Citing & Referencing - Harvard


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Citing & Referencing - Harvard

  1. 1. Citing & Referencing Harvard Kirsty Thomson Subject Librarian Spring 2013
  2. 2. Today’s Workshop• Why do you need to reference?• What needs referenced?• What is Harvard referencing, and how do you do it?• Tips and common mistakes.• Getting more help.
  3. 3. Why do you need to reference?• It’s part of academic writing – academic research builds on existing knowledge.• Shows that you’ve read, understood, and can use other researchers’ observations.• Avoids plagiarism: – passing off someone else’s writing, ideas or research as your own.
  4. 4. Background
  5. 5. What year are you in?0% 1. First year of an undergraduate (first) degree.0% 2. Other year of undergraduate degree.0% 3. Postgraduate student.0% 4. Research assistant/staff.
  6. 6. Author-date referencing
  7. 7. Roberts, K. (2004) Lovemarks: the future beyondbrands, New York: Powerhouse Books.Rossiter, J.R. and Bellman, S. (2005) Marketingcommunications: theory and applications,Sydney: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  8. 8. Referencing ...0% 1. I’ve never done referencing before. 2. I’ve done a bit of referencing, but not0% with an author-date system like Harvard.0% 3. I’ve used Harvard/author-date a bit, but I’m not confident.0% 4. I’m used Harvard a lot; I’m here for a refresher.
  9. 9. What needs referenced?
  10. 10. When to reference ...• Need to reference: – Quotes – Facts – Ideas } from somewhere/someone else.• Need to give source even if you have put information into your own words.• Don’t need to reference established facts (things that people studying your subject would always know).
  11. 11. Would this need referenced? “The average temperature in winter is lower than in summer.”0% 1. Yes0% 2. No
  12. 12. Would this need referenced? “Around a quarter of UK households are in fuel poverty, spending more than 10% of their income on heating costs.”0% 1. Yes0% 2. No
  13. 13. Harvard Referencing
  14. 14. What is Harvard Referencing?• “Author-date” referencing system.• Lots of different versions of Harvard: – Heriot-Watt Library guidelines online at – If your lecturer/course handbook tells you to do something different, follow their guidance.
  15. 15. Citations• Citations are pointers in your writing telling the reader you got your information from somewhere else: – According to Smith (1985) the inter-war period was critical in the development of … – Early work on bridge construction showed metal welding was important (Smith 1893, Jones and Phillips 1902) … – A recent survey (Gordon 2011) found …
  16. 16. Reference list• A list of all the sources you have cited your assignment. – given at the end of your work. – in alphabetical order by author/editor. – not separated into types of information (not books, then journals, then websites.)• Note: a bibliography lists all of the sources you have read to help write your assignment, not just those cited in the text. – Bibliography and/or reference list? Ask your tutor!
  17. 17. Harvard - books
  18. 18. Books• Will need: – author(s)/editors(s). – name of book. – year of publication (not year of printing). – name of company that published book. – place the publisher is based.
  19. 19. • Citation: – Author(s)/editor(s) surname and year of publication. – … it has been shown (Ransom 2002) …. – OR … Ransom (2002 , p.205) has shown … – [Also page number? More on this later.]• Reference list: – Author(s)/Editor(s) surname and initials (date of publication) Title, edition if not first, Place of publication: Publisher. – Ransom, D. (2002) The no-nonsense guide to fair trade, Oxford: New Internationalist.
  20. 20. Author(s)/Editor(s) surname and initials (date ofpublication) Title, edition if not first, Place ofpublication: Publisher.Naylor, J. (2004) Management, 2nd ed.,Harlow: PearsonEducation.
  21. 21. More than one author - two or three• Give all authors in citation, in the same order as on the book: – e.g., Companies that discriminate lose talent (Torrington, Hall and Taylor 2008).• Reference list: – Torrington, D., Hall, L. and Taylor, S. (2008) Human resource management, 7th ed., Harlow: Prentice Hall.
  22. 22. More than one author – four or more• Use et al. (“and others”) in the citation, but give all authors in reference list.• Solomon et al. (2006) suggest that …• [Not Solomon, Bamossy, Askegaard, and Hogg (2006) suggest that …]• Solomon, M., Bamossy, G., Askegaard, S. and Hogg, M.K. (2006) Consumer behaviour: a European perspective, 3rd ed., Harlow: Financial Times.
  23. 23. Page numbers in citations• Different departments have different guidelines.• Some only ask for page numbers when you are quoting.• Others want page numbers even if the information is in your own words.• SML – page numbers only needed for quotations.• Others - ??? Check your assignment guidelines or ask your tutor.
  24. 24. Books with editors (1)• Does each chapter have a different author? If so, use the chapter author(s) in the citation. – Tiesdell (2010) provides an overview of… – A major development challenge has been the Clyde waterfront (Tiesdell 2010). Title of chapter• Reference like this: – Tiesdell, S. (2010) ‘Glasgow: renaissance on the Clyde?’, in Punter, J. (ed.). Urban Title of design and the British urban renaissance, book Abingdon: Routledge, pp.262-279. Page numbers for chapter
  25. 25. Books with editors (2)• Sometimes a book has an editor but doesn’t have chapters by different people. Cite these books using the editor.• Kohl won elections in 1983, 1987 and 1990 (Palmer 1996, p.200).• Palmer, A. (ed.) (1996) Who’s who in world politics: from 1860 to the present day, London: Routledge.
