SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Engr.Tehseen Ahsan 
Lecturer, Electrical Engineering Department 
EE-307 Electronic Systems Design 
HITEC University Taxila Cantt, Pakistan 
Basic Op-Amp Circuits
13-1 Comparators 
Operational amplifiers are often used as comparators to compare the amplitude of one voltage with another. 
In this application, the op-amp is used in open-loop configuration, with the input voltage on one input and a reference voltage on the other. 
2
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Zero-Level Detection 
One application of an op-amp used as a comparator is to determine when an input voltage exceeds a certain level. 
Figure 13.1 (a) next slide shows a zero-level detector. Notice that the inverting (-) input is grounded to produce a zero-level and that the input signal voltage is applied to the non-inverting (+) input. 
The input voltage Vin at the non-inverting (+) input is compared with a reference voltage VREF at the inverting input (VREF = 0V). Since VREF = 0V, this is called a zero-level detector. 
Because of the high-open loop voltage gain, a very small difference voltage Vd between the two inputs drives the amplifier into saturation ( non-linear region). 3
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Zero-Level Detection 
Figure 13-1 (b) shows the result of a sinusoidal input voltage applied to the non-inverting (+) input of the zero-level detector. When the sine wave is positive, the output is at its maximum positive level. When the sine wave crosses 0, the amplifier is driven to its opposite state and the output goes to its maximum negative level. 
4
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Zero-Level Detection 
When Vin> VREF ( Sine wave is positive) 
Vd = Vin- VREF 
Vd > 0V 
Vout = + Vout(max) 
When Vin<VREF ( Sine wave is negative) 
Vd = Vin- VREF 
Vd < 0V 
Vout = - Vout(max) 
5
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Nonzero-Level Detection 
A more practical arrangement is shown in figure 13-2 (b) next slide using a voltage divider to set the reference voltage VREF as 
Where +V is the positive op-amp dc supply voltage. 
The circuit in figure 13-2 (c) next slide uses a zener diode to set the reference voltage (VREF = VZ). 
6
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Nonzero-Level Detection 7 
Most practically used
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Nonzero-Level Detection 
Voltage – divider Reference ( figure 13-2 (b) ) 
When Vin> VREF 
Vd = Vin- VREF 
Vd > 0V 
Vout = + Vout(max) 
When Vin<VREF 
Vd = Vin- VREF 
Vd < 0V 
Vout = - Vout(max) 
8
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Nonzero-Level Detection 
Zener diode sets reference voltage ( figure 13-2 (c) ) 
When Vin> VZ 
Vd = Vin- VZ 
Vd > 0V 
Vout = + Vout(max) 
When Vin< VZ 
Vd = Vin- VZ 
Vd < 0V 
Vout = - Vout(max) 
9
10
S 11
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Effects of Input Noise on Comparator Operation 
In many practical applications, noise (unwanted voltage fluctuations) appears on the input line. 
This noise becomes superimposed on the input voltage as shown in figure 13-5 for the case of a sine wave and can cause a comparator to erratically switch output states. 
12
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Effects of Input Noise on Comparator Operation 
In order to understand the potential effects of noise voltage, consider a low-frequency sinusoidal voltage applied to the non inverting (+) input of an op-amp comparator used as a zero- level detector as shown in figure 13-6 (a) next slide. 
Figure 13-6 (b) next slide shows the input sine wave plus noise and the resulting output. 
As we can see when the sine wave approaches 0, the fluctuations due to noise cause the total input to vary above and below 0 several times, thus producing an erratic output voltage. 
13
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Effects of Input Noise on Comparator Operation 
14
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis 
 An erratic output voltage caused by noise on the input occurs because the output voltage switches states several times at the same input voltage level (output voltage switches states several times at + ve half cycle and same for –ve half cycle). 
In order to make the comparator less sensitive to noise, a technique called hysteresis with positive feedback can be used. 
Hysteresis 
There exists a higher reference level i.e., + VREF when input goes from lower to higher value. 
There exists a lower reference level i.e., - VREF when the input goes from higher to lower value. 
15
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis 
 The two reference levels are referred to as the upper trigger point (UTP) and lower trigger point (LTP). 
This two-level hysteresis is established with a positive feedback arrangement as shown in figure 13-7. 
