SlideShare a Scribd company logo
TISSUE ENGINEERING
METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
What is ‘TISSUE ENGINEERING’…
Tissue Engineering is...
“an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences
towards the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve
tissue function or a whole organ”
• The term Tissue Engineering (TE) was
first presented to the broad scientific
community in 1993 by Langer and
Vacanti.
• Tissue engineering aims to restore tissue
and organ function by employing
biological and engineering strategies to
clinical problems.
• The functional failure of tissues and
organs is a severe and costly healthcare
problem, as their replacement is limited
by the availability of compatible donors .
Why Tissue Engineering is Important
• Supply of donor organs cannot keep up with demand.
• Other available therapies such as surgical reconstruction, drug therapy, synthetic
prostheses, and medical devices aren't always successful.
• It will eliminate any risk of organ rejection because the new organ would be made
from the person's own tissue.
• It repairs tissues, organs, and bones successfully
• Victims of organ/tissue defects will not have to suffer
Principle of Tissue Engineering:
The general principles of tissue engineering involve combining living cells with a
natural/synthetic support or scaffold that is also biodegradable to build a three dimensional living
construct that is functionally, structurally and mechanically equal to or better than the tissue that
is to be replaced.
Regenerative medicine is a broad field that includes tissue engineering but also incorporates
research on self-healing – where the body uses its own systems, sometimes with help foreign
biological material to recreate cells and rebuild tissues and organs.
The terms “tissue engineering” and “regenerative medicine” have become largely
interchangeable, as the field hopes to focus on cures instead of treatments for complex, often
chronic diseases.
This field continues to evolve. In addition to medical applications, non-therapeutic applications
include using tissues as biosensors to detect biological or chemical threat agents, and tissue
chips that can be used to test the toxicity of an experimental medication.
Examples include cell therapies (the injection of stem cells or progenitor cells);
immunomodulation therapy (regeneration by biologically active molecules administered alone or
as secretions by infused cells); and tissue engineering (transplantation of laboratory grown
organs and tissues).
The Triad of Tissue Engineering
Tissue engineering applications typically
involve the combination of three pillars: cells,
signals, and scaffolds, which represent the
“triad of tissue engineering”.
Approaches in Tissue
Engineering
Incorporating the three
elements of tissue
engineering needs a good
scaffolding technique. Over
the years, different
approaches have been
developed, resulting in
scaffolds that can support the
cells and encourage tissue
growth after implantation.
PROCESS OF
TISSUE
ENGINEERING
Steps
(1)Start building material (e.g., extracellular matrix, biodegradable polymer).
(2) Shape it as needed.
(3) Seed it with living cells.
(4) Bathe it with growth factors.
(5) Cells multiply & fill up the scaffold & grow into three-dimensional tissue.
(6) Implanted in the body.
(7) Cells recreate their intended tissue functions.
(8) Blood vessels attach themselves to the new tissue.
(9) The scaffold dissolves.
(10) The newly grown tissue eventually blends in with its surroundings.
Step 1:
• Get Tissue Sample (Cells) from the body.
• Patients own cells
• Researches have to break tissue apart using, enzymes that digest the extracellular material that normally
holds cells together.
• Cells need structure, nutrients, and oxygen Scaffold
Step 2:
GROWING CELLS INTO NEW TISSUE
• Cells need a scaffold, For tissue regeneration
• Scaffold: It gives cells structure on which they need to grow, without them cells are free floating, cannot
connect with each other, communicate or form tissue.
• Scaffold is biocompatible and biodegradable
• Scaffolds provide the structure that cells need for a certain period of time until they have formed enough
tissue to have their own structure.
• Scaffold dissolves once structure of cells is formed.
Step 3:
IMPLANTING NEW TISSUE
• Bioengineered Tissue Implants Regenerate Damaged Knee Cartilage Science Daily.
• Cartilage was removed from 23 patients with an average age of 36 years.
• After growing the cells in culture for 14 days, the researchers seeded them onto scaffolds
made of esterified hyaluronic acid, grew them for another 14 days on the scaffolds, and then
implanted them into the injured knees of the study patients.
• Cartilage regeneration was seen in ten of 23 patients, including in some patients with
preexisting early osteoarthritis of the knee secondary to traumatic injury.
• Maturation of the implanted, tissue-engineered cartilage was evident as early as 11 months
after implantation.
The potential of stem cells
capable of self-renewal- can divide and renew themselves for long periods
unspecialized cells that can differentiate into other types of cells
SCAFFOLDS:
• Cells are often implanted or 'seeded' into an
artificial structure capable of supporting
three-dimensional tissue formation. These
structures, typically called scaffolds usually
serve at least one of the following purposes:
• Allow cell attachment and migration.
