y = cosh x The curve formed by a hanging necklace is called a catenary. Its shape follows the curve of y = cosh x.
Catenary Curve The curve described by a uniform, flexible chain hanging under the influence of gravity is called a catenary curve. This is the familiar curve of a electric wire hanging between two telephone poles. In architecture, an inverted catenary curve is often used to create domed ceilings. This shape provides an amazing amount of structural stability as attested by fact that many of ancient structures like the pantheon of Rome which employed the catenary in their design are still standing.
Catenary Curve The curve is described by a COSH(theta) function
RELATIONSHIPS OF HYPERBOLICFUNCTIONS tanh x = sinh x/cosh x coth x = 1/tanh x = cosh x/sinh x sech x = 1/cosh x csch x = 1/sinh x cosh2x - sinh2x = 1 sech2x + tanh2x = 1 coth2x - csch2x = 1
The following list shows the principal values of the inverse hyperbolic functions expressed in terms of logarithmic functions which are taken as real valued.
sinh-1 x = ln (x + ) -∞ < x < ∞ cosh-1 x = ln (x + ) x≥1 [cosh-1 x > 0 is principal value] tanh-1x = ½ln((1 + x)/(1 - x)) -1 < x <1 coth-1 x = ½ln((x + 1)/(x - 1)) x>1 or x < -1 sech-1 x = ln ( 1/x + ) 0 < x ≤ 1 [sech-1 a; > 0 is principal value] csch-1 x = ln(1/x + ) x≠0
Hyperbolic Formulas for Integration du 1 u 2 2 sinh C or ln ( u u a ) 2 2 a u a du 1 u 2 2 cosh C or ln ( u u a ) 2 2 u a a du 1 1 u 1 a u 2 2 tanh C,u a or ln C, u a a u a a 2a a u
Hyperbolic Formulas for Integration 2 2 du 1 1 u 1 a a u sec h C or ln ( ) C,0 u a 2 2 u a u a a a uRELATIONSHIPS OF HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS 2 2 du 1 1 u 1 a a u csc h C or ln ( ) C, u 0. 2 2 u a u a a a u
The hyperbolic functions share many properties with the corresponding circular functions. In fact, just as the circle can be represented parametrically by x = a cos t y = a sin t, a rectangular hyperbola (or, more specifically, its right branch) can be analogously represented by x = a cosh t y = a sinh t where cosh t is the hyperbolic cosine and sinh t is the hyperbolic sine.
Just as the points (cos t, sin t) form a circle with a unit radius, the points (cosh t, sinh t) form the right half of the equilateral hyperbola.
Animated plot of the trigonometric(circular) and hyperbolic functions In red, curve of equation x² + y² = 1 (unit circle), and in blue, x² - y² = 1 (equilateral hyperbola), with the points (cos(θ),sin(θ)) and (1,tan(θ)) in red and (cosh(θ),sinh(θ)) and (1,tanh(θ)) in blue.
Applications of Hyperbolic functions Hyperbolic functions occur in the solutions of some important linear differential equations, for example the equation defining a catenary, and Laplaces equation in Cartesian coordinates. The latter is important in many areas of physics, including electromagnetic theory, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and special relativity.
The hyperbolic functions arise in many problems of mathematics and mathematical physics in which integrals involving a x arise (whereas the 2 2 circular functions involve a x 2 2 ). For instance, the hyperbolic sine arises in the gravitational potential of a cylinder and the calculation of the Roche limit. The hyperbolic cosine function is the shape of a hanging cable (the so- called catenary).
The hyperbolic tangent arises in the calculation and rapidity of special relativity. All three appear in the Schwarzschild metric using external isotropic Kruskal coordinates in general relativity. The hyperbolic secant arises in the profile of a laminar jet. The hyperbolic cotangent arises in the Langevin function for magnetic polarization.