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HILDA TABA’sHILDA TABA’s
INDUCTIVE THINKINGINDUCTIVE THINKING
MODELMODEL
by Dr. Sudha Pandeyaby Dr. Sudha Pandeya
Inductive Thinking Model was developed by HildaInductive Thinking Model was developed by Hilda
Taba in 1967. She developed this model in herTaba in 1967. She developed this model in her
experimental studies conducted in Central. Sheexperimental studies conducted in Central. She
popularized the term ‘inductive thinking’ and preparedpopularized the term ‘inductive thinking’ and prepared
entire social curriculum based on inductive thinking.entire social curriculum based on inductive thinking.
Principles of Inductive ThinkingPrinciples of Inductive Thinking
ModelModel
 Principle of identifying other itemsPrinciple of identifying other items:- an item may be placed in two:- an item may be placed in two
categories if necessary.categories if necessary.
 Principle of eliminationPrinciple of elimination:- When one category is different from the:- When one category is different from the
other ,it sometimes can be eliminated.other ,it sometimes can be eliminated.
 Principle of clarificationPrinciple of clarification:- When the meaning of category is not clear:- When the meaning of category is not clear
clarification should sought from students.clarification should sought from students.
 Principle of not processing final decisionPrinciple of not processing final decision:- Since model is based on:- Since model is based on
the process rather than the content so it is not necessary to pressthe process rather than the content so it is not necessary to press
for the final decision.for the final decision.
 Principle of mental operationPrinciple of mental operation:- The model has overt activities and:- The model has overt activities and
each overt activity is linked to covert i.e. hidden mental operation.each overt activity is linked to covert i.e. hidden mental operation.
 Principle of limitsPrinciple of limits:- The inference must be within the limit of the data.:- The inference must be within the limit of the data.
 Taba’s inductive processing model is called information processingTaba’s inductive processing model is called information processing
model because it helps the learner to develop the methodsmodel because it helps the learner to develop the methods
processing from the environment. It is more concerned withprocessing from the environment. It is more concerned with
intellectual development rather than the social or emotionalintellectual development rather than the social or emotional
development .It also helps in develop ment of logical thinking.development .It also helps in develop ment of logical thinking.
 TheThe assumptionsassumptions of the model are:-of the model are:-
 1) Thinking can be taught.1) Thinking can be taught.
 2)Thinking is active transition between data and individual.2)Thinking is active transition between data and individual.
 3) Process of thought evolve a system.3) Process of thought evolve a system.
 The word data in assumption 2 refers to classroom setting andThe word data in assumption 2 refers to classroom setting and
instructional material. The object of study ,apparatus, diagrams,instructional material. The object of study ,apparatus, diagrams,
specimens, and even historical monuments, the whole animalspecimens, and even historical monuments, the whole animal
kingdom and vegetable kingdom are all data in this context.kingdom and vegetable kingdom are all data in this context.
Meaning of the modelMeaning of the model
 This model proceeds from particular to general, from examples toThis model proceeds from particular to general, from examples to
principles, from empirical data to generalisations.principles, from empirical data to generalisations.
 It is teaching model for collection or manipulation of data.It is teaching model for collection or manipulation of data.
 It is based on thinking. Skills should be taught using specificIt is based on thinking. Skills should be taught using specific
strategies designed for reaching those skills. The model uses thesestrategies designed for reaching those skills. The model uses these
teaching skills in correct order that is one thinking skill is based onteaching skills in correct order that is one thinking skill is based on
the other.the other.
Objectives of Inductive ThinkingObjectives of Inductive Thinking
ModelModel
 To collect, organize and manipulate data.To collect, organize and manipulate data.
 To develop a series of teaching strategies designed to developTo develop a series of teaching strategies designed to develop
mental process.mental process.
 To develop abilities to categorise.To develop abilities to categorise.
 To develop student’s ability to handle information.To develop student’s ability to handle information.
 To induce students to expand the conceptual system with whichTo induce students to expand the conceptual system with which
they process information.they process information.