Note that the noninverting (+) input is connected to the a resistive voltage divider such that a portion of the output voltage is fed back to the input. The input signal is applied to inverting input (-) input in this case. 16 
This configuration is also called Schmitt Trigger
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis 
The basic operation of the comparator with hysteresis is illustrated in figure 13-8 next slide(s). Assume that the output voltage is at its positive maximum + Vout(max). The voltage fed back to the non inverting input is VUTP and is expressed as 
When Vin exceeds VUTP , the output voltage drops to its negative maximum, -Vout(max) as shown in part (a). Now the voltage fed back to the non inverting input is VLTP and is expressed as 
A comparator with hysteresis is also called Schmitt trigger. The amount of hysteresis can be found as 
17
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis 18
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis 
19
20
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Output Bounding 
In some applications, it is necessary to limit the output voltage levels of a comparator than that provided by the saturated op-amp. 
A single zener diode can be used as shown in figure13-10 to limit the output voltage to the zener voltage in one direction and to the forward drop in other. The process of limiting the output is called bounding. 21
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Positive Value Output Bounding 
When anode is connected to a negative terminal. 
In positive half cycle of output voltage, the zener diode gets reverse- biased and the limits the output voltage to the zener voltage i.e., +VZ 
In negative half cycle of output voltage, the zener diode gets forward biased and behaves as a normal conventional diode with a drop of 0.7 V across it ( -0.7 V) . It is shown in figure 13-11 (a) below 
22
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Negative Value Output Bounding 
When cathode is connected to a negative terminal. 
In positive half cycle of output voltage, the zener diode gets forward biased and behaves as a normal conventional diode with a drop of 0.7 V across it ( + 0.7 V) . 
In negative half cycle of output voltage, the zener diode gets reverse- biased and the limits the output voltage to the zener voltage i.e., it is shown in figure 13-11 (b) below 
23
13-1 Comparators Continue… 
 Double Bounded Comparator 24
25
26
27
13-2 Summing Amplifiers 
 Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain 
A summing amplifier has two or more inputs and its output voltage is proportional to the negative of the algebraic sum of its input voltages. 
A two-input summing amplifier is shown in figure 13-20, but any number of inputs can be used. 
28
13-2 Summing Amplifiers Continue… 
 Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain 
The operations of the circuit and derivation of the output expression are as follows: 29
13-2 Summing Amplifiers Continue… 
 Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain 30
31
13-2 Summing Amplifiers Continue… 
 Summing Amplifier with Gain Greater Than Unity 32
33
13-2 Summing Amplifiers Continue… 
 Averaging Amplifier 
Averaging amplifier is a variation of summing amplifier. 34
35
36
13-2 Summing Amplifiers Continue… 
 Scaling Adder 
Scaling Adder is also a variation of summing amplifier. 37
38
39
13-3 Integrators and Differentiators 
 The Op-Amp Integrator 
An ideal integrator is shown in figure 13-31. Notice that the feedback element is a capacitor that forms and RC circuit with the input resistor. 
Practical integrators often have an additional resistor Rf in parallel with the feedback capacitor to prevent saturation. However we will consider the ideal integrator for the purpose of our analysis as it does not affect the basic operation. 40
13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue… 
 The Op-Amp Integrator 
41
13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue… 
 The Op-Amp Integrator 
42
13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue… 
 The Op-Amp Integrator 
43
13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue… 
 The Op-Amp Integrator 
44
13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue… 
 The Op-Amp Integrator 
45
46
47
48
13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue… 
 The Op-Amp Differentiator 
An ideal differentiator is shown in figure 13-37. Notice how the placement of the capacitor and resistor differ from the integrator. The capacitor is now the input element and resistor is the feedback element. A differentiator produces and output that is proportional to the rate of change of the input voltage. 
Practical differentiators may include a series resistor Rin to reduce high frequency noise. 
49
13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue… 
 The Op-Amp Differentiator 
50
13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue… 
 The Op-Amp Differentiator 51
13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue… 
 The Op-Amp Differentiator 52
53
54

