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Concept of curriculum
By
Soumya Ranjan Parida
Learning objectives
• Define curriculum
• State the nature of curriculum
• Purposes ( aims and objectives) of curriculum
• Needs and significance of curriculum
• Describe the functions of curriculum
• Components of curriculum
• Types of curriculum
Introduction
• Teachers use curricula when trying to see
what to teach to students and when, as well
as what the rubrics should be, what kind of
worksheets and teacher worksheets they
should make, among other things.
• It is actually up to the teachers themselves
how these rubrics should be made, how these
worksheets should be made and taught; it's all
up to the teachers.
Cont..
• In a practical understanding, though, there is no
concrete way to say what methodology is right to
use.
• But it is also true that the way in which a certain
topic is taught habitually resolves what is actually
taught.
• This is why it is required to make a distinction
between the official or planned curriculum and
the de facto curriculum; the one that is formal
and the one that is actually taught in schools.
Meaning
• The word curriculum has been derived from
Latin word Currere which means race course.
• Hence etymologically curriculum means
distance/ path or way to be covered
Narrow meaning of curriculum
a. Course of study
b. List of content to be taught
c. Subject matter
Curriculum is a systematic organization of course
or sequences of subjects required for graduation
or certification in a major field of study.
Wider meaning of curriculum
• Curriculum is totality of experiences of each
learner under the influence of school. Sheffler
• Curriculum is planned action for instruction.
Mac. Donald
• It is the toll in the hand of the artist to mould his
materials (students)according to his ideal
(Objectives) in his studio (school). Cunningham
Definition of curriculum
• The term curriculum refers to the lessons and
academic content taught in a school or in a
specific course or program.
• According to Oxford dictionaries, curriculum is
the subjects comprising a course of study in a
school or college: course components of the
school curriculum.
Cont..
• Curriculum refers to the means and materials
with which students will interact for the
purpose of achieving identified educational
outcomes.
• Arising in medieval Europe was the trivium, an
educational curriculum based upon the study
of grammar, rhetoric, and logic.
Conti..
• Pratt (1980) defines curriculum as a written
document that systematically
describes goals planned, objectives, content,
learning activities, evaluation procedures and
so forth.
• According to Wortham (2006) that Curriculum
is a planned set of course that is presented to
teachers to arrange teaching and learning in
certain level of ages.
Cont..
• In education, a curriculum is
broadly defined as the totality of student
experiences that occur in the educational
process.
• The term often refers specifically to a planned
sequence of instruction, or to a view of the
student's experiences in terms of the
educator's or school's ...
Conti..
• A curriculum is considered the “heart” of any
learning institution which means that schools or
universities cannot exist without a curriculum.
• With its importance in formal education,
curriculum has become a dynamic process due to
the changes that occur in our society.
• Therefore, in its broadest sense, curriculum refers
to the “total learning experiences of individuals
not only in school, but in society as well”
(Bilbao et al., 2008).
Conti..
• According to Modalior commission :-
“Curriculum includes all the learner’s
experiences in or outside that are included in
a program which has been devised to help him
develop physically, emotionally, socially,
spiritually and morally.”
• Curriculum can be defined as the totality of
learning activities that are designed to achieve
specific educational outcomes(Bevis 1982)
Conti..
• Cronbleth (1992) defines curriculum as
answering three questions:
• What knowledge, skills and values are most
worthwhile?
• Why are they most worthwhile?
• How should the young acquire them?
Concept of curriculum
• Concept means idea or notion about a particular thing.
• The concept of curriculum is not static.
• It will keep on change.
• Traditional concept of curriculum represented the
mastery over the subjects, certain type of knowledge
and skills. Passing over the examination was the goal.
• It did not considered the needs of the individual and
individual differences.
• Did not values the learning and the learned.
• It mainly tested the memory of learners.
Cont..
• The newer concept of curriculum accept the
education as a dynamic process.
• Education helps the learners learning the
concepts.
