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fungi bacteria enzymes classification ecology plants virus crossing over meiosis diversity chemistry recombination rna nitrogen fixation microbes catabolism growth factors mutation temperature conjugation eucarpic holocarpic evolution dna replication stem secondary growth antibiotics mycology characters plant taxonomy plant tissue systems sexuality botany sex parasexuality natural selection genetic drift angiosperms sustainability dna biomolecules linkage genotype test cross lead generation factor community abundance dynamics polysaccharides carbohydrates photosynthesis water precipitation pedogenesis weathering soil light equlibrium nomenclature identification flavor aroma plasmid transduction transformation genetics transcription central dogma capsid genome bacteriophage vaccines atp lipid metabolism anabolism autotrophs microbiology transportation legumes cell membrane significance starch evaporation stomata habitat rhizomorph sclerotia nutrients mycorrhizae nutrition karyogamy plasmogamy conidia budding mycelium hyphae biodiversity speciation karyokinesis interphase cell wall haustoria monocot cork cambium vascular cambium dicot embryo sac ovule megaspore symplast plasmodesmata hormones volatile oils proteins alternation of generations vascular plants organic acids sustainable agriculture industry agriculture microfibrils intine exine pollen wall npc tetrad cladistics otu rules of priority valid publication icbn exarch to endarch xylem transformation stele compatibility photoperiodism flower reproduction biology reproductive biology isoenzymes homeostasis gene regulation covalent modification allosteric modulation feedback inhibition plant metabolism phases of taxonomy omega taxonomy beta taxonomy alpha taxonomy taxonomy aspergillus fungi imperfecti haplodization somatric recombination heterokaryon nuclei diversity in sex in fungi tetrapolar heterothallism bipolar heterothallism physiological heterosexuality morphological heterosexuality heterosexuality sex in fungi sporophores chemistry of cell wall modification of thallus thallus structure of fungi cell wall of fungi reassortment of genes vegetative reproduction asexual process bacterial reproduction heterotrophs chemoorganotrophs lithotrophs organotrophs chemotrophs phototrophs microbial nutrition inocuation of vam isolation of vam plant yeild plant growth endomycorrhizae ectomycorrhizae vam mycorrhizal association edible mushrooms preservation of mushrooms storage of mushrooms nutrients of mushrooms mushrooms inoculation substrate for mushroom mushroom spawn cultivation of mushroom mushroom biofertilizer bga & azolla in rice field anabena- azolla association cyanobacteria organic cultivation marketing isolation of azospirrilum azospirrilum crop production and microbes legume plants soil fertlity isolation of rhizobium prions viriods baltimore classification classiofication characters of virus history of virology embryologists megasporogenesis pistil microsporogenesis stamen sex organs sexual reproduction importance of microbes hierarchial organisation five kingdom concept genetic variation neo-darwinism phenotype darwinism demerits of apg iii merits of apg apg iii phylogentic system gts importance of fossil factors of fossilization fossilization types of fossils fossils paleobotany isolation hardy-weinberg equation variation selection population genetics cluster analysis phenetics biometrics numerical taxonomy hei outcome swoc criterion sss ssr dvv accreditation assessment naac mystery dicots monocots geolgical era evoution orgin globalization green chemistry global warming refugee sdgs17 climate channge prospect retrospect women india education control measures disease cycle phytopthora late blight of potato phytopathology oomycota hybrid's name iapt icn rules principles industry and enzyme substrate conc. competitive inhibition enzyme inhibition lock-key theory induced fit apoenzyme enzyme tension wood reaction wood late wood early wood sap wood hear wood dendrochronology wood rrna hnrna trna mrna non-genetic rna genetic rna double helix heterocatalyutic autocatalytic nuceleotides nucleosides nucleic acid campylotropus anatropus caruncle aril hypostuse endothecium denaturation of protein immunity isoelectric point chemical bonding polypeptide protein criss-cross inheritance baldness red-green color blindness haemophilia non-disjunction sex chromosome sex-linkage oxidation steriods triglycerides glycerols fasty acids lipids energy monosaccharides chemical bonds lifepr chaisma crossinmg over variations linkage map linkage groups cell division coupling & repulsion mtdna paramecium kappa particles mitochondria plastid plasmagenes maternal effects cytoplasmic inheritance inhibitory gene masking gene action polymeric gene supplementary factor complementary factor abo blood groups expressibility penetrance multiple alleles lethal factor codominance incomplete dominance mesiosis alleles back cross dominantrecessive heterozygous homozygous climax hydrosere ecesis nudation xoersere invasion allogenic autogenic succession fidelity stratification density phenology niche ecotype edge effect ecotone ecological amplitude allopatric sympatric age distributionbiotic potenti mortality dispersion natality population mesotherms thermoregulation dormancy factors fire wind ecosystem hygroscopicity field capacitywater tablewilti infiltrationplate tectonics dew humidityhail hydrology water cycle fruit bodies storage compost