More Related Content

What's hot

Colpitts Oscillator - Working and Applications
Colpitts Oscillator - Working and ApplicationsColpitts Oscillator - Working and Applications
Colpitts Oscillator - Working and Applications
elprocus
 
Schmitt trigger circuit
Schmitt trigger circuitSchmitt trigger circuit
Schmitt trigger circuit
taranjeet10
 
Electronics 1 : Chapter # 06 : Bipolar Junction Transistor
Electronics 1 : Chapter # 06 : Bipolar Junction TransistorElectronics 1 : Chapter # 06 : Bipolar Junction Transistor
Electronics 1 : Chapter # 06 : Bipolar Junction Transistor
Sk_Group
 
Multistage amplifier
Multistage amplifierMultistage amplifier
Multistage amplifier
Hansraj Meena
 
OPAMP integrator & differentiator.pptx
OPAMP integrator  & differentiator.pptxOPAMP integrator  & differentiator.pptx
OPAMP integrator & differentiator.pptx
JatinMahato1
 
Lecture 8 bjt_1
Lecture 8 bjt_1Lecture 8 bjt_1
Lecture 8 bjt_1
Napex Terra
 
CASCADE AMPLIFIER
CASCADE AMPLIFIERCASCADE AMPLIFIER
CASCADE AMPLIFIER
GLACE VARGHESE T
 
Power Amplifier
Power AmplifierPower Amplifier
Power Amplifier
Amit Kumer Podder
 
Op amp comparator
Op amp comparatorOp amp comparator
Op amp comparator
Ahmadoof
 
Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)
Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)
Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)
Mohammed Bamatraf
 
Encoder & Decoder
Encoder & DecoderEncoder & Decoder
Encoder & Decoder
Syed Saeed
 
Combinational Circuits & Sequential Circuits
Combinational Circuits & Sequential CircuitsCombinational Circuits & Sequential Circuits
Combinational Circuits & Sequential Circuits
gourav kottawar
 
Two port networks
Two port networksTwo port networks
Two port networks
Mohammed Waris Senan
 
Basics of op amp
Basics of op ampBasics of op amp
Basics of op amp
Shushma Kalkura
 
Slew rate, Open and closed loop configurations
Slew rate, Open and closed loop configurationsSlew rate, Open and closed loop configurations
Slew rate, Open and closed loop configurations
GOWRISHANKAR RAJU
 
Clipper circuit
Clipper circuitClipper circuit
Operational amplifiers
Operational amplifiersOperational amplifiers
Operational amplifiers
Vijendrasingh Rathor
 
BJT AC Analisi 5
BJT AC Analisi 5 BJT AC Analisi 5
BJT AC Analisi 5
Ahmad Al-Jmal
 
Slide bab op amp
Slide bab op ampSlide bab op amp
Slide bab op amp
Muhd Faris Noormi
 
FREQUENCY ENTRAINMENT IN A WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY ENTRAINMENT IN A WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATORFREQUENCY ENTRAINMENT IN A WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY ENTRAINMENT IN A WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR
SwgwmsaBoro
 

What's hot (20)

Colpitts Oscillator - Working and Applications
Colpitts Oscillator - Working and ApplicationsColpitts Oscillator - Working and Applications
Colpitts Oscillator - Working and Applications
 
Schmitt trigger circuit
Schmitt trigger circuitSchmitt trigger circuit
Schmitt trigger circuit
 
Electronics 1 : Chapter # 06 : Bipolar Junction Transistor
Electronics 1 : Chapter # 06 : Bipolar Junction TransistorElectronics 1 : Chapter # 06 : Bipolar Junction Transistor
Electronics 1 : Chapter # 06 : Bipolar Junction Transistor
 
Multistage amplifier
Multistage amplifierMultistage amplifier
Multistage amplifier
 
OPAMP integrator & differentiator.pptx
OPAMP integrator  & differentiator.pptxOPAMP integrator  & differentiator.pptx
OPAMP integrator & differentiator.pptx
 
Lecture 8 bjt_1
Lecture 8 bjt_1Lecture 8 bjt_1
Lecture 8 bjt_1
 
CASCADE AMPLIFIER
CASCADE AMPLIFIERCASCADE AMPLIFIER
CASCADE AMPLIFIER
 
Power Amplifier
Power AmplifierPower Amplifier
Power Amplifier
 
Op amp comparator
Op amp comparatorOp amp comparator
Op amp comparator
 
Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)
Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)
Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)
 