• It guides and helps the learner to live in the
present world making necessary adaption,
solving problems of life and being creative in
planning and progression towards his own future.
• The teaching learning process provided in the
teaching institutions help in this process.
Cont..
• The modern concept aims to promote the all around
development of the individual.
• It helps him to identify and realize his inner potentials to
achieve the goals of his life.
• This emphasize the totality experience gained inside and
outside the educational institution.
• Modern curriculum is practical and it is related to the
community life.
• It includes all the activities that will cater to the needs of the
individual and the society.
• It keeps up the students needs met in the fast changing
society.
• Thus modern concept of curriculum is a balanced curriculum.
Concept of curriculum
Cont..
• Curriculum includes – courses of studies,
methods of teaching extra and curricular
activities in addition to regular pfograms.
School
Co- Curricular programmes Extra curricular programmes
Curricular programmes
Nature (Characteristics) of curriculum
Written document and actual practice-
Curriculum refers to both a written document and the actual
practice of implementing an academic program.
Unique and based on needs-
Each curriculum is unique and based on the healthcare needs of the
population it is deigned to serve.
Not static-
Neither a written nor a practical curriculum is static.
Flexible-
Curriculum must be flexible enough to incorporate changing
healthcare needs and an emerging evidence base.
To be regularly revised-
It should be regularly revised based on monitoring of individual
courses and occasional evaluation of the overall academic program.
Purposes (Aims & Objectives) of
curriculum
1. To equip the learners through bringing the desirable
behavioral change in them
2. To equip with and handle life situations realistically,
rationally without sacrificing the human principles.
3. To help –
• In development of healthy personnel at all levels
• Preparation of respective health team members
• Students participation in curriculum development
• Realize the educational objectives
Cont..
4. Curriculum is intended –
• To draw out, cultivate, inspire the full
development of each student.
• To create an atmosphere in which student will
learn to think, faculty and student will be
objective, constructive and truthful to solve the
problems, reason out and develop the power of
thought.
• To establish values through intimate
acquaintances with the humanities, arts, natural
sciences, social sciences and religion.
Cont..
• To develop characters of students – integrity,
honesty, cooperation
• To create community of scholars – engage in
research, free enquiry
• To prepare the pupil for citizenship in a
democratic society.
• To meets the needs of students with a wide range
of ability, aptitude and interests.
• To make good decision and judgment in a socially
desirable directions.
The purpose of the curriculum in
nursing
1. The preparation of the student to function as a
nurse.
2. Increase preparation of the student for family
functioning.
3. To become more fully prepared to participate in
the life activities, to become a better person and
a better citizen as well as a good nurse for
having studied in the school of nursing
4. The preparation of the nurse who can carry out
those activities necessary to full fill as a
professional nurse in a democratic society.
Need and significance of curriculum
1. To equip with inner potentialities for nation
building.
2. To develop the aesthetic, emotional, ethical,
intellectual, physical, social, material,
spiritual and vocational qualities of the child.
3. To increase the abilities of students to
become an active and precipitating adults.
Function of curriculum
Primary function-
• To produce maximum cumulative effect in
attaining the objectives of the school.
Secondary function
• To maximize the total effect of the various
learning experiences by –
students personality development
within the subject matter
Components of curriculum
• Philosophy
• Objectives
• Duration of learning experience-
Theoretical
Practical
Clinical experience
• Courses of study-
task analysis,
selection,
planning and organization of learning experience.
• Instructional methods
• Programme of evaluation-
evaluation methods,
plan and schedule of evaluation,
results of evaluation
Nursing curriculum
• A nursing curriculum is the blueprint to your
career destiny.
• Nursing curricula vary by school, whether the
program is for an undergraduate or associate
degree and, within those programs, whether it
is for registered or practical nurses
Components of nursing curriculum
• Natural science- biology, microbiology,
biophysics, bio chemestry, pharmacology etc..
• Humanitics, behavioral and social science-
sociology, psychology.
