Plagiarism, Citing and Referencing Helen Westwood Helen.Westwood.firstname.lastname@example.org Citing and Refencing on the Management Subject Guide
What is Plagiarism?http://www.city.ac.uk/upgrade/basics/plagiarism-video.htmlPlagiarism is when you pass off the work or ideas of otherpeople as your own.It is a form of Academic Misconduct which can lead toyou being expelled from the University, having markscancelled or having to completely redo work.
Academic Misconduct• Not tolerated: University Regulations say that all identifiedcases of suspected misconduct will be actively pursued.• Penalties range from issuing a warning to studentexclusion from the University.• Not just directly copying other peoples‟ work: other formsof plagiarism...
These are all plagiarism:• Copy and pasting from the Internet or others‟ work• Concealing sources• Collusion• Self-plagiarism: using your own work again• Misunderstanding „Common Knowledge‟
Copy and pasting• Don‟t! You will get caught. • Work is passed through special software that WILL catch you, regardless of where you copied from.• You can quote from others‟ work, though: always use quotation marks and acknowledge where you found it:It has been said that “Management is an interesting area to study.” (Smith, 2010).• Try and DO something with the information, don‟t rely heavily on quotes.
Concealing sources• Pretending you had an idea yourself, when you really found it in your research and reading.• Often unintentional: but still counts as Academic Misconduct! • Be very careful when you take notes so you always know which was your idea, and which the author‟s.• Always cite and acknowledge ideas from other people.• If you use it more than once in an essay, cite each time: even if it‟s the next paragraph.
Collusion• Taking credit for other students‟ work.• Working out the answers to homework questions together.• Watch out for group work! Always acknowledge other students‟ ideas and contributions, and work individually on your assignments.• It is NOT chatting with other students, then going away and doing the work on your own.
Common Knowledge• If a fact is common knowledge, you do not need to cite.• If it is not „common knowledge‟, always cite!• Not sure? Ask a tutor for advice, or find a source: it is better to be on the safe side.
Self-plagiarism• Re-submitting your assignments.• Re-using work that you‟ve already carried out.• Re-using the same paragraph in two pieces of work.
Common causes of referrals/failures• Lack of contact with supervisors: it‟s hard for them to tell if you really did the work if you‟re not discussing with them.• Suspiciously good grammar/spelling in parts of your work!• Your tutors know the literature well: they will recognize other peoples‟ ideas.• Inadequate citations/referencing.
So how do I avoid accusations of plagiarism?• Take clear notes.• Quote: if you use someone else‟s words, put them in quotation marks (“...”) and acknowledge them properly.• Paraphrase: give your own understanding of the idea, and acknowledge them properly.• Citing and Reference correctly: this is how you acknowledge other people properly!
Further tips...• Consult with your tutors and supervisors if you‟re in doubt.• Start your work early so you‟ve time to cite and reference properly.• Make sure your conclusions are always your own thoughts, based on the work and research you‟ve done.• Read through your work carefully: is it clear where you‟ve used other people‟s work? Are your own ideas obvious?• Improve your writing skills
Referencing and citing• Your crucial weapon against accidental plagiarism: • Cite authors within your work. • Make a reference list of all the citations at the end of your work.• The two most important aims: 1) Be consistent! 2) Help your reader find the thing you read, so they can read it too.
Tools and guides to help you:• The Citing and Referncing sections on the Subject Guides• RefWorks (see Guide above, login using usual details): • A website we pay for that helps you make your own database of references that you can automatically insert at the right point in your work.• Other free referencing tools: see Guide above.
How do I find the information I need tomake a reference?• Front pages of books and the Library Catalogue Record.• First page, header and footer, or last page of Journal Articles.• Some databases will make a reference up for you to copy and paste into your work: • Yes, you can copy and paste just this once! • Check it carefully: a computer is not as clever as you. • Demo: Business Source Complete
So how do I do Citing & Referencing?• Keep note of what information you used from which source.• Cass uses: Harvard (or Author/Date)
Citation and reference - Harvard• To cite within the text, put the author‟s surname and year of publication in brackets after a sentence: One study has shown that huffing and puffing will blow straw houses down (Grimm, 1971).• Make an alphabetical-by-author Reference List of these citations at the end of the work.