Components of Inductive ThinkingComponents of Inductive Thinking
ModelModel
 FOCUS:- The main focus of the model is to develop the mentalFOCUS:- The main focus of the model is to develop the mental
abilities with special emphasis on concept formation .This involvesabilities with special emphasis on concept formation .This involves
cognitive tasks in concept formation.cognitive tasks in concept formation.
 SYNTAX:- Teaching is organised in nine phases. The first threeSYNTAX:- Teaching is organised in nine phases. The first three
phases are concerned with concept formation by involvingphases are concerned with concept formation by involving
enumerating grouping and labeling categories .The second threeenumerating grouping and labeling categories .The second three
related to interpretation of data to identify relationship, explainingrelated to interpretation of data to identify relationship, explaining
relationship and drawing inferences. The last three phases arerelationship and drawing inferences. The last three phases are
concerned with an application of principles by hypothesis ,concerned with an application of principles by hypothesis ,
explaining hypothesis and verifying the hypothesis. All these threeexplaining hypothesis and verifying the hypothesis. All these three
stages and elaborating steps are given as under:-stages and elaborating steps are given as under:-
 Concept FormationConcept Formation
 Interpretation of DataInterpretation of Data
 Application of PrinciplesApplication of Principles
 SYNTAX:-SYNTAX:-It isIt is
 Identification and enumeration of items of data. e.g.-takeIdentification and enumeration of items of data. e.g.-take
them to garden.them to garden.
 Grouping the items like –small plants, big ,bigger ones.Grouping the items like –small plants, big ,bigger ones.
 Developing category levels for the group:-herbs, shrubs,Developing category levels for the group:-herbs, shrubs,
treestrees
 Identifying dimensions and relationsIdentifying dimensions and relations
 Explaining dimensions and their relationshipsExplaining dimensions and their relationships
 Making inferencesMaking inferences
 Predicting consequences and pruning hypothesisPredicting consequences and pruning hypothesis
 Explaining and supporting predictions and hypothesisExplaining and supporting predictions and hypothesis
 Verifying the predictionsVerifying the predictions
 Other components are :-Other components are :-
 social system,social system,
 principles of reaction,principles of reaction,
 support system andsupport system and
 instructional and nurturant effect.instructional and nurturant effect.
CONCEPT FORMATIONCONCEPT FORMATION
 It involves three mental processes;-It involves three mental processes;-
 i) Differentiation in the items of the data.i) Differentiation in the items of the data.
 ii) Identification of properties.ii) Identification of properties.
 Iii) Labeling of categoriesIii) Labeling of categories
 Teaching moves in the form of questions like, “what doTeaching moves in the form of questions like, “what do
you see?” might induce students to enumerate a list,you see?” might induce students to enumerate a list,
and question like “what belongs together? ”would beand question like “what belongs together? ”would be
likely to induce students to develop label or category.likely to induce students to develop label or category.
 Each overt activity by the teaching strategy reflectsEach overt activity by the teaching strategy reflects
mental operation that are covert. This has been shown inmental operation that are covert. This has been shown in
the table in the next slidethe table in the next slide
Overt ActivityOvert Activity Covert MentalCovert Mental
OperationOperation
ElicitingEliciting
QuestionQuestion
i) Enumerationi) Enumeration DifferentiationDifferentiation What did youWhat did you
see?see?
ii) Groupingii) Grouping IdentifyingIdentifying
commoncommon
propertiesproperties
What belongWhat belong
together?together?
iii) Labeling andiii) Labeling and
CategorizingCategorizing
Determining theDetermining the
order of itemsorder of items
What would weWhat would we
call thesecall these
groups?groups?
 i)i) Identification and enumeration of data which are relevant to theIdentification and enumeration of data which are relevant to the
problemproblem:- Eggen has given an example of teaching a group of:- Eggen has given an example of teaching a group of
students about animal kingdom, starts with exposing them to zoo.students about animal kingdom, starts with exposing them to zoo.