National health policy goals, job responsibilities
resources, country’s health scenario etc
• Professional nursing areas-
• Fundamentals of nursing, midwifery, CHN, Ped.
Nursing, MSN
• Organized instruction constitution-
Cont..
• Teaching learning activities-
a. class room instruction – principle and purposes of nursing
techniques
b . planned instruction & demonstration- lab procedure simulation
• Supervised clinical nursing practice
c. Planned clinical instruction – hospital & community duty
• Community oriented nursing practice –
d. Community task analysis – to assess needs of the community
e. Provision for co relation and verification of theory in clinical
practice.
f. Recommendations made by the relevant health related
committees reports
K A Feithwood
• According to K A Feithwood curriculum includes-
• Educational philosophy
• Values and objectives
• Organizational structure
• Materials
• Teaching strategies
• Student experiences
• Learning outcomes
Main components
1. Programme of studies- language, behavioral
science theory
2. Programme of activities- learning
experiences in clinical areas
3. Programme of guidance – to solve student’s
educational, personal, professional and
vocational problems.
Agnes. S. Robinson
Components of curriculum –
a. Philosophy
b. Goals and objectives
c. Content
d. Processes
e. Resources, course statement
f. Conceptual framework
g. Planning, organization, implementation
and evaluation of learning experience in
class room, lab, in the community and
extracurricular activities.
Types of curriculum
Knowledge
centered(subject centered)
Competence based( activity
based)
Experience based
Knowledge centered curriculum
(subject centered) :
• Knowledge centered curriculum is that
curriculum in which knowledge is divided in
terms of isolated subjects.
• The sequence followed is the logical sequence
pertaining to the particular discipline
• The logic is determined by the subject
specialist.
Cont..
• The knowledge-centered curriculum has been
traditionally used by many school districts with
great effect.
• This model of curriculum development is teacher
and academically centered.
• The teacher is responsible for setting the course
of the curriculum (“Knowledge Centered”,
2000).
• Curricula are established by experts and taught
by experts (Ellis, 2004).
Cont..
• "A good knowledge-centered curriculum
focuses on intellectual growth and
development, on challenging the learner to
go deeper into history, literature,
mathematics, the arts, and other subjects."-
Arthur K. Ellis
Competence based curriculum (Task
oriented or activity based curriculum)
• A competency-based curriculum is a
curriculum that emphasizes what learners are
expected to do rather than mainly focusing on
what they are expected to know.
• The focus is on the tasks that a successful
graduate Nurse need to do later as a
competent professional.
The tasks could be of:
1. Cognitive - problem solving skills,
2. Definitive - communication skills
3. Mixed type encompassing more than one
domain.
• Nursing curricula need to adopt this approach
more widely.
Experience based curriculum
• Experiential learning is a well-known model in
education.
• Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (Kolb,
1984) defines experiential learning as "the
process whereby knowledge is created
through the transformation of experience.
• Knowledge results from the combination of
grasping and transforming experience.”
In this type of curriculum
learner is placed in the
natural setting of the
community.
Perhaps community
oriented nursing
education is an ideal
method of educating
learners.
CURRICULUM COMMITTEE
• The curriculum committee is charged with
developing the standards-based curriculum and
addressing the broader concerns that will be
reflected in the curriculum framework.
• Curriculum policy makers and developers:
• Curriculum administrators
•Principles
•School boards
•Communities
•Law makers
Cont.
•Educational researchers
•Teacher educators
•Publishers
•State departments of education
•Parents •Students •Non- school educators
•Project directors •Authors •Testers
•Accreditors •Polisters •Lobbyists •Philanthropists
Summarization
Evaluation –
Assignments-
• Define curriculum.
• Briefly describe the concept and types of
curriculum.
• What are the components of curriculum?
Concept of curriculum

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Concept of curriculum

  • 2. Learning objectives • Define curriculum • State the nature of curriculum • Purposes ( aims and objectives) of curriculum • Needs and significance of curriculum • Describe the functions of curriculum • Components of curriculum • Types of curriculum
  • 3. Introduction • Teachers use curricula when trying to see what to teach to students and when, as well as what the rubrics should be, what kind of worksheets and teacher worksheets they should make, among other things. • It is actually up to the teachers themselves how these rubrics should be made, how these worksheets should be made and taught; it's all up to the teachers.
