edward de Bono. Lateral thinking is concerned with generation of new ideas and "breaking out of the prisons of old ideas." • In Lateral Thinking, one may deliberately seek out irrelevant information and one may use that information not for its own sake but for its effect. One may have to be knowingly wrong at some stage in order to achieve an innovative and correct solution.
  • 12. Stimulating Individual Creativity LATERAL THINKING • Lateral thinking is based on the idea that mind is a pattern making and self organizing system. Mind captures the inputs according to existing pattern of perceptions and mind is generally not willing to go beyond set pattern of perceptions thus blocking creativity.
  • 13. Stimulating Individual Creativity LATERAL THINKING • Lateral Thinking is a set of related techniques primarily used for supporting creative thinking. Through these techniques, access of mind to old / existing patterns is temporarily blocked and attention is diverted to thinking and exploring some thing new and unknown. • Lateral thinking provides a way to restructure & escape from obslete patterns & to develop patterns which may be beneficial. • Lateral thinking techniques are part of overall creativity thinking techniques.
  • 14. Stimulating Individual Creativity S No Linear Thinking Lateral Thinking 1 Linear thinking is logical Lateral thinking may be illogical or intuitive 2 It pursues a defined path It jumps to new paths 3 Linear thinking is compelling Lateral thinking forces the mind if the next logical step is to look at other planes of available and compelling, thus knowledge. Looking off the cutting off access to any current plane is inherently non- alternate paths (i.e. searching logical in nature. on other planes of knowledge) 4 Usually leads to ideas for Usually leads to radical or improvement in existing different ideas for new or hybrid technologies, products, services technologies, new products, or processes services or processes
  • 15. Stimulating Individual Creativity Techniques of LATERAL THINKING • i) Suspending Judgement – Under this approach, evaluation / judgement of usefulness & feasibilty of suggested ideas is suspended in early stages so as to avoid killing / dropping of some good new ideas at the initial stage. Evaluation / judgement of suggested ideas is deferred to later stages. • ii) Dismantling or fractionalisation of problem into parts – A big problem may be difficult to diagnose and deal. However its complexility can be reduced by dismantling / fractionalizing it into smaller parts. Focus on smaller parts may help in thinking up ideas for problem solving thus facilitating creativity.
  • 16. Stimulating Individual Creativity Techniques of LATERAL THINKING • iii) Reversal of Problem (By turning it around viz. inside-out, upside-down or back to front) - This approach helps in thinking up ideas from opposite / different prespective and thus helps in finding new or different ideas for problem solving. • iv) Use of Metaphors & Analogies - Metaphors are words or phrases applied to concepts / objects they do not literally denote & Analogies are used to express similarities between dissimilar things. Use of metaphors and analogies helps in thinking ideas for new / different uses and applications. • v) Use of random words- Use of reandom words, sometimes, may bring out fresh association of ideas thus facilitating creativity. • vi) Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
  • 17. Stimulating Individual Creativity Examples • A metaphor is a literary figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object . • One of the most prominent examples of a metaphor in English literature is the ‘All the world's a stage monologue’ from ‘As You Like It’: • All the world’s a stage, • And all the men and women merely players; • They have their exits and their entrances; — William Shakespeare, ‘As You Like It’, 2/7[1] • This quote is a metaphor because the world is not literally a stage. By figuratively asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses the points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about how the world works and the lives of the people within it.
  • 18. Stimulating Individual Creativity Examples • Analogy (from Greek – analogia, "proportion") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. • Niels Bohr's model of the atom made an analogy between the atom and the solar system. • Use of Random Words ….. Balloon & Cars ;;; Toothbrush & Cycle wheel
  • 19. Stimulating Individual Creativity CHECK LISTS • This creative technique is used mainly for improvement or modification. • It involves applying a series of words, verbs, adjectives or phrases contained in checklists or tables to an existing product or service or its attributes or area of interest . • Check lists involve listing of all attributes of interest like adapt, modify, magnify, minify, substitute, rearrange, reverse, combine. • Through this listing, focus can be narrowed down to key areas; and ideas for improvement in focussed areas can be developed.