The teacher asks them to take note of what they see. ReturningThe teacher asks them to take note of what they see. Returning
back to the classroom ,the teacher makes a list of animals with theback to the classroom ,the teacher makes a list of animals with the
help of students and writes the same on the black board.help of students and writes the same on the black board.
 ii)ii) Grouping these itemsGrouping these items:- Here teacher puts the direct question:- Here teacher puts the direct question
‘What belongs together? ”The animals are grouped into classes on‘What belongs together? ”The animals are grouped into classes on
any criteria of classification as animals like cow ,dog ,goat in oneany criteria of classification as animals like cow ,dog ,goat in one
group and lion, tiger deer in other group.group and lion, tiger deer in other group.
 Developing category labels for the groupDeveloping category labels for the group:-At this stage teacher asks:-At this stage teacher asks
the name of the group. Different groups are called by different namethe name of the group. Different groups are called by different name
such as the group of cow ,dog etc will be termed as pet animals andsuch as the group of cow ,dog etc will be termed as pet animals and
the group of tiger, lion will be termed as wild animalsthe group of tiger, lion will be termed as wild animals
Interpretation of DataInterpretation of Data
 It consists of three mental operations:-It consists of three mental operations:-
i) Differentiation among categoriesi) Differentiation among categories
ii) Establishing relationshipsii) Establishing relationships
iii) Finding implicationsiii) Finding implications
 These mental operations give rise to activities of strategies by wayThese mental operations give rise to activities of strategies by way
of translating these operations into overt activities.of translating these operations into overt activities.
 This teaching strategy is build around mental operations:This teaching strategy is build around mental operations:
interpreting, inferring and generalizing. This is shown in tabular forminterpreting, inferring and generalizing. This is shown in tabular form
in the next slide.in the next slide.
Overt ActivityOvert Activity Covert MentalCovert Mental
OperationsOperations
ElicitingEliciting
QuestionsQuestions
i) Identifyingi) Identifying
pointspoints
DifferentiatingDifferentiating What did youWhat did you
see?see?
ii) Explainingii) Explaining
items ofitems of
identifyingidentifying
informationinformation
Relating pointsRelating points
to each otherto each other
DeterminingDetermining
cause –effectcause –effect
relationrelation
Why did thisWhy did this
happen?happen?
iii) Markingiii) Marking
differencesdifferences
Going beyondGoing beyond
what is givenwhat is given
What does thisWhat does this
mean?mean?
 i)i) Identifying dimensions and relationsIdentifying dimensions and relations:- The activities of:- The activities of
this stage will have presentation of listed groups inthis stage will have presentation of listed groups in
various dimensions as food, habitation, environment etc.various dimensions as food, habitation, environment etc.
 ii)ii) Explaining the dimensions and their relationshipExplaining the dimensions and their relationship:- The:- The
main question at this stage is, “why did so and somain question at this stage is, “why did so and so
happen?” The answer will explain relationship .happen?” The answer will explain relationship .
 iii)iii) Making inferenceMaking inference:- It refers to concluding statement:- It refers to concluding statement
about the relationship of the items. e.g.-Animals whichabout the relationship of the items. e.g.-Animals which
need an environment similar to that human habitationneed an environment similar to that human habitation
are generally the pet animals.are generally the pet animals.
Application of PrinciplesApplication of Principles
 This strategy is that of applying principles to explain newThis strategy is that of applying principles to explain new
phenomena. It includes –phenomena. It includes –
 Analysing nature of the problemAnalysing nature of the problem
 Retrieving relevant knowledgeRetrieving relevant knowledge
 Determining causal linksDetermining causal links
 Verifying the hypothesisVerifying the hypothesis
 Using logical principlesUsing logical principles
Overt ActivityOvert Activity Covert MentalCovert Mental
OperationsOperations
ElicitingEliciting
QuestionsQuestions
i) Hypothesizingi) Hypothesizing
and Predictingand Predicting
Analysing theAnalysing the
nature of thenature of the
problem of theproblem of the
situation.situation.