Encoder & Decoder
Encoder & DecoderEncoder & Decoder
Encoder & Decoder
 
Combinational Circuits & Sequential Circuits
Combinational Circuits & Sequential CircuitsCombinational Circuits & Sequential Circuits
Combinational Circuits & Sequential Circuits
 
Two port networks
Two port networksTwo port networks
Two port networks
 
Basics of op amp
Basics of op ampBasics of op amp
Basics of op amp
 
Slew rate, Open and closed loop configurations
Slew rate, Open and closed loop configurationsSlew rate, Open and closed loop configurations
Slew rate, Open and closed loop configurations
 
Clipper circuit
Clipper circuitClipper circuit
Clipper circuit
 
Operational amplifiers
Operational amplifiersOperational amplifiers
Operational amplifiers
 
BJT AC Analisi 5
BJT AC Analisi 5 BJT AC Analisi 5
BJT AC Analisi 5
 
Slide bab op amp
Slide bab op ampSlide bab op amp
Slide bab op amp
 
FREQUENCY ENTRAINMENT IN A WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY ENTRAINMENT IN A WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATORFREQUENCY ENTRAINMENT IN A WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY ENTRAINMENT IN A WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR
 

Viewers also liked

Ajal op amp
Ajal op ampAjal op amp
Ajal op amp
AJAL A J
 
Op-Amp Basics Part I
Op-Amp Basics Part IOp-Amp Basics Part I
Op-Amp Basics Part I
Premier Farnell
 
Op amp-electronics
Op amp-electronicsOp amp-electronics
Op amp-electronics
humakhan1357
 
OP AMP Applications
OP AMP ApplicationsOP AMP Applications
OP AMP Applications
aroosa khan
 
2 op-amp concepts
2 op-amp concepts2 op-amp concepts
2 op-amp concepts
MaYaNkShArMa846
 
Op-Amp Fundamental
Op-Amp FundamentalOp-Amp Fundamental
Op-Amp Fundamental
Gaensan
 
Rec101 unit ii (part 2) bjt biasing and re model
Rec101 unit ii (part 2) bjt biasing and re modelRec101 unit ii (part 2) bjt biasing and re model
Rec101 unit ii (part 2) bjt biasing and re model
Dr Naim R Kidwai
 
Op amp(operational amplifier)
Op amp(operational amplifier)Op amp(operational amplifier)
Op amp(operational amplifier)
Kausik das
 

Viewers also liked (8)

Ajal op amp
Ajal op ampAjal op amp
Ajal op amp
 
Op-Amp Basics Part I
Op-Amp Basics Part IOp-Amp Basics Part I
Op-Amp Basics Part I
 
Op amp-electronics
Op amp-electronicsOp amp-electronics
Op amp-electronics
 
OP AMP Applications
OP AMP ApplicationsOP AMP Applications
OP AMP Applications
 
2 op-amp concepts
2 op-amp concepts2 op-amp concepts
2 op-amp concepts
 
Op-Amp Fundamental
Op-Amp FundamentalOp-Amp Fundamental
Op-Amp Fundamental
 
Rec101 unit ii (part 2) bjt biasing and re model
Rec101 unit ii (part 2) bjt biasing and re modelRec101 unit ii (part 2) bjt biasing and re model
Rec101 unit ii (part 2) bjt biasing and re model
 
Op amp(operational amplifier)
Op amp(operational amplifier)Op amp(operational amplifier)
Op amp(operational amplifier)
 

Similar to Basic op amp circuits

Operation amplifier
Operation amplifierOperation amplifier
Operation amplifier
Djukarna Djapri
 
Operationamplifier
OperationamplifierOperationamplifier
Operationamplifier
Ahmad Al-Jmal
 
Unit-II Applications of Operational Amplifier
Unit-II Applications of Operational AmplifierUnit-II Applications of Operational Amplifier
Unit-II Applications of Operational Amplifier
Dr.Raja R
 
