Plant systematics


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Plant systematics

  1. 1. JJA Obico, Instructor Department of Biology U i it f th Phili i M ilUniversity of the Philippines Manila
  2. 2. A science that includes traditionalA science that includes traditional taxonomy and phylogeny GOAL: Phylogenetic reconstructionPhylogenetic reconstruction - evolutionary history of life
  3. 3. Major parts of systematics that includesMajor parts of systematics that includes four components A DescriptionA. Description B. Classification C NomenclatureC. Nomenclature D. Identification Taxon- subjects under study; any group of organismsof organisms
  4. 4. Assignment of features or attributes to aAssignment of features or attributes to a taxon Characters Character states- two or more forms of characters Example:Example: • petal color: yellow, blue • Leaf shapes: lanceolate, ovatep Tools for communication Categorizing and delimiting the attributes f tof a taxon
  5. 5. a statement of its characters which thusa statement of its characters, which thus constitutes the definition of the taxon Taxonomic characters • Characters contributing to the description• Characters contributing to the description
  6. 6. Including Cassuvieae (Cassuviaceae) R.Br., Spodiaceae (Spodiadaceae) Hassk., Spondiaceae (Spondiadaceae) Kunth(Spondiadaceae) Kunth Excluding Blepharocaryaceae, Julianaceae, Pistaciaceae, Podoaceae Trees, or shrubs. Plants non-succulent. Leaves nearly always alternate (opposite in Bouea); simple, or compound; when compound, ternate, or pinnate; exstipulate. Plants hermaphrodite, or monoecious, or dioecious, or gynodioecious, or polygamomonoecious.p yg Flowers in panicles.The terminal inflorescence unit racemose. Flowers typically 5 merous. Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla, or sepaline. Calyx basally gamosepalous. Androecial members free of the perianth; when coherent 1 adelphous (the filaments sometimes basally connate). Stamens (1–)5–10(–12). Gynoecium 1–3–5(–6) carpelled.The pistil 1–5 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; semicarpous ( l ) i t l i i ( ll ) tl i f i O(rarely), or synovarious, or synstylovarious; superior (usually), or partly inferior. Ovary 1–5 locular. Stigmas non-papillate. Placentation when bi- or plurilocular basal. Ovules in the single cavity when unilocular, 1; apotropous; anatropous; unitegmic, or bitegmic; crassinucellate. Fruit when dry indehiscent; a drupe. Seeds non-endospermic. CC3. Widespread in the tropics, also Mediterranean, E. Asia, America. Subclass Dicotyledonae; Crassinucelli. Dahlgren’s Superorder Rutiflorae; Sapindales. APG (1998) Eudicot; core Eudicot; Rosid; Eurosid II; Sapindales. Species 600. Genera about 70. Including commercially important fruits — cashew-nut (Anacardium, and the fleshy peduncle,‘cashew-apple’), mango (Mangifera), Jamaica plum, hog-plum, imbup , pp ), g ( g ), J p , g p , (Spondias). Resins, oils and lacquers from Toxicodendron.
  7. 7. Arrangement of taxa into some type ofArrangement of taxa into some type of order System for cataloguing and expressingSystem for cataloguing and expressing relationships between taxa Grouping and RankingGrouping and Ranking
  8. 8. RANK TAXA___________ Kindgom PlantaeKindgom Plantae Division Magnoliophyta Class Liliopsida (monocots)p ( ) Order Arecales Family Arecaceae Genus Cocos Species Cocos nucifera Primary ranks- ICBN Some ranks have particular ending/suffixSome ranks have particular ending/suffix Ranks are hierarchical
  9. 9. PheneticPhenetic - classification based on overall similaritiessimilarities - common to everyone Phylogenetic classification based on evolutionary- classification based on evolutionary history or pattern of descent
  10. 10. Can be arbitraryCan be arbitrary, e.g., classify these:
  11. 11. Represented in the form of a cladogram/Represented in the form of a cladogram/ phylogenetic tree CladogramCladogram • Lines- lineage or clades; denote descent • Branching- divergence from a common ancestorBranching divergence from a common ancestor Evolution recognized as a change from pre-existing character state(ancestral) topre existing character state(ancestral) to a new (derived) character state
  12. 12. All of life is interconnected byAll of life is interconnected by TAXA descentdescent A B C D E F TIME lineage or clade TIME Cladogram or Phylogenetic TreeCladogram or Phylogenetic Tree
  13. 13. A B C D E F TAXA TIME speciation Cladogram or Phylogenetic Tree
  14. 14. CladisticsCladistics Methodology of inferring the pattern of evolutionary history of a group ofevolutionary history of a group of organisms using apomorphic characters Ancestral character Pleisiomorphy- Pleisiomorphy Derived character - Apomorphy- Apomorphy
  15. 15. Apomorphies the result of evolutionApomorphies - the result of evolution. Taxa sharing apomorphies underwentTaxa sharing apomorphies underwent same evolutionary history, should be grouped togethershould be grouped together.