  • 4. Cont.. • In a practical understanding, though, there is no concrete way to say what methodology is right to use. • But it is also true that the way in which a certain topic is taught habitually resolves what is actually taught. • This is why it is required to make a distinction between the official or planned curriculum and the de facto curriculum; the one that is formal and the one that is actually taught in schools.
  • 5. Meaning • The word curriculum has been derived from Latin word Currere which means race course. • Hence etymologically curriculum means distance/ path or way to be covered
  • 6. Narrow meaning of curriculum a. Course of study b. List of content to be taught c. Subject matter Curriculum is a systematic organization of course or sequences of subjects required for graduation or certification in a major field of study.
  • 7. Wider meaning of curriculum • Curriculum is totality of experiences of each learner under the influence of school. Sheffler • Curriculum is planned action for instruction. Mac. Donald • It is the toll in the hand of the artist to mould his materials (students)according to his ideal (Objectives) in his studio (school). Cunningham
  • 8. Definition of curriculum • The term curriculum refers to the lessons and academic content taught in a school or in a specific course or program. • According to Oxford dictionaries, curriculum is the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college: course components of the school curriculum.
  • 9. Cont.. • Curriculum refers to the means and materials with which students will interact for the purpose of achieving identified educational outcomes. • Arising in medieval Europe was the trivium, an educational curriculum based upon the study of grammar, rhetoric, and logic.
  • 10. Conti.. • Pratt (1980) defines curriculum as a written document that systematically describes goals planned, objectives, content, learning activities, evaluation procedures and so forth. • According to Wortham (2006) that Curriculum is a planned set of course that is presented to teachers to arrange teaching and learning in certain level of ages.
  • 11. Cont.. • In education, a curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. • The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's ...
  • 12. Conti.. • A curriculum is considered the “heart” of any learning institution which means that schools or universities cannot exist without a curriculum. • With its importance in formal education, curriculum has become a dynamic process due to the changes that occur in our society. • Therefore, in its broadest sense, curriculum refers to the “total learning experiences of individuals not only in school, but in society as well” (Bilbao et al., 2008).
  • 13. Conti.. • According to Modalior commission :- “Curriculum includes all the learner’s experiences in or outside that are included in a program which has been devised to help him develop physically, emotionally, socially, spiritually and morally.” • Curriculum can be defined as the totality of learning activities that are designed to achieve specific educational outcomes(Bevis 1982)
  • 14. Conti.. • Cronbleth (1992) defines curriculum as answering three questions: • What knowledge, skills and values are most worthwhile? • Why are they most worthwhile? • How should the young acquire them?
  • 15. Concept of curriculum • Concept means idea or notion about a particular thing. • The concept of curriculum is not static. • It will keep on change. • Traditional concept of curriculum represented the mastery over the subjects, certain type of knowledge and skills. Passing over the examination was the goal. • It did not considered the needs of the individual and individual differences. • Did not values the learning and the learned. • It mainly tested the memory of learners.
  • 16. Cont.. • The newer concept of curriculum accept the education as a dynamic process. • Education helps the learners learning the concepts. • It guides and helps the learner to live in the present world making necessary adaption, solving problems of life and being creative in planning and progression towards his own future. • The teaching learning process provided in the teaching institutions help in this process.
  • 17. Cont.. • The modern concept aims to promote the all around development of the individual. • It helps him to identify and realize his inner potentials to achieve the goals of his life. • This emphasize the totality experience gained inside and outside the educational institution. • Modern curriculum is practical and it is related to the community life. • It includes all the activities that will cater to the needs of the individual and the society. • It keeps up the students needs met in the fast changing society. • Thus modern concept of curriculum is a balanced curriculum.