04.ppt
04.ppt04.ppt
Integrated circuit unit 2 notes
Integrated circuit unit 2 notesIntegrated circuit unit 2 notes
Integrated circuit unit 2 notes
VINOD YADAV
 
UNIT-3 OPAMP.pptx
UNIT-3 OPAMP.pptxUNIT-3 OPAMP.pptx
UNIT-3 OPAMP.pptx
yogitapatil87
 
Op amp applications cw nonlinear applications
Op amp applications cw nonlinear applicationsOp amp applications cw nonlinear applications
Op amp applications cw nonlinear applications
JUNAID SK
 
linear5 circuit analysis Charateristics of Op-Amp.ppt
linear5 circuit analysis Charateristics of Op-Amp.pptlinear5 circuit analysis Charateristics of Op-Amp.ppt
linear5 circuit analysis Charateristics of Op-Amp.ppt
daminiuvarani
 
Agdon
AgdonAgdon
Summing Amplifier
Summing AmplifierSumming Amplifier
Summing Amplifier
Dr.Raja R
 
Comparator
ComparatorComparator
Comparator
C035RiteshJadhav
 
opamp
opampopamp
OP-AMP.pptx
OP-AMP.pptxOP-AMP.pptx
OP-AMP.pptx
rahul143341
 
Feedback in amplifier
Feedback in amplifierFeedback in amplifier
Multistage transistor
Multistage transistorMultistage transistor
Multistage transistor
Mohammad Shakirul islam
 
Pagra
PagraPagra
Voltage measurement using arduino
Voltage measurement using arduinoVoltage measurement using arduino
Voltage measurement using arduino
Chetan Khatri
 
Ab45
Ab45Ab45
Operational amplifier
Operational amplifierOperational amplifier
Operational amplifier
Muhd Iqwan Mustaffa
 
EE101 Lab4 Guillemaud
EE101 Lab4 GuillemaudEE101 Lab4 Guillemaud
EE101 Lab4 Guillemaud
Nikolas Guillemaud
 

Similar to Basic op amp circuits (20)

Operation amplifier
Operation amplifierOperation amplifier
Operation amplifier
 
Operationamplifier
OperationamplifierOperationamplifier
Operationamplifier
 
Unit-II Applications of Operational Amplifier
Unit-II Applications of Operational AmplifierUnit-II Applications of Operational Amplifier
Unit-II Applications of Operational Amplifier
 
04.ppt
04.ppt04.ppt
04.ppt
 
Integrated circuit unit 2 notes
Integrated circuit unit 2 notesIntegrated circuit unit 2 notes
Integrated circuit unit 2 notes
 
UNIT-3 OPAMP.pptx
UNIT-3 OPAMP.pptxUNIT-3 OPAMP.pptx
UNIT-3 OPAMP.pptx
 
Op amp applications cw nonlinear applications
Op amp applications cw nonlinear applicationsOp amp applications cw nonlinear applications
Op amp applications cw nonlinear applications
 
linear5 circuit analysis Charateristics of Op-Amp.ppt
linear5 circuit analysis Charateristics of Op-Amp.pptlinear5 circuit analysis Charateristics of Op-Amp.ppt
linear5 circuit analysis Charateristics of Op-Amp.ppt
 
Agdon
AgdonAgdon
Agdon
 
Summing Amplifier
Summing AmplifierSumming Amplifier
Summing Amplifier
 
Comparator
ComparatorComparator
Comparator
 
opamp
opampopamp
opamp
 
OP-AMP.pptx
OP-AMP.pptxOP-AMP.pptx
OP-AMP.pptx
 
Feedback in amplifier
Feedback in amplifierFeedback in amplifier
Feedback in amplifier
 
Multistage transistor
Multistage transistorMultistage transistor
Multistage transistor
 
Pagra
PagraPagra
Pagra
 
Voltage measurement using arduino
Voltage measurement using arduinoVoltage measurement using arduino
Voltage measurement using arduino
 
Ab45
Ab45Ab45
Ab45
 
Operational amplifier
Operational amplifierOperational amplifier
Operational amplifier
 
EE101 Lab4 Guillemaud
EE101 Lab4 GuillemaudEE101 Lab4 Guillemaud
EE101 Lab4 Guillemaud
 