  • 20. Stimulating Individual Creativity Contd … CHECK LISTS • Osborn’s Checklist is the best known and includes the verbs: put to other uses, adapt, modify, magnify, minify, substitute, rearrange, reverse and combine. Each verb contains also an expanded definition in the form of questions. For example, the description of the verb substitute is: Who else instead? What else instead? Other ingredient? Other material? Other process? Other power? Other place? Other approach? Other tone of voice?
  • 21. Stimulating Individual Creativity CHECK LISTS • Another checklist technique is Van Gundy’s PICL (product improvement checklist). • Used in the same way as Osborn’s list, gives many options containing 792 words, both standard and unique, that can be applied to existing products or services, and 102 stimulation questions
  • 22. Stimulating Individual Creativity MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS • Morphological analysis combines concepts of fractionalisation of problem into smaller parts & use of checklists. • It can be used for stimulating both individual creativity and group creativity.
  • 23. Stimulating Individual Creativity MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS – CLOCK Alternates 1 2 3 4 Parameters Energy Manual Battery Solar Source Winding Energy Weight Spring Bimetallic No Store Store Store Store Coil Motor Spring Electric Motor Motor Regulator Balance Pendulum Tuning Quartz Wheel Fork Gearing Pinion Chain Drive Worm Drive Drive Indicator Dial Hands Slide Marks Liquid Light Device Quartz Indicators
  • 24. How to Stimulate Group Creativity • Scientists / Technologists / Experts often work as members of a Group / Team. Some of the techniques used for stimulating group creativity are as under: 1. BRAINSTORMING 2. SLIP WRITING
  • 25. Stimulating Group Creativity BRAINSTORMING • It is a method of getting a large number of ideas from a group of people in a short time. • Brainstorming sessions may take place in a group of 6-10 or required number of people. Members are usually experts / experienced persons drawn from relevant fields / departments / functions. • A leader / convener is necessary to stimulate the generation of ideas, as well as to plan for preparation phase. • Through this technique, members of the group are asked to respond to a central problem or theme. Members are asked to avoid criticism of each other. • Sessions may be free-wheeling & wild ideas may be generated.
  • 26. Stimulating Group Creativity BRAINSTORMING - General rules • Focus on generation of large quantity of ideas • Withhold criticism of ideas • Welcome unusual ideas • Combine and improve ideas
  • 27. Stimulating Group Creativity BRAINSTORMING - Many variants • Nominal group technique • Group passing technique • Team idea mapping method • Electronic brainstorming • Directed brainstorming • Guided brainstorming • Question brainstorming • PMI brainstorming - in which the participants are directed to brainstorm the Plus points, then the Minus points and finally the Interesting points • Individual brainstorming
  • 28. Stimulating Group Creativity Some of the common problems associated with brainstorming are: • Free riding: Individuals may feel that their ideas are less valuable when combined with the ideas of the group at large. • Evaluation apprehension: Evaluation apprehension occurs only in instances of personal evaluation. • Blocking: Blocking describes the reality that only one person may gainfully voice his or her ideas in a group at any given time & ideas of others may be blocked at that time. • Social matching effect: The social matching effect is the tendency for individuals in a group to match the level of productivity & thinking of others in the group. • Illusion of group productivity: Members of groups often overestimate their productivity, a tendency known as the illusion of group productivity & hence, they may not contribute effectively.
  • 29. Stimulating Group Creativity Contd … problems …. brainstorming: • Process may delay evaluation of ideas • Dominant groups may try to monopolize the process • Undue focus on attaining consensus amongst members can undermine creativity • No reference material may be provided beforehand to participating members • There could be emotional involvement of some of participants, leading to conflicts etc
  • 30. Stimulating Group Creativity SLIP WRITING • In this technique, each member of group is given 3x5 inch index cards or slips of paper. • Problem is stated and group is asked to refrain from judgement /evaluation [in early stages]. • Each member is asked to write as many ideas he / she can write in allotted time. • Each idea is written on separate sheet / card. • The ideas generated are sorted into various categories. • Therafter these ideas are evaluated in terms of usefulness and feasibility.