What wouldWhat would
happen if…..?happen if…..?
ii) Explain orii) Explain or
support thesupport the
prediction ofprediction of
hypothesishypothesis
Determinig theDeterminig the
causal linkscausal links
leading toleading to
prediction.prediction.
Why do you thinkWhy do you think
this wouldthis would
happen?happen?
iii) Verifying theiii) Verifying the
predictionprediction
Using logicalUsing logical
principles toprinciples to
determine necessarydetermine necessary
and sufficientand sufficient
conditioncondition
 Predicting consequences and forming hypothesesPredicting consequences and forming hypotheses:- Here:- Here
the question will be asked as - what would happen tothe question will be asked as - what would happen to
wild animals in forest if it is converted into farmland? Thewild animals in forest if it is converted into farmland? The
discussion around this question will lead to conclusionsdiscussion around this question will lead to conclusions
and generalisations about items of data.and generalisations about items of data.
 Explaining or supporting prediction and hypothesesExplaining or supporting prediction and hypotheses:- The:- The
question at this stage will be like-”why do you think thisquestion at this stage will be like-”why do you think this
would happen?” A conclusion that ‘wild animals willwould happen?” A conclusion that ‘wild animals will
migrate to dense forests if their habitation is convertedmigrate to dense forests if their habitation is converted
into farms’ will be supported by some explanationsinto farms’ will be supported by some explanations
 Verifying the predictionVerifying the prediction:- It has to be checked whether:- It has to be checked whether
wild animals have migrated to dense forest or they havewild animals have migrated to dense forest or they have
resorted to wander around the habitation.resorted to wander around the habitation.
 Social system:- The teacher is the initiator of information ,thoughSocial system:- The teacher is the initiator of information ,though
co-operative ,he is in controlling position .He decides the sequenceco-operative ,he is in controlling position .He decides the sequence
of activities in advance. He manages the activities of the class.of activities in advance. He manages the activities of the class.
Classroom atmosphere is co-operative and democratic. The learnerClassroom atmosphere is co-operative and democratic. The learner
is actively involved .is actively involved .
 Principle of reaction:- Main task of teacher is to monitor the waysPrinciple of reaction:- Main task of teacher is to monitor the ways
the students receive information .If the group is large ,then thethe students receive information .If the group is large ,then the
teacher must make sure that each operation is comprehended byteacher must make sure that each operation is comprehended by
all students.all students.
 Support system:- This model is for social science curriculum andSupport system:- This model is for social science curriculum and
applicable for young children .It has been basically designed toapplicable for young children .It has been basically designed to
develop thinking.develop thinking.
 Instructional and nurturant effects;-The main goal of the model is toInstructional and nurturant effects;-The main goal of the model is to
nurture logical reasoning ,comprehension, awareness to thenurture logical reasoning ,comprehension, awareness to the
environment and classification of concepts.environment and classification of concepts.
Merits of Inductive ThinkingMerits of Inductive Thinking
ModelModel
 It helps in development of thinking of the students. Application ofIt helps in development of thinking of the students. Application of
principles, induces students to go beyond the given data and henceprinciples, induces students to go beyond the given data and hence
increases creative thinking.increases creative thinking.
 The model has been success used for a wide range of subjectsThe model has been success used for a wide range of subjects
including science, arts ,languages etc.including science, arts ,languages etc.
 The model is especially applicable for young children in teachingThe model is especially applicable for young children in teaching
concepts and in developing thinking process.concepts and in developing thinking process.
 The first three phases are useful for elementary classes and lastThe first three phases are useful for elementary classes and last
three for higher classes.three for higher classes.
 It is according to psychology of the student. It helps in developmentIt is according to psychology of the student. It helps in development
of innate power of the students.of innate power of the students.
 It develops logical reasoning ,comprehension and classification ofIt develops logical reasoning ,comprehension and classification of
the subject. It also develops co-operation of teacher and student.the subject. It also develops co-operation of teacher and student.
Demerits of Inductive ThinkingDemerits of Inductive Thinking
ModelModel
 It can not be used for all subjects and all topics.It can not be used for all subjects and all topics.
 It can not solve all problems.It can not solve all problems.