Recently uploaded

ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptxML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
JamalHussainArman
 
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECTCHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
jpsjournal1
 
DEEP LEARNING FOR SMART GRID INTRUSION DETECTION: A HYBRID CNN-LSTM-BASED MODEL
DEEP LEARNING FOR SMART GRID INTRUSION DETECTION: A HYBRID CNN-LSTM-BASED MODELDEEP LEARNING FOR SMART GRID INTRUSION DETECTION: A HYBRID CNN-LSTM-BASED MODEL
DEEP LEARNING FOR SMART GRID INTRUSION DETECTION: A HYBRID CNN-LSTM-BASED MODEL
gerogepatton
 
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
IJECEIAES
 
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressionsKuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
Victor Morales
 
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
gerogepatton
 
Literature Review Basics and Understanding Reference Management.pptx
Literature Review Basics and Understanding Reference Management.pptxLiterature Review Basics and Understanding Reference Management.pptx
Literature Review Basics and Understanding Reference Management.pptx
Dr Ramhari Poudyal
 
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Sinan KOZAK
 
Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap - Towards more sustainable steelmaking.pdf
Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap - Towards more sustainable steelmaking.pdfIron and Steel Technology Roadmap - Towards more sustainable steelmaking.pdf
Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap - Towards more sustainable steelmaking.pdf
RadiNasr
 
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdfModelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
camseq
 
Question paper of renewable energy sources
Question paper of renewable energy sourcesQuestion paper of renewable energy sources
Question paper of renewable energy sources
mahammadsalmanmech
 
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
IJECEIAES
 
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part IIRecycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
Aditya Rajan Patra
 
Computational Engineering IITH Presentation
Computational Engineering IITH PresentationComputational Engineering IITH Presentation
Computational Engineering IITH Presentation
co23btech11018
 
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part III
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part IIIRecycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part III
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part III
Aditya Rajan Patra
 
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
kandramariana6
 
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
ihlasbinance2003
 
Textile Chemical Processing and Dyeing.pdf
Textile Chemical Processing and Dyeing.pdfTextile Chemical Processing and Dyeing.pdf
Textile Chemical Processing and Dyeing.pdf
NazakatAliKhoso2
 
TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMTIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
HODECEDSIET
 
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
bijceesjournal
 

Recently uploaded (20)

ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptxML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
 
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECTCHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
 
DEEP LEARNING FOR SMART GRID INTRUSION DETECTION: A HYBRID CNN-LSTM-BASED MODEL
DEEP LEARNING FOR SMART GRID INTRUSION DETECTION: A HYBRID CNN-LSTM-BASED MODELDEEP LEARNING FOR SMART GRID INTRUSION DETECTION: A HYBRID CNN-LSTM-BASED MODEL
DEEP LEARNING FOR SMART GRID INTRUSION DETECTION: A HYBRID CNN-LSTM-BASED MODEL
 
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
 
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressionsKuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
 
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
 
Literature Review Basics and Understanding Reference Management.pptx
Literature Review Basics and Understanding Reference Management.pptxLiterature Review Basics and Understanding Reference Management.pptx
Literature Review Basics and Understanding Reference Management.pptx
 
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
 
Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap - Towards more sustainable steelmaking.pdf
Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap - Towards more sustainable steelmaking.pdfIron and Steel Technology Roadmap - Towards more sustainable steelmaking.pdf
Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap - Towards more sustainable steelmaking.pdf
 
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdfModelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
 
Question paper of renewable energy sources
Question paper of renewable energy sourcesQuestion paper of renewable energy sources
Question paper of renewable energy sources
 
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
 
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part IIRecycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
 
Computational Engineering IITH Presentation
Computational Engineering IITH PresentationComputational Engineering IITH Presentation
Computational Engineering IITH Presentation
 
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part III
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part IIIRecycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part III
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part III
 
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
 
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
 
Textile Chemical Processing and Dyeing.pdf
Textile Chemical Processing and Dyeing.pdfTextile Chemical Processing and Dyeing.pdf
Textile Chemical Processing and Dyeing.pdf
 
TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMTIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
 