  26. 26. No date? No author?• No date – use n.d. – Hendry (n.d.) describes…. – Hendry, S. (n.d.) Flora and fauna of Scotland, Glasgow: Collins.• No author or editor – use the title of the book. – Understanding SPSS (2009) describes.... – Understanding SPSS (2009) London: SPSS Press
  27. 27. Translations• In Vondung’s The apocalypse in Germany (2000, p.64), translated by S.D. Ricks, … OR• According to Vondung (2000, p.64) ...• Vondung, K. (2000) The apocalypse in Germany. Translated from German by S.D. Ricks, Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
  28. 28. eBooks• Osman Akan (2006, p.26) shows that … OR• It has been shown that … (Osman Akan 2006, p.26).• Osman Akan, A. (2006) Open channel hydraulics, Butterworth-Heinemann [online], available: [accessed 12 January 2009].• (The author in this example has two surnames.)
  29. 29. Harvard - journals
  30. 30. Journals• Will need: – author(s) of article. – title of article. – title of journal. – year of publication. – volume, part and page numbers. – (plus URL and date accessed for online articles).
  31. 31. Citing journal articles: paper• The new trend towards conservation was key in the preservation of Edinburgh Castle (Morris, 2007). OR Name of author• Morris (2007) states that … (not journal title)• Morris, R.J. (2007) ‘The capitalist, the professor and the soldier: the re-making of Edinburgh Castle, 1850-1900’, Planning Perspectives, 22, 55-78. All page numbers (not just starting page)
  32. 32. More than one author• Same rules as books.• Citations: – give all authors if two or three. – use et al. in citation if there are four or more authors.• Reference list: – give all authors.
  33. 33. Citing journal articles: online• PDF – reference like a normal paper journal article.• HTML (webpage) – include URL and date you visited page: – Midgley, S.L.W. and Olsen, M.K. (2012) ‘Spectral analysis of a four mode cluster state’, Laser Physics [online], 22(7), 1271-1274, available: 8u74541/ [accessed 17 October 2012].
  34. 34. Other types of materialExamples in your handout and Harvardguide.pdf
  35. 35. In text citation - which is correct? 1. Successful management involves all members0% of a business, not just the managers (John Naylor 2004)0% 2. Successful management involves all members of a business, not just the managers (Naylor 2004)0% 3. Successful management involves all members of a business, not just the managers (2004 - Naylor)
  36. 36. Journal article – which is correct? 1. Krams, I., Berzins, A., Krama, T., Wheatcroft, D. and0% Rantala, M.J. (2009) Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277(168), 513-518. 2. Krams, I., Berzins, A., Krama, T., Wheatcroft, D. and0% Rantala, M.J. (2009) ‘The increased risk of predation increases cooperation’, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277(168), 513-518.0% 3. Krams, I., Berzins, A., Krama, T., Wheatcroft, D. and Rantala, M.J. (2009) ‘The increased risk of predation increases cooperation’, Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
  37. 37. Tips
  38. 38. Quotes• Must make it clear that the words came from somewhere else.• Short quotes – use quotation marks: – According to Royle (2000, p.167) “the British state was strong because it was militarily effective and relatively efficient at raising taxes.” – According to Royle (2000, p.167) “the British state was strong because it was … relatively efficient at raising taxes.”• Ellipsis (three dots …) shows that you have removed words from the original text.
  39. 39. • Longer quotes - space above and below the quote, indent quote from left.According to Solomon et. al. (2006, p.177): The effectiveness of celebrities as communications sources often depends upon their perceived credibility. Consumers may not trust a celebrity’s motives for endorsing a product or they may question the star’s competence to evaluate the product’s claims.Therefore, it can be assumed ...• Don’t waste word count on quotes - more marks if you demonstrate understanding.• Useful when you need to show the exact wording, or if you are going to discuss the quote.
  40. 40. Secondary referencing• Use secondary referencing when your source refers to research done by someone else (which you can’t locate) and you believe that your source’s interpretation of the work is reliable.• E.g., book by Jones talking about work done by Smith: – According to Smith, cited in Jones (2008, p.17) … – OR Jones (2008, p.17) citing Smith notes that … – OR Smith’s landmark experiment ... (Smith cited in Jones 2008, p.17)• Jones would appear in your reference list – not Smith.
  41. 41. Common mistakes (1)• Not having all the required information for your referencing.• Doing citations but forgetting reference list.• Not referencing information taken from elsewhere – very serious; could be accused of plagiarism.• Inconsistency – make sure all your references are in the same style.
  42. 42. Common mistakes (2)• Too much information for publisher’s location. – Only need to give town. • Could also give country/region if you think the town is unclear. – Edinburgh: Blackwells. – London, Ontario: Althouse Press. – Not • 6 York Place, Edinburgh: Blackwells. • London, Ontario, Canada, N6G 1G7: Althouse Press.
  43. 43. Reference Management Software• Reference Management Software can assist you in writing references correctly.• Adds citations to your text and automatically creates a reference list.• Information Services runs Power Hours on using EndNote Web.
  44. 44. Today’s Workshop• Why do you need to reference?• What needs referenced?• What is Harvard referencing, and how do you do it?• Tips and common mistakes.• Getting more help.
  45. 45. Useful book• Cite them right: the essential referencing guide by Richard Pears & Graham Shields• Slightly different version of Harvard, but gives good guidance.
  46. 46. Help with referencing• Subject Librarians: – Mathematical & Computer Sciences, Built Environment - Sarah Kelly – Life Sciences - Marion Kennedy – Engineering & Physical Sciences, Petroleum Engineering - Kirsty Thomson – Management & Languages, Edinburgh Business School, Combined Studies - Catherine Ure• Library Enquiry Desk••