casing spawn free radicals mushrroms disaccharides amylopectin amulose sucrose basiospores basidia economic importance heterosthallism buller's phenomenon dolipore basidiomycotina rhizosphère transamination denitrification nitrification ammonification nod genes nif genes leg-haemoglobin symbiotic free living nitrogen factors of respiration oxidati pay off mitoichondria amphibolic cycle regulations tca cycle gycolysis anaerobic aerobic respiration law of limiting factos assimilatory p[ower reduction photorespiration cam mechanisms hatch-slack cycle cardinal value cavin cycle carbon assimilation spectrum quantum yeild non-cyclic photophosphorylatio q cycle photophosphorylation assimilatory power reducing power light reactions pigments photon conduction capillary water turgor pressure wall pressure osmotic pressure pressure osmosis climate change horizons halophytes renewable resouces hydrolysis dydration bed rock formation consumers producers abiotic biotic dynamism components interleationships nomen nudum binary homonyms basionym author citation nomenclatue systematics species genus chocolate green tea blak tea tannin caffine morphology processing coffeae teaching dehydration soft drinks hard drinks ingredients laxative taste odor anti-inflammatory anti-carcinogenic spices coconut groundnut linseed soyabean uses cultivation essential oil fatty acids fats economic botany cyst endospoires fission gene transfer gram negative gram positive mycoplasma archeae plasnmid flagella capsule shape koch's postulates guanine adenine tmv lysis assemblege penetration adsorption prophage lysogeny lytic bending compression girders stereids stereome sclerenchyma collenchyma wood fibres sheering stress incompressibility inflexibility inextensibility mechanical tissues sunken stomata waxstinging hairs cuticle hais trichomes epidermis protection viroids capsomers prions bacteriophages mycophages cyanophages symmetry tetrazolium test pollen-pistil interaction fda cryopreservation lyophilization solvents storgae germination viability pollens transgeneics covid19 diseases phagemid cosmid probes biopesticides gm food vaccine cynobacteria oxidative phosphorylation nucleotides fermentation etc ed pathway ppp krebs cycle glycolysis metabolism culture social media decline phase log phase lag diauxic growth acidiophiles halophiles growth bga meristem bicollateral bundle open vascular bundle conjoint radial vascular bundles delta diversity introgression polyploiy primary intoduction vaviulov centres cereals crop domestication econmic botany transmembrane flux lignin tannsport cells incrustation secondary cell wall lsd diploid dikaryon acervilus ascospores direct ascocarp mycelia ascomycotina guard cells transpiration pull windows humiditry necessary evil potassium aba guttation bark lenticel transpiration physiology gametangia asexual heterothallic sporangia sporangiophores zygospore coprophilous mucor rhizopus zygomycotina chytridiomycotina eumycota myxomycota stroma pseudoperaenchyma prosenchyma acervuli modification cell lichen decomposers predatious symbionts parasites saprophytes hetertrophs haplontic oidia fragmentation gametes chiasma bivalent meiotic ii meiotic i reductional division cell plate telophase anaphase metaphase prophase cytokinesis check point mitosis cell cycle middle lamella crassulae trabecuylae micelles secondary wall primary wall hemicellulose chemical composition ultra-structure plumule epibasal cells periclinal division endosperm coleorhiza coleoptile periblem dermatogen octant zygote environment landscape repository storehouse flora ex-setu preservation botanical gardens herbarum heteromorphic homomorphic in vitro pollination chemical treatment bud pollination pollination ssi gsi multiple allels incompatibility angiosperm structure exceptions anomalous wood-diversity tylosis double fertilization dry stigma wet stigma hollow style stigma style female gametophyte anatropous orthotropous camylotropous metaxylem vessels phloem loading blind pits bordered pits pits reticulate spiral annular thickenings apoplast secretory substances styloides hydathodes raphides cystoliths ergastic substances cell inclusions ligases hydrolases oxidases dehydrogenase autodegredation developmental biology cytokinin microtubules cytosenesence cytoquiesence autodestruction xylogenesis apoptosis cyto-differentiation geological era land plants pteridophytes mycoinsecticides environmental reclaimation medical biology tapetun probacula pollen kit sporopollenin mgu couplet polyclave dichotomous key bracketed key indented key key gene markers stomium endithecium tapetum pmc pollen biology anther wall synopmorphies dendrogram phenogram estimation of resemblence coding taximetrics botanical institutions latin description effective publication paratype topotype isotype neotype holotype type concept nomwnclature biosystematics cytology antatomy immunology synthetic science applicability demerits merits essence of apg iii computation dna sequence angiosperm phylogenic group twist inversion vascular connection types of transition need of ransition root stem transition function sporophyte coordination vasdular ground epidermal structure & development of plant body structural & functional integrity development of tissue systems origin of tissues tissues structure & development plant anatomy vernalization siphonogamy male gamete mal microgemetogenesis plant biology induction of flowering vernalisation abc gene
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