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
 

Basic op amp circuits

  • 1. Engr.Tehseen Ahsan Lecturer, Electrical Engineering Department EE-307 Electronic Systems Design HITEC University Taxila Cantt, Pakistan Basic Op-Amp Circuits
  • 2. 13-1 Comparators Operational amplifiers are often used as comparators to compare the amplitude of one voltage with another. In this application, the op-amp is used in open-loop configuration, with the input voltage on one input and a reference voltage on the other. 2
  • 3. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Zero-Level Detection One application of an op-amp used as a comparator is to determine when an input voltage exceeds a certain level. Figure 13.1 (a) next slide shows a zero-level detector. Notice that the inverting (-) input is grounded to produce a zero-level and that the input signal voltage is applied to the non-inverting (+) input. The input voltage Vin at the non-inverting (+) input is compared with a reference voltage VREF at the inverting input (VREF = 0V). Since VREF = 0V, this is called a zero-level detector. Because of the high-open loop voltage gain, a very small difference voltage Vd between the two inputs drives the amplifier into saturation ( non-linear region). 3
  • 4. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Zero-Level Detection Figure 13-1 (b) shows the result of a sinusoidal input voltage applied to the non-inverting (+) input of the zero-level detector. When the sine wave is positive, the output is at its maximum positive level. When the sine wave crosses 0, the amplifier is driven to its opposite state and the output goes to its maximum negative level. 4
  • 5. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Zero-Level Detection When Vin> VREF ( Sine wave is positive) Vd = Vin- VREF Vd > 0V Vout = + Vout(max) When Vin<VREF ( Sine wave is negative) Vd = Vin- VREF Vd < 0V Vout = - Vout(max) 5
  • 6. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Nonzero-Level Detection A more practical arrangement is shown in figure 13-2 (b) next slide using a voltage divider to set the reference voltage VREF as Where +V is the positive op-amp dc supply voltage. The circuit in figure 13-2 (c) next slide uses a zener diode to set the reference voltage (VREF = VZ). 6
  • 7. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Nonzero-Level Detection 7 Most practically used
  • 8. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Nonzero-Level Detection Voltage – divider Reference ( figure 13-2 (b) ) When Vin> VREF Vd = Vin- VREF Vd > 0V Vout = + Vout(max) When Vin<VREF Vd = Vin- VREF Vd < 0V Vout = - Vout(max) 8
  • 9. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Nonzero-Level Detection Zener diode sets reference voltage ( figure 13-2 (c) ) When Vin> VZ Vd = Vin- VZ Vd > 0V Vout = + Vout(max) When Vin< VZ Vd = Vin- VZ Vd < 0V Vout = - Vout(max) 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. S 11
  • 12. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Effects of Input Noise on Comparator Operation In many practical applications, noise (unwanted voltage fluctuations) appears on the input line. This noise becomes superimposed on the input voltage as shown in figure 13-5 for the case of a sine wave and can cause a comparator to erratically switch output states. 12
  • 13. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Effects of Input Noise on Comparator Operation In order to understand the potential effects of noise voltage, consider a low-frequency sinusoidal voltage applied to the non inverting (+) input of an op-amp comparator used as a zero- level detector as shown in figure 13-6 (a) next slide. Figure 13-6 (b) next slide shows the input sine wave plus noise and the resulting output. As we can see when the sine wave approaches 0, the fluctuations due to noise cause the total input to vary above and below 0 several times, thus producing an erratic output voltage. 13
  • 14. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Effects of Input Noise on Comparator Operation 14
  • 15. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis  An erratic output voltage caused by noise on the input occurs because the output voltage switches states several times at the same input voltage level (output voltage switches states several times at + ve half cycle and same for –ve half cycle). In order to make the comparator less sensitive to noise, a technique called hysteresis with positive feedback can be used. Hysteresis There exists a higher reference level i.e., + VREF when input goes from lower to higher value. There exists a lower reference level i.e., - VREF when the input goes from higher to lower value. 15
  • 16. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis  The two reference levels are referred to as the upper trigger point (UTP) and lower trigger point (LTP). This two-level hysteresis is established with a positive feedback arrangement as shown in figure 13-7. Note that the noninverting (+) input is connected to the a resistive voltage divider such that a portion of the output voltage is fed back to the input. The input signal is applied to inverting input (-) input in this case. 16 This configuration is also called Schmitt Trigger