 It is teacher –centered because teacher is the initiator and controllerIt is teacher –centered because teacher is the initiator and controller
of activities.of activities.

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Hilda taba’s inductive thinking model

  • 1. HILDA TABA’sHILDA TABA’s INDUCTIVE THINKINGINDUCTIVE THINKING MODELMODEL by Dr. Sudha Pandeyaby Dr. Sudha Pandeya Inductive Thinking Model was developed by HildaInductive Thinking Model was developed by Hilda Taba in 1967. She developed this model in herTaba in 1967. She developed this model in her experimental studies conducted in Central. Sheexperimental studies conducted in Central. She popularized the term ‘inductive thinking’ and preparedpopularized the term ‘inductive thinking’ and prepared entire social curriculum based on inductive thinking.entire social curriculum based on inductive thinking.
  • 2. Principles of Inductive ThinkingPrinciples of Inductive Thinking ModelModel  Principle of identifying other itemsPrinciple of identifying other items:- an item may be placed in two:- an item may be placed in two categories if necessary.categories if necessary.  Principle of eliminationPrinciple of elimination:- When one category is different from the:- When one category is different from the other ,it sometimes can be eliminated.other ,it sometimes can be eliminated.  Principle of clarificationPrinciple of clarification:- When the meaning of category is not clear:- When the meaning of category is not clear clarification should sought from students.clarification should sought from students.  Principle of not processing final decisionPrinciple of not processing final decision:- Since model is based on:- Since model is based on the process rather than the content so it is not necessary to pressthe process rather than the content so it is not necessary to press for the final decision.for the final decision.  Principle of mental operationPrinciple of mental operation:- The model has overt activities and:- The model has overt activities and each overt activity is linked to covert i.e. hidden mental operation.each overt activity is linked to covert i.e. hidden mental operation.  Principle of limitsPrinciple of limits:- The inference must be within the limit of the data.:- The inference must be within the limit of the data.
  • 3.  Taba’s inductive processing model is called information processingTaba’s inductive processing model is called information processing model because it helps the learner to develop the methodsmodel because it helps the learner to develop the methods processing from the environment. It is more concerned withprocessing from the environment. It is more concerned with intellectual development rather than the social or emotionalintellectual development rather than the social or emotional development .It also helps in develop ment of logical thinking.development .It also helps in develop ment of logical thinking.  TheThe assumptionsassumptions of the model are:-of the model are:-  1) Thinking can be taught.1) Thinking can be taught.  2)Thinking is active transition between data and individual.2)Thinking is active transition between data and individual.  3) Process of thought evolve a system.3) Process of thought evolve a system.  The word data in assumption 2 refers to classroom setting andThe word data in assumption 2 refers to classroom setting and instructional material. The object of study ,apparatus, diagrams,instructional material. The object of study ,apparatus, diagrams, specimens, and even historical monuments, the whole animalspecimens, and even historical monuments, the whole animal kingdom and vegetable kingdom are all data in this context.kingdom and vegetable kingdom are all data in this context.
  • 4. Meaning of the modelMeaning of the model  This model proceeds from particular to general, from examples toThis model proceeds from particular to general, from examples to principles, from empirical data to generalisations.principles, from empirical data to generalisations.  It is teaching model for collection or manipulation of data.It is teaching model for collection or manipulation of data.  It is based on thinking. Skills should be taught using specificIt is based on thinking. Skills should be taught using specific strategies designed for reaching those skills. The model uses thesestrategies designed for reaching those skills. The model uses these teaching skills in correct order that is one thinking skill is based onteaching skills in correct order that is one thinking skill is based on the other.the other.
  • 5. Objectives of Inductive ThinkingObjectives of Inductive Thinking ModelModel  To collect, organize and manipulate data.To collect, organize and manipulate data.  To develop a series of teaching strategies designed to developTo develop a series of teaching strategies designed to develop mental process.mental process.  To develop abilities to categorise.To develop abilities to categorise.  To develop student’s ability to handle information.To develop student’s ability to handle information.  To induce students to expand the conceptual system with whichTo induce students to expand the conceptual system with which they process information.they process information.