Citation examples - Harvard• It has been argued that cats are far nicer than dogs (Davies, 2007). The findings in Davies’ study, however, are flawed by the small sample size. In fact, Smith later argued that dogs are nicer than cats (2011), but failed to consider that hedgehogs make far better pets than either.• Brick houses have been empirically proved to provide the best protection against wolves (Smith and Reed, 2006).• “Management is amazing” (Johnson, 1976; Hamilton, 1998).
Reference list – Harvard• Alphabetical order by author or editor‟s surname.• Include the year of publication after the name.• Do not abbreviate the titles of journals.• Rules for punctuation and italicisation.• Anderson, D.R., Sweeney, D.J., Williams, T.A. and Martin, K. (2008), An Introduction to Management Science, Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning• Bell, J. (2010) Doing Your Research Project: A Guide for First Time Researchers, 5th edition, Maidenhead: Open University Press / McGraw Hill.• Budhwar, P. & Khatri, N. (2001) Comparative Human Resource Management in Britain and India: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 13 (5): 800-826.
Referencing BooksAuthor, Initials., (Year) Title of book. Edition (if not first). Place: Publisher Brown, H., (1976) Problems in referencing. In D. Driver, (ed) A good guide to referencing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch 2 OR pp. 46- 54 Bell, J. (2010) Doing Your Research Project: A Guide for First Time Researchers, 5th edition, Maidenhead: Open University Press / McGraw Hill. Soros, G., (1966a) The road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Soros, G., (1966b) Beyond the road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Journal articles• Author, Initials., (Year) Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume numbers (Issue/Part number), page numbers.• Mendenhall, M. & Oddou, G. (1998) The Dimensions of Expatriate Acculturation, Academy of Management Review,10: 39-47.Strauss, G. (2001) HRM in the USA: Correcting some British impressions. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12 (6): 873-897. [Accessed 2 October 2011]
Websites and other resourcesInternational Atomic Energy Agency (2007) Nucleus: Fornuclear knowledge and information. Available fromhttp://nucleus.iaea.org/NUCLEUS/nucleus/Content/index.jsp[Accessed 2 October 2007]ALWAYS put in the date you accessed a webpage.Grigio, P. (2002) Aphides and the Pasqua grape. InRosemount, T. (ed) Proceedings of the 5th annual conference.Florida: Florida Press, pp. 43 - 56.
Databases• Publisher (e.g. Bureau van Dijk / Thomson Financial)• (Year of publication / last update)• „Title of report‟,• Database• [Online]• Available at: URL (Give database homepage)• (Accessed: date)If you are citing something in the text then it should appear like this:• As of February 2010, Tesco had 384,389 stores (Bureau van Dijk, 2011)In the references list it should appear like this:• Bureau Van Dijk (2011) „Tesco. Company Overview‟, FAME [Online]. Available at: https://0-fame2.bvdep.com.wam.city.ac.uk/ip (Accessed: 18 November 2011)
Page numbers: use if you are quotingexactly what an author said. • Will help your reader trace your sources: On the topic of professional writing and referencing, Cormac (1994, pp. 32-33) states: “When writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works”.
Further points• Second-hand references are where other works are cited within a work. If you haven‟t read the primary material: Smith (1997, cited in Brown, 2000) found that… Further research into the matter (Smith, 1997, cited in Brown, 2000) discovered that...
Further points (Continued)• In edited works, cite the chapter author, not the editor of the whole work.• Corporate authors – use full name in first citation and abbreviation thereafter: First time: (Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW), 2007) Other times: (ICAEW, 2007)
Referencing in the Library: search thecatalogue for...• Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 8th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan• Neville, C. (2010) The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. 2nd ed. Maidenhead : Open University Press. (Also available as an E-book)
Online guides to Citing and Referencing… City Guides: • http://www.city.ac.uk/upgrade/basics/citing-referencing.html • http://www.city.ac.uk/upgrade/advanced/advanced- referencing.html Guide to Harvard referencing from other Universities: • University of Portsmouth • Bournemouth • Harvard
The End... Any Questions?Even more places to get help:• Me: Helen.Westwood.email@example.com• Desks on Level 2 and Level 5 of the Library• Your tutors and lecturers• Your module and programme handbooks