  • 19. Cont.. • Curriculum includes – courses of studies, methods of teaching extra and curricular activities in addition to regular pfograms. School Co- Curricular programmes Extra curricular programmes Curricular programmes
  • 20. Nature (Characteristics) of curriculum Written document and actual practice- Curriculum refers to both a written document and the actual practice of implementing an academic program. Unique and based on needs- Each curriculum is unique and based on the healthcare needs of the population it is deigned to serve. Not static- Neither a written nor a practical curriculum is static. Flexible- Curriculum must be flexible enough to incorporate changing healthcare needs and an emerging evidence base. To be regularly revised- It should be regularly revised based on monitoring of individual courses and occasional evaluation of the overall academic program.
  • 21. Purposes (Aims & Objectives) of curriculum 1. To equip the learners through bringing the desirable behavioral change in them 2. To equip with and handle life situations realistically, rationally without sacrificing the human principles. 3. To help – • In development of healthy personnel at all levels • Preparation of respective health team members • Students participation in curriculum development • Realize the educational objectives
  • 22. Cont.. 4. Curriculum is intended – • To draw out, cultivate, inspire the full development of each student. • To create an atmosphere in which student will learn to think, faculty and student will be objective, constructive and truthful to solve the problems, reason out and develop the power of thought. • To establish values through intimate acquaintances with the humanities, arts, natural sciences, social sciences and religion.
  • 23. Cont.. • To develop characters of students – integrity, honesty, cooperation • To create community of scholars – engage in research, free enquiry • To prepare the pupil for citizenship in a democratic society. • To meets the needs of students with a wide range of ability, aptitude and interests. • To make good decision and judgment in a socially desirable directions.
  • 24. The purpose of the curriculum in nursing 1. The preparation of the student to function as a nurse. 2. Increase preparation of the student for family functioning. 3. To become more fully prepared to participate in the life activities, to become a better person and a better citizen as well as a good nurse for having studied in the school of nursing 4. The preparation of the nurse who can carry out those activities necessary to full fill as a professional nurse in a democratic society.
  • 25. Need and significance of curriculum 1. To equip with inner potentialities for nation building. 2. To develop the aesthetic, emotional, ethical, intellectual, physical, social, material, spiritual and vocational qualities of the child. 3. To increase the abilities of students to become an active and precipitating adults.
  • 26. Function of curriculum Primary function- • To produce maximum cumulative effect in attaining the objectives of the school. Secondary function • To maximize the total effect of the various learning experiences by – students personality development within the subject matter
  • 27. Components of curriculum • Philosophy • Objectives • Duration of learning experience- Theoretical Practical Clinical experience • Courses of study- task analysis, selection, planning and organization of learning experience. • Instructional methods • Programme of evaluation- evaluation methods, plan and schedule of evaluation, results of evaluation
  • 28. Nursing curriculum • A nursing curriculum is the blueprint to your career destiny. • Nursing curricula vary by school, whether the program is for an undergraduate or associate degree and, within those programs, whether it is for registered or practical nurses
  • 29. Components of nursing curriculum • Natural science- biology, microbiology, biophysics, bio chemestry, pharmacology etc.. • Humanitics, behavioral and social science- sociology, psychology. National health policy goals, job responsibilities resources, country’s health scenario etc • Professional nursing areas- • Fundamentals of nursing, midwifery, CHN, Ped. Nursing, MSN • Organized instruction constitution-
  • 30. Cont.. • Teaching learning activities- a. class room instruction – principle and purposes of nursing techniques b . planned instruction & demonstration- lab procedure simulation • Supervised clinical nursing practice c. Planned clinical instruction – hospital & community duty • Community oriented nursing practice – d. Community task analysis – to assess needs of the community e. Provision for co relation and verification of theory in clinical practice. f. Recommendations made by the relevant health related committees reports
  • 31. K A Feithwood • According to K A Feithwood curriculum includes- • Educational philosophy • Values and objectives • Organizational structure • Materials • Teaching strategies • Student experiences • Learning outcomes
  • 32. Main components 1. Programme of studies- language, behavioral science theory 2. Programme of activities- learning experiences in clinical areas 3. Programme of guidance – to solve student’s educational, personal, professional and vocational problems.