  • 17. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis The basic operation of the comparator with hysteresis is illustrated in figure 13-8 next slide(s). Assume that the output voltage is at its positive maximum + Vout(max). The voltage fed back to the non inverting input is VUTP and is expressed as When Vin exceeds VUTP , the output voltage drops to its negative maximum, -Vout(max) as shown in part (a). Now the voltage fed back to the non inverting input is VLTP and is expressed as A comparator with hysteresis is also called Schmitt trigger. The amount of hysteresis can be found as 17
  • 18. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis 18
  • 19. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Output Bounding In some applications, it is necessary to limit the output voltage levels of a comparator than that provided by the saturated op-amp. A single zener diode can be used as shown in figure13-10 to limit the output voltage to the zener voltage in one direction and to the forward drop in other. The process of limiting the output is called bounding. 21
  • 22. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Positive Value Output Bounding When anode is connected to a negative terminal. In positive half cycle of output voltage, the zener diode gets reverse- biased and the limits the output voltage to the zener voltage i.e., +VZ In negative half cycle of output voltage, the zener diode gets forward biased and behaves as a normal conventional diode with a drop of 0.7 V across it ( -0.7 V) . It is shown in figure 13-11 (a) below 22
  • 23. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Negative Value Output Bounding When cathode is connected to a negative terminal. In positive half cycle of output voltage, the zener diode gets forward biased and behaves as a normal conventional diode with a drop of 0.7 V across it ( + 0.7 V) . In negative half cycle of output voltage, the zener diode gets reverse- biased and the limits the output voltage to the zener voltage i.e., it is shown in figure 13-11 (b) below 23
  • 24. 13-1 Comparators Continue…  Double Bounded Comparator 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. 13-2 Summing Amplifiers  Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain A summing amplifier has two or more inputs and its output voltage is proportional to the negative of the algebraic sum of its input voltages. A two-input summing amplifier is shown in figure 13-20, but any number of inputs can be used. 28
  • 29. 13-2 Summing Amplifiers Continue…  Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain The operations of the circuit and derivation of the output expression are as follows: 29
  • 30. 13-2 Summing Amplifiers Continue…  Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. 13-2 Summing Amplifiers Continue…  Summing Amplifier with Gain Greater Than Unity 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 13-2 Summing Amplifiers Continue…  Averaging Amplifier Averaging amplifier is a variation of summing amplifier. 34
  • 35. 35
  • 36. 36
  • 37. 13-2 Summing Amplifiers Continue…  Scaling Adder Scaling Adder is also a variation of summing amplifier. 37
  • 38. 38
  • 39. 39
  • 40. 13-3 Integrators and Differentiators  The Op-Amp Integrator An ideal integrator is shown in figure 13-31. Notice that the feedback element is a capacitor that forms and RC circuit with the input resistor. Practical integrators often have an additional resistor Rf in parallel with the feedback capacitor to prevent saturation. However we will consider the ideal integrator for the purpose of our analysis as it does not affect the basic operation. 40
  • 41. 13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue…  The Op-Amp Integrator 41
  • 42. 13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue…  The Op-Amp Integrator 42
  • 43. 13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue…  The Op-Amp Integrator 43
  • 44. 13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue…  The Op-Amp Integrator 44
  • 45. 13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue…  The Op-Amp Integrator 45
  • 46. 46
  • 47. 47
  • 48. 48
  • 49. 13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue…  The Op-Amp Differentiator An ideal differentiator is shown in figure 13-37. Notice how the placement of the capacitor and resistor differ from the integrator. The capacitor is now the input element and resistor is the feedback element. A differentiator produces and output that is proportional to the rate of change of the input voltage. Practical differentiators may include a series resistor Rin to reduce high frequency noise. 49
  • 50. 13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue…  The Op-Amp Differentiator 50
  • 51. 13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue…  The Op-Amp Differentiator 51
  • 52. 13-3 Integrators and Differentiators Continue…  The Op-Amp Differentiator 52
  • 53. 53
  • 54. 54