  • 6. Components of Inductive ThinkingComponents of Inductive Thinking ModelModel  FOCUS:- The main focus of the model is to develop the mentalFOCUS:- The main focus of the model is to develop the mental abilities with special emphasis on concept formation .This involvesabilities with special emphasis on concept formation .This involves cognitive tasks in concept formation.cognitive tasks in concept formation.  SYNTAX:- Teaching is organised in nine phases. The first threeSYNTAX:- Teaching is organised in nine phases. The first three phases are concerned with concept formation by involvingphases are concerned with concept formation by involving enumerating grouping and labeling categories .The second threeenumerating grouping and labeling categories .The second three related to interpretation of data to identify relationship, explainingrelated to interpretation of data to identify relationship, explaining relationship and drawing inferences. The last three phases arerelationship and drawing inferences. The last three phases are concerned with an application of principles by hypothesis ,concerned with an application of principles by hypothesis , explaining hypothesis and verifying the hypothesis. All these threeexplaining hypothesis and verifying the hypothesis. All these three stages and elaborating steps are given as under:-stages and elaborating steps are given as under:-  Concept FormationConcept Formation  Interpretation of DataInterpretation of Data  Application of PrinciplesApplication of Principles
  • 7.  SYNTAX:-SYNTAX:-It isIt is  Identification and enumeration of items of data. e.g.-takeIdentification and enumeration of items of data. e.g.-take them to garden.them to garden.  Grouping the items like –small plants, big ,bigger ones.Grouping the items like –small plants, big ,bigger ones.  Developing category levels for the group:-herbs, shrubs,Developing category levels for the group:-herbs, shrubs, treestrees  Identifying dimensions and relationsIdentifying dimensions and relations  Explaining dimensions and their relationshipsExplaining dimensions and their relationships  Making inferencesMaking inferences  Predicting consequences and pruning hypothesisPredicting consequences and pruning hypothesis  Explaining and supporting predictions and hypothesisExplaining and supporting predictions and hypothesis  Verifying the predictionsVerifying the predictions
  • 8.  Other components are :-Other components are :-  social system,social system,  principles of reaction,principles of reaction,  support system andsupport system and  instructional and nurturant effect.instructional and nurturant effect.
  • 9. CONCEPT FORMATIONCONCEPT FORMATION  It involves three mental processes;-It involves three mental processes;-  i) Differentiation in the items of the data.i) Differentiation in the items of the data.  ii) Identification of properties.ii) Identification of properties.  Iii) Labeling of categoriesIii) Labeling of categories  Teaching moves in the form of questions like, “what doTeaching moves in the form of questions like, “what do you see?” might induce students to enumerate a list,you see?” might induce students to enumerate a list, and question like “what belongs together? ”would beand question like “what belongs together? ”would be likely to induce students to develop label or category.likely to induce students to develop label or category.  Each overt activity by the teaching strategy reflectsEach overt activity by the teaching strategy reflects mental operation that are covert. This has been shown inmental operation that are covert. This has been shown in the table in the next slidethe table in the next slide
  • 10. Overt ActivityOvert Activity Covert MentalCovert Mental OperationOperation ElicitingEliciting QuestionQuestion i) Enumerationi) Enumeration DifferentiationDifferentiation What did youWhat did you see?see? ii) Groupingii) Grouping IdentifyingIdentifying commoncommon propertiesproperties What belongWhat belong together?together? iii) Labeling andiii) Labeling and CategorizingCategorizing Determining theDetermining the order of itemsorder of items What would weWhat would we call thesecall these groups?groups?