  16. 16. A B C D E F TAXA Apomorphies f B&C Apomorphy for taxon D for taxa B&C TIME Apomorphy for taxa B-F Cladogram or Phylogenetic Tree
  17. 17. Common ancestry TAXA A B C D E F TIME common ancestor (of taxon D, E, & F) Cl d Ph l ti T common ancestor (of taxon A & taxa B-F) Cladogram or Phylogenetic Tree
  18. 18. Recognized group in phylogeneticRecognized group in phylogenetic systematics Consisting of a common ancestor plus allConsisting of a common ancestor plus all of its descendants Sequential listing of monophyletic groupSequential listing of monophyletic group - serve as a phylogenetic classification schemescheme
  19. 19. A B C D E F TAXA monophyletic group TIME t common ancestor (of taxon A & taxa B-F) common ancestor (of taxon D, E, & F) Cladogram or Phylogenetic Tree
  20. 20. Consisting of a common ancestor but notConsisting of a common ancestor but not all descendants of that common ancestor Two or more separate groups each with a separate common ancestor
  21. 21. A B C D E F TAXA TIME common ancestor (of taxon A & taxa B-F) common ancestor (of taxon D, E, & F) Cladogram or Phylogenetic Tree
  22. 22. A B C D E F TAXA A B C D E F TIME common ancestor ( f t A & t B F) common ancestor (of taxon D, E, & F) Cladogram or Phylogenetic Tree (of taxon A & taxa B-F)
  23. 23. Formal naming of taxa according toFormal naming of taxa according to standardized system International Code of BotanicalInternational Code of Botanical Nomenclature Scientific names (Latin)Scientific names (Latin) A taxon will bear ONLY ONE scientific namename Binomial system of naming
  24. 24. Pterocarpus indicaPterocarpus indica Underscored or italicized generic name: always capitalizedgeneric name: always capitalized specific epithet: not capitalized Species name: binomialSpecies name: binomial Binomial nomenclature • Carolus Linnaeus• Carolus Linnaeus
  25. 25. 1 Universal1. Universal- morning glory and woodbine yellow bellyellow bell
  26. 26. 2 common names are not consistent2. common names are not consistent - two common names one common name refers to more than- one common name refers to more than one species 3 Tells nothing about the rank3.Tells nothing about the rank Rose 4 Not all organisms have common name4. Not all organisms have common name
  27. 27. Principle I. (INDEPENDENCE)Principle I. (INDEPENDENCE) Principle II. (TYPE) Principle III. (PRIORITY) P i i l IV (CORRECT NAME)Principle IV. (CORRECT NAME) Principle V. (LATINIZED)c p e V ( N ) Principle VI. (RETROACTIVE)
  28. 28. HolotypeHolotype • upon which a name is based, originally used or designated at the time of publicationdesignated at the time of publication Isotype • duplicate of holotype (same time, same person,p yp ( , p , same population) Lectotype • selected from original material to serve as the type when no holotype was designated, or the holotype is missingholotype is missing
  29. 29. NeotypeNeotype • Derived from non-original material to serve as the type Syntype • Any specimen cited in the original work when a holotype was not designatedholotype was not designated • Can be one of 2 or more specimens that were designated as types Paratype • Specimen cited but not a holotype, isotype or syntypesyntype
  30. 30. Associating an unknown taxon with aAssociating an unknown taxon with a known one Taxonomic KeyTaxonomic Key • Consists of sequentially choosing among a list of possibilities until the possibilities are narrowedpossibilities until the possibilities are narrowed down to one
  31. 31. Dichotomous keyDichotomous key • Series of two contrasting statements • CoupletsCouplets • Lead- each statement in the couplet
  32. 32. 1 Stamens fused at base into a tube ........……....... Dichelostemma 1' Stamens not fused at base into a tube 2 Fertile stamens 3 ......................................................Brodiaea : 2' Fertile stamens 6 3 Stamens strongly winged at base ...............….......Bloomeria 3' Stamens not strongly winged at base .......….........Muilla
  33. 33. 1 Ovary inferiory 2 Ovules two per carpel .............................. Dilatris 2’ Ovules five per carpel ............................. Lachnanthes 1’ Ovary superior 3 Perianth zygomorphic 4 Nectaries present .................................... Wachendorfia 4’ Nectaries absent ..................................... Barberetta 3’ Perianth actinomorphic .............................. Xiphidium
  34. 34. Polyclave keyPolyclave key • Consists of a list of numerous character states whereby the user selects all of states of that match the specimen • Implemented by a computer algorithm Advantages:Advantages: 1. Still useful if specimen lacks one or more type of datayp 2. ID will be narrowed down at least if not ID
  35. 35. Written description • Floras- Flora of Manila (E. Merrill) Listing of plant taxa of a given region usu. accompanied by keys and descriptionp y y p • Monograph Detailed taxonomy study of all species of a taxonomic groupgroup Specimen Comparison • Herbarium- repository of preserved plant collections Image comparison Expert DeterminationExpert Determination