  • 31. Stimulating Group Creativity Some benefits of SLIP WRITING technique are : • It preserves anonymity of person contributing the ideas • It overcomes many problems associated with brainstorming like domination by a particular group, chances of emotional involvement etc.
  • 32. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats • The Six Thinking Hats is a method devised by Edward De Bono and meant to improve the results of thinking and discussion. • It may be used either by oneself or in a group. • As per Edward De Bono .. .. by separating six different types of thinking we can make our thinking clearer and more thorough. • These six thinking hats / perspectives are : White Hat, Green Hat, Yellow Hat, Black Hat, Red Hat, Blue Hat
  • 33.
  • 34. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats White Hat represents facts, information, and statistical data, as well as identifying missing information and from which sources it may be collected. White Hat Thinking- Facts Oriented • Information and data • Neutral and objective • What do I know? • What do I need to find out? • How will I get the information I need?
  • 35. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Yellow Hat signifies positive rationality, and is used to look at the positive aspects of a situation or idea, on the potential benefits of the suggested course of action, and on the parties who are expected to profit from it. Yellow Hat Thinking- Benefits • Positives, plus points • Logical reasons are given. • Why an idea is useful
  • 36. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Black Hat is in a way the opposite of the Yellow Hat. It is used for discussing the negative repercussions of the plan, the potential dangers, and any criticism on the logic of arguments made in its support. Black Hat Thinking - Cautions • Focus on difficulties, weaknesses, dangers • Spotting the risks • Logical reasons are given.
  • 37. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Green Hat stands for creativity and unconventional thinking. Under this perspective / hat, people are encouraged to think creatively Green Hat Thinking - Creativity • Ideas, alternatives, possibilities • Thought Provocation • Solutions to black hat problems
  • 38. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Red Hat symbolizes emotions and feelings. Under this perspective / hat, people are “encouraged" to express their feelings about the subject or to share their general mood, which might be affecting their participation or lack of it. Red Hat Thinking - Feelings • Intuition, hunches, gut instinct • Our Feelings right now. • Feelings can change. • No reasons may be given.
  • 39. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Blue Hat - This perspective / hat is used for directing the discussion, for switching hats when necessary, for summarizing the major points of the discussion, as well as for making decisions. Blue Hat Thinking- Controlling Process • Thinking about thinking • What thinking is needed? • Organizing the thinking • Planning for action
  • 40. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Example: • Step 1: Present the facts of the case (White Hat). • Step 2: Generate ideas on how the case could be handled (Green Hat). • Step 3: Evaluate the merits of the ideas- List the benefits (Yellow Hat), List the drawbacks (Black Hat). • Step 4: Get everybody’s gut feelings about the alternatives (Red Hat). • Step 5: Summarize and adjourn the meeting (Blue Hat).
  • 41. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Main benefits … contd : • Allow to say things without risk. • Create awareness that there are multiple perspectives on the issue at hand. • Convenient mechanism for ‘switching gears’ from one perspective to another. • Rules for the game of thinking. • Focussed thinking. • Leads to more creative thinking. • Leads to Improved communication. • Leads to Improved decision making.
  • 42. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Main benefits … contd ..: • De Bono’s Six Hats represent six very different ways of thinking. By using this model one will be able to easily find several ways for getting a message through. • We can save time in thinking about the ideas, and use a clear methodology for producing new ideas whenever we need them.
  • 43. Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Main benefits .. Contd …: • This matches the real life differences in different persons that different persons are influenced by different kinds of communication. Some are deeply affected by emotion, while others are more susceptive to logical reasoning, and a third group may need a fair amount of objective information in order to make their own judgment. • By using creative communication ideas covering all types of thinking, we will be able to choose those that best fit our audience, or even to use all types of thinking to ensure that anyone can find what they are looking for in our message.
  • 44. Creativity Stimulation & Management By Dr. Vijay Kr Khurana