  • 11.  i)i) Identification and enumeration of data which are relevant to theIdentification and enumeration of data which are relevant to the problemproblem:- Eggen has given an example of teaching a group of:- Eggen has given an example of teaching a group of students about animal kingdom, starts with exposing them to zoo.students about animal kingdom, starts with exposing them to zoo. The teacher asks them to take note of what they see. ReturningThe teacher asks them to take note of what they see. Returning back to the classroom ,the teacher makes a list of animals with theback to the classroom ,the teacher makes a list of animals with the help of students and writes the same on the black board.help of students and writes the same on the black board.  ii)ii) Grouping these itemsGrouping these items:- Here teacher puts the direct question:- Here teacher puts the direct question ‘What belongs together? ”The animals are grouped into classes on‘What belongs together? ”The animals are grouped into classes on any criteria of classification as animals like cow ,dog ,goat in oneany criteria of classification as animals like cow ,dog ,goat in one group and lion, tiger deer in other group.group and lion, tiger deer in other group.  Developing category labels for the groupDeveloping category labels for the group:-At this stage teacher asks:-At this stage teacher asks the name of the group. Different groups are called by different namethe name of the group. Different groups are called by different name such as the group of cow ,dog etc will be termed as pet animals andsuch as the group of cow ,dog etc will be termed as pet animals and the group of tiger, lion will be termed as wild animalsthe group of tiger, lion will be termed as wild animals
  • 12. Interpretation of DataInterpretation of Data  It consists of three mental operations:-It consists of three mental operations:- i) Differentiation among categoriesi) Differentiation among categories ii) Establishing relationshipsii) Establishing relationships iii) Finding implicationsiii) Finding implications  These mental operations give rise to activities of strategies by wayThese mental operations give rise to activities of strategies by way of translating these operations into overt activities.of translating these operations into overt activities.  This teaching strategy is build around mental operations:This teaching strategy is build around mental operations: interpreting, inferring and generalizing. This is shown in tabular forminterpreting, inferring and generalizing. This is shown in tabular form in the next slide.in the next slide.
  • 13. Overt ActivityOvert Activity Covert MentalCovert Mental OperationsOperations ElicitingEliciting QuestionsQuestions i) Identifyingi) Identifying pointspoints DifferentiatingDifferentiating What did youWhat did you see?see? ii) Explainingii) Explaining items ofitems of identifyingidentifying informationinformation Relating pointsRelating points to each otherto each other DeterminingDetermining cause –effectcause –effect relationrelation Why did thisWhy did this happen?happen? iii) Markingiii) Marking differencesdifferences Going beyondGoing beyond what is givenwhat is given What does thisWhat does this mean?mean?
  • 14.  i)i) Identifying dimensions and relationsIdentifying dimensions and relations:- The activities of:- The activities of this stage will have presentation of listed groups inthis stage will have presentation of listed groups in various dimensions as food, habitation, environment etc.various dimensions as food, habitation, environment etc.  ii)ii) Explaining the dimensions and their relationshipExplaining the dimensions and their relationship:- The:- The main question at this stage is, “why did so and somain question at this stage is, “why did so and so happen?” The answer will explain relationship .happen?” The answer will explain relationship .  iii)iii) Making inferenceMaking inference:- It refers to concluding statement:- It refers to concluding statement about the relationship of the items. e.g.-Animals whichabout the relationship of the items. e.g.-Animals which need an environment similar to that human habitationneed an environment similar to that human habitation are generally the pet animals.are generally the pet animals.