• Deliver and retain cells and biochemical
factors.
• Enable diffusion of vital cell nutrients and
expressed products.
• Exert certain mechanical and biological
influences to modify the behavior of the cell
phase.
Requirements for scaffolds
• High porosity and an adequate pore size
• Biodegradability rate at which degradation occurs has to coincide as much as
possible with the rate of tissue formation
• Inject ability
DIFFERENT TYPES OD SCAFFOLD FABRICATION
TECHNIQUES
• The conventional tissue engineering scaffold production techniques include thermally
induced phase separation (TIPS), fiber bonding, electrospinning, solvent casting and
particulate leaching, membrane lamination, freeze-drying, and gas foaming .
• The recent development in scaffold fabrication mainly comprises integration with computer-
aided design (CAD) software such as stereolithography, bioplotting, solvent-based free
forming, combination modelling technique, fused deposition modelling, 3D printing, and
selective laser sintering (SLS) .
• The techniques retain the ability to maintain pore structures, cell–cell interaction, reduction
in mechanical instability, and control over mitigation of the cellular matrix.
Scaffold Fabrication:
• Scaffold fabrication is a critical step in tissue engineering as it provides the structural
support necessary for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.
• There are several methods used to fabricate scaffolds:
1. 3D Printing: Also known as additive manufacturing, 3D printing allows for the precise
layer-by-layer deposition of materials to create scaffolds with complex geometries and
controlled porosity. This technique enables customization of scaffold properties such as
pore size, interconnectivity, and mechanical strength.
2. Electrospinning: Electrospinning involves the use of an electric field to draw polymer solutions or melts into
ultrafine fibers. These fibers are collected to form nanofibrous scaffolds with a high surface area-to-volume ratio,
which can closely mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture.
3. Decellularization: Decellularization is a technique where cellular components are removed from natural tissues,
leaving behind an acellular scaffold composed of the ECM. These scaffolds retain the native tissue's biochemical
composition and mechanical properties, making them suitable for tissue engineering applications.
Cell Seeding Techniques:
• Once scaffolds are fabricated, cells need to be introduced onto or into them to initiate tissue formation.
• Several cell seeding techniques are employed:
1. Static Seeding: In static seeding, cells are typically pipetted or seeded directly onto the scaffold surface
and allowed to adhere through gravity or gentle agitation. While simple and straightforward, static seeding
may result in uneven cell distribution.
2. Dynamic Seeding: Dynamic seeding involves the use of bioreactor systems where scaffolds are placed in
a chamber with controlled flow conditions. This allows for better distribution of cells throughout the scaffold,
enhancing cell attachment and proliferation.
3. Perfusion Seeding: Perfusion seeding takes dynamic seeding a step further by continuously perfusing cell
suspension through the scaffold using a pump system. This method ensures uniform cell distribution and nutrient
delivery, promoting cell viability and tissue formation.
Tissue Culture Methods:
• Tissue culture techniques are employed to maintain cells or tissues in vitro under controlled
conditions.
• This is essential for studying cellular behavior, tissue development, and for producing
functional tissue constructs. Key tissue culture methods include:
1. 2D Cell Culture: In 2D cell culture, cells are typically grown as monolayers on flat surfaces
such as tissue culture plates. While simple and widely used, 2D culture lacks the three-
dimensional context present in vivo, which may affect cell behavior and function.
2. 3D Cell Culture: 3D cell culture involves culturing cells in three-dimensional environments
that mimic the in vivo tissue architecture more closely. This can be achieved using
hydrogels, scaffolds, or spheroid culture methods, providing cells with a more
physiologically relevant environment.
3. Bioreactor Culture: Bioreactors are dynamic culture systems that provide controlled
conditions such as temperature, pH, oxygen levels, and mechanical stimulation. Bioreactor
culture allows for the scaling up of tissue constructs and the simulation of physiological
conditions, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications.
Advantages and Disadvantages of different types of scaffolds fabrication techniques for tissue engineering
application.
Various forms of 3D scaffolds
APPLICATIONS OF TISSUE ENGINEERING
• The main goal of tissue engineering is to regenerate and replace human tissues and organs through a
combination of biological, clinical, and engineering approaches.
Replacing/Regenerating Target Organs
• Skin:
• Tissue-engineered skin aims to restore barrier function to patients for whom this has been severely
compromised, e.g., burn patients.