  • 33. Agnes. S. Robinson Components of curriculum – a. Philosophy b. Goals and objectives c. Content d. Processes e. Resources, course statement f. Conceptual framework g. Planning, organization, implementation and evaluation of learning experience in class room, lab, in the community and extracurricular activities.
  • 34. Types of curriculum Knowledge centered(subject centered) Competence based( activity based) Experience based
  • 35. Knowledge centered curriculum (subject centered) : • Knowledge centered curriculum is that curriculum in which knowledge is divided in terms of isolated subjects. • The sequence followed is the logical sequence pertaining to the particular discipline • The logic is determined by the subject specialist.
  • 36. Cont.. • The knowledge-centered curriculum has been traditionally used by many school districts with great effect. • This model of curriculum development is teacher and academically centered. • The teacher is responsible for setting the course of the curriculum (“Knowledge Centered”, 2000). • Curricula are established by experts and taught by experts (Ellis, 2004).
  • 37. Cont.. • "A good knowledge-centered curriculum focuses on intellectual growth and development, on challenging the learner to go deeper into history, literature, mathematics, the arts, and other subjects."- Arthur K. Ellis
  • 38. Competence based curriculum (Task oriented or activity based curriculum) • A competency-based curriculum is a curriculum that emphasizes what learners are expected to do rather than mainly focusing on what they are expected to know. • The focus is on the tasks that a successful graduate Nurse need to do later as a competent professional.
  • 39. The tasks could be of: 1. Cognitive - problem solving skills, 2. Definitive - communication skills 3. Mixed type encompassing more than one domain. • Nursing curricula need to adopt this approach more widely.
  • 40. Experience based curriculum • Experiential learning is a well-known model in education. • Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (Kolb, 1984) defines experiential learning as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. • Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience.”
  • 41. In this type of curriculum learner is placed in the natural setting of the community. Perhaps community oriented nursing education is an ideal method of educating learners.
  • 42. CURRICULUM COMMITTEE • The curriculum committee is charged with developing the standards-based curriculum and addressing the broader concerns that will be reflected in the curriculum framework. • Curriculum policy makers and developers: • Curriculum administrators •Principles •School boards •Communities •Law makers
  • 43. Cont. •Educational researchers •Teacher educators •Publishers •State departments of education •Parents •Students •Non- school educators •Project directors •Authors •Testers •Accreditors •Polisters •Lobbyists •Philanthropists
  • 44. Summarization Evaluation – Assignments- • Define curriculum. • Briefly describe the concept and types of curriculum. • What are the components of curriculum?

Editor's Notes

  1. Curriculum SUBMITTED BY –SHIVALI SRIVASTAVA MOT 1ST YR ( ORTHO)
  2. synonyms: syllabus, course of study/studies, programme of study/studies, educational programme, subjects, modules
  3. Rhetoric- the art of persuasive speaking or writing
  4. Facets- features
  5. Conceptual framework - is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts. It is used to makeconceptual distinctions and organize ideas. Strongconceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply.
  6. Curriculum is the vehicle through which a country empowers its citizens with the necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that enable them to be empowered for personal and national development. Curriculum should, therefore, meet the needs of the individual citizens and the nation. With this principle in mind and in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), curriculum change was thought to be necessary in the Kenyan education system. The Kenyan Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) resolved to adopt a competency-based approach (CBA) in their curriculum reforms based on the findings of a needs assessment study carried out in 2016, international best practices in education systems and curriculum reforms, and a desire to make learning more meaningful. Educators in Kenya received a series of trainings on this approach from the UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE-UNESCO), among other experts. KICD conceptualized a competency as the ability to apply learning resources and outcomes (knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes) adequately in a defined context (education, work, personal, or professional development).