Evaluation is very important requirement of
It is a systematic process of collecting, analysing ,
interpreting information to determine the extent to
which pupil are achieving instructional objectives.
Characteristics of evaluation
It is a systematic process.
It is a continuous process.
It emphasises broad personality changes and
major objectives of an educational programme. It
includes not only subject matter achievements
but also attitudes, interests,and ideals, way of
thinking, work habits and personal and social
It assumes that educational objectives have previously
been defined and identified.
A comprehensive programme of evaluation involves use of
many procedures like-analytico-synthetic,experimental,
lecture etc agreat variety of tests like-essay type objective
type and many techniques like-controlled observation ,
sociometric techniques etc
Learning is more important than teaching.
Need and objectives of
Evaluation helps to design better education
It helps the teacher to know his pupils in detail.Today
education is child –centered. So child’s interests,
ability,interests,aptitudes are to be properly studied
so as to arrange instruction accordingly.
It helps teacher to determine, evaluate and refine
his instructional objectives.
It helps to know the entry behaviour of the
It helps the administrator in educational planning
and in decisions regarding selections
,classification and placement.
It helps parents to know the progress of their
Concept of evaluation
Evaluation plays an enormous role in teaching-
It implies a systematic process which omits the
casual uncontrolled observation of pupils.
It is a continuous process
It includes not only subject-matter achievement
but also attitudes, interests and ideals, ways of
thinking ,work habits ,personal and social
A comprehensive programme of evaluation involves the
use of many procedures like analytical-synthetic, heuristic,
experimental, lecture etc.a great
variety of tests like essay type, objective type,and other
techniques like sociometric, controlled observation etc.
Learning is more important than teaching.
Evaluation is assessing the students and their complete
development brought about through education.
It is used to monitor the learning process of students
during the period of instruction.
It provides continuous feedback to both teacher and
student concerning learning successes and failure while
instruction is in process.
Feedback to students provides reinforcement of successful
learning and identifies the specific learning errors that
Feedback to teacher provides information for modifying
instruction and for prescribing individual and group
It aims at improvement of instruction.
It is concerned with the process of development
Cornback is the first educationist who said that
thegreatest service evaluation can perform is to
identify aspects of the course where education is
It is a positive evaluation because it attempts to
create desirable learning goals and tools for
achieving such goals.
Types of formative evaluation
Diagnosing- It is concerned with determining the most
appropriate method or instructional materials conducive
Placement- It is concerned with finding out the position of
an individual in the curriculum from which he has to start
Monitoring- It is concerned with keeping track of the day
today progress of the learners and to point out changes
necessary in the methods ofteaching instructional
Characteristics of Formative
It is an integral part of learning process.
It occurs frequently during the course of
Its results are made immediately known to the
It may sometimes take teacher’s observation only.
It reinforces learning of the students.
It pinpoints difficulties being faced by weak learners.
Its result can not be used for grading or placement
It helps in modification of instructional strategies
including method of teaching immediately.
It motivates learners; as it provides them with knowledge
of progress made by them.
It sees the role of evaluation as a process.
It is generally teacher made test
It does not take much time to construct
Examples of formative
Teacher’s observation etc.
It is done at the end of the course of instruction
to know to what extent the objectives previously
fixed have been accomplished.
Its main objective is to assign grades to the
It indicates the degree to which the students have
mastered the course content.
It helps to judge the appropriateness of
It has danger of making negative effects. This
evaluation may brand a student as a failed
candidate, and thus causes frustration and setback
in the learning process of the candidate.
The tests for summative evaluation are given at
the end of a course .
The functions of summative
Crediting- It is concerned with collecting
evidence that a learner has achieved some
instructional goals in respect to a defined
Certifying- It is concerned with giving evidence
that the learner is able to perform a job according
to the previously determined standards.
Promoting- It is concerned with promoting pupils to
next higher class.
Selecting- Selecting the pupil for different courses
after completion of a particular course structure.
Characteristics of summative
It is terminal in nature as it comes at the end of
the course of instruction.
It is judgemental in character in the sense that it
judges the achievement of pupils.
It views evaluation ‘as a product’, because its
chief concern is to point out the levels of
It can not based on teacher’s observation only.
It does not pin point difficulties faced by the
Its result can be used for placement and grading
It reinforces learning of the students who has
learnt an area.
It may or may not motivate the learners.
Sometimes it may have negative effects.
Examples of summative
Traditional school and university examinations.
Teacher made tests.
Practical and oral tests.
The term diagnosis has been taken from medical
Difficulties in learning occur at all levels and
among pupils of both high and low mental
Like a doctor teacher uses similar techniques to
diagnose the relative strength and weaknesses of
pupil in specific area of study, analyse the causes
for the same and then gives remedial measures as
The diagnostic test takes off where formative test
It is a means by which an individual profile is
examined and compared under certain norms or
It is more intensive and act as a tool for analysis of
It is more limited to low ability students.
It is corrective in nature.
It pinpoints the specific type of error each pupil is
making and searches for underlying cause of problem.
It is more comprehensive.
It can be done by constant observation of
pupils,analysis of performance,achievement test
,analysis of cumulative record and anecdotal records
It can be conducted by observing the pupil’s participation
in class room activities, peer relationship’ independent
By taking physical and health records about vision,
hearing etc.and family background.
By interviewing pupil to know the problem and their
By parent conference.
By clinic guide like vision tester, audio-meter
etc.,consultation with doctor ,counsellors,psychologists.
By developing strong motivation, token economy.
A criterion-referenced test is used to ascertain an
individual’s status with respect to a defined
It is concerned with the performance of an
individual in terms of what he can do or the
behaviour he can demonstrate.
In this evaluation there is a reference to a
criterion but there is no reference to the
performance of other individuals in the group.
In it we refer an individual’s performance to a
predetermined criterion which is well defined.
It is objective based test.
It includes the entire terminal behaviour that is
supposed to be shaped through the programme .
It is not the test of grading the students rather it
is a test designed to measure the extent to which
students have mastered their learning outcomes.
Norm- referenced evaluation-A norm referenced evaluation test is
used to ascertain an individual’s status
with respect to the performance of other
individual on that test.
Here measurement act relates to some
norm, group or a typical performance.
It is an attempt to interpret the result in
terms of the performance of certain
It is used by teachers to differentiate and classify
among students of some defined group like age or
In it comparison of students is relative rather than
It is used for
discriminating students who have different
Classifying the students for the purpose of
selection in some course
As a guideline for students
Promoting the students in higher class
The selection of employees by the employers
Counsellors and guidance workers
Teachers to rank the students