  • 15. Application of PrinciplesApplication of Principles  This strategy is that of applying principles to explain newThis strategy is that of applying principles to explain new phenomena. It includes –phenomena. It includes –  Analysing nature of the problemAnalysing nature of the problem  Retrieving relevant knowledgeRetrieving relevant knowledge  Determining causal linksDetermining causal links  Verifying the hypothesisVerifying the hypothesis  Using logical principlesUsing logical principles
  • 16. Overt ActivityOvert Activity Covert MentalCovert Mental OperationsOperations ElicitingEliciting QuestionsQuestions i) Hypothesizingi) Hypothesizing and Predictingand Predicting Analysing theAnalysing the nature of thenature of the problem of theproblem of the situation.situation. What wouldWhat would happen if…..?happen if…..? ii) Explain orii) Explain or support thesupport the prediction ofprediction of hypothesishypothesis Determinig theDeterminig the causal linkscausal links leading toleading to prediction.prediction. Why do you thinkWhy do you think this wouldthis would happen?happen? iii) Verifying theiii) Verifying the predictionprediction Using logicalUsing logical principles toprinciples to determine necessarydetermine necessary and sufficientand sufficient conditioncondition
  • 17.  Predicting consequences and forming hypothesesPredicting consequences and forming hypotheses:- Here:- Here the question will be asked as - what would happen tothe question will be asked as - what would happen to wild animals in forest if it is converted into farmland? Thewild animals in forest if it is converted into farmland? The discussion around this question will lead to conclusionsdiscussion around this question will lead to conclusions and generalisations about items of data.and generalisations about items of data.  Explaining or supporting prediction and hypothesesExplaining or supporting prediction and hypotheses:- The:- The question at this stage will be like-”why do you think thisquestion at this stage will be like-”why do you think this would happen?” A conclusion that ‘wild animals willwould happen?” A conclusion that ‘wild animals will migrate to dense forests if their habitation is convertedmigrate to dense forests if their habitation is converted into farms’ will be supported by some explanationsinto farms’ will be supported by some explanations  Verifying the predictionVerifying the prediction:- It has to be checked whether:- It has to be checked whether wild animals have migrated to dense forest or they havewild animals have migrated to dense forest or they have resorted to wander around the habitation.resorted to wander around the habitation.
  • 18.  Social system:- The teacher is the initiator of information ,thoughSocial system:- The teacher is the initiator of information ,though co-operative ,he is in controlling position .He decides the sequenceco-operative ,he is in controlling position .He decides the sequence of activities in advance. He manages the activities of the class.of activities in advance. He manages the activities of the class. Classroom atmosphere is co-operative and democratic. The learnerClassroom atmosphere is co-operative and democratic. The learner is actively involved .is actively involved .  Principle of reaction:- Main task of teacher is to monitor the waysPrinciple of reaction:- Main task of teacher is to monitor the ways the students receive information .If the group is large ,then thethe students receive information .If the group is large ,then the teacher must make sure that each operation is comprehended byteacher must make sure that each operation is comprehended by all students.all students.  Support system:- This model is for social science curriculum andSupport system:- This model is for social science curriculum and applicable for young children .It has been basically designed toapplicable for young children .It has been basically designed to develop thinking.develop thinking.  Instructional and nurturant effects;-The main goal of the model is toInstructional and nurturant effects;-The main goal of the model is to nurture logical reasoning ,comprehension, awareness to thenurture logical reasoning ,comprehension, awareness to the environment and classification of concepts.environment and classification of concepts.
  • 19. Merits of Inductive ThinkingMerits of Inductive Thinking ModelModel  It helps in development of thinking of the students. Application ofIt helps in development of thinking of the students. Application of principles, induces students to go beyond the given data and henceprinciples, induces students to go beyond the given data and hence increases creative thinking.increases creative thinking.  The model has been success used for a wide range of subjectsThe model has been success used for a wide range of subjects including science, arts ,languages etc.including science, arts ,languages etc.  The model is especially applicable for young children in teachingThe model is especially applicable for young children in teaching concepts and in developing thinking process.concepts and in developing thinking process.  The first three phases are useful for elementary classes and lastThe first three phases are useful for elementary classes and last three for higher classes.three for higher classes.  It is according to psychology of the student. It helps in developmentIt is according to psychology of the student. It helps in development of innate power of the students.of innate power of the students.  It develops logical reasoning ,comprehension and classification ofIt develops logical reasoning ,comprehension and classification of the subject. It also develops co-operation of teacher and student.the subject. It also develops co-operation of teacher and student.
  • 20. Demerits of Inductive ThinkingDemerits of Inductive Thinking ModelModel  It can not be used for all subjects and all topics.It can not be used for all subjects and all topics.  It can not solve all problems.It can not solve all problems.  It is teacher –centered because teacher is the initiator and controllerIt is teacher –centered because teacher is the initiator and controller of activities.of activities.