• Skin is a widely explored engineered tissue, and several commercial skin products are available, e.g., Epicel®
by Genzyme is a product based on autologous cells grown to cover a wound; Apligraf® by Organogenesis is a
dual layer skin equivalent with keratinocytes and fibroblasts on collagen gel; Dermagraft® by Advanced Tissue
Science uses a similar approach with dermal fibroblast on resorbable polymer, among many others .
• These products treat burns, ulcers, deep wounds, and other injuries. Collagen, fibrin, hyaluronic acid, and
poly(lactic glycolic acid) are mainly used in skin substitute matrices. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, and
fibroblasts compose the majority of cells in skin tissue, thus expanding and transplanting these cells within
biocompatible matrices is key to successful skin regeneration .
Liver:
• Liver transplantation is end-stage treatment for many liver diseases. Several factors including drug
use, alcohol abuse, and viruses like Hepatitis can cause acute liver failure. It is important to
completely replace the damaged liver or support the patients that wait for donor organs or suffer
from chronic liver diseases with tissue-engineered livers .
• Intense efforts exist to develop a bridging device that can support a patient’s liver function until a
donor is available, e.g., dialysis, charcoal hemoperfusion, immobilized enzymes or exchange
transfusion. Several extracorporeal systems use patients’ own cells in a hollow-fiber, spoutedbed or
flat-bed device, which reduce the chance of immune rejection.
• Several bioartificial livers (BAL) have been developed and designed to flow patient’s plasma through
a bioreactor that houses/maintains hepatocytes sandwiched between artificial plates or capillaries.
Pancreas:
• Diabetes is the fifth highest cause of death . One type of diabetes is type 1 diabetes mellitus
(T1DM), an autoimmune disease which destroys the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. T1DM is
relevant to tissue engineering, since it can be treated by replacing the destroyed pancreatic islet
cells.
• Techniques for pancreatic tissue engineering aim to release insulin from transplanted islets into the
blood to restore normal blood glucose levels.
• Three main approaches are used: a tubular membrane that encapsulates islets and connects to
blood vessels; hollow fibers containing islets embedded in a polymer matrix; and encapsulation of
islets in microcapsules .
• The membranes used in the perfusion devices and coatings in microcapsules are developed from
biocompatible polymers that allow insulin to diffuse into the bloodstream, while protecting the cells
from destruction by immune cells. An insufficient source of islet cells presents a challenge, but
recent advances with stem cells may overcome this.
Heart
• Many patients are left with damaged or malfunctioning cardiac tissue that lead to arrhythmias and diminished
cardiac output. Tissue engineering is actively pursing treatments for myocardial infarction, congenital heart
defects, and stenotic valves through regenerating cardiac tissues.
• Heart valves are developed by transplanting autologous cells onto a scaffold, growing and maturing the cell-
seeded scaffold, and finally transplanting the valves into the patient.
• Decellularized heart valves consist of extracellular matrix which is repopulated with host cells, but they can
potentially produce severe immune response .
• Alternatively, biomaterial-based heart valves are designed from various natural materials, e.g., collagen,
fibrin, and synthetic polymers, e.g., PLGA, poly(hydroxy butyrate) . Biomaterial-based heart valves have
advantageous characteristics, including malleability and improved mechanical strength.
• Cells for cardiovascular applications are usually obtained from donor tissues, e.g, peripheral arteries with
mixed populations of myofibroblasts and endothelial cells, as well as established cell lines of myofibroblasts
and endothelial cells. There are several successful applications of tissue-engineered heart valves for both in
vitro and in vivo models. Additionally, efforts have been made to regenerate myocardium by scaffold-based
approaches with natural and synthetic materials
Blood vessels:
• Poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) PTFE and Dacron® grafts have traditionally been used as vascular grafts,
particularly for large diameter vessels. However, these grafts are largely unsuccessful for small diameter
blood vessels, due to thrombogenicity and compliance mismatch.
• Tissue engineering strategies therefore provide great opportunities for development of blood vessels.
Decellularized arteries with well-preserved extra cellular proteins have been repopulated with cells both
in vitro and in vivo to generate blood vessels .
• Polymer-based scaffolds are often used as a template to guide the regeneration of blood vessels.
• Also, recently developed microfluidic and microfabrication techniques allow the complex architecture of
a blood vessel with defined microstructures to be realized .
• In an alternative approach, sheets of smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix are generated under
flow conditions in the absence of scaffold, and are subsequently rolled over a support to mature into a
vessel structure .
• An emerging approach focuses on combining endothelial cells with mesenchymal stem cells or smooth
muscle cells to help stabilize the blood vessel and help aid in the vessel pruning process .
• It is important to note that formation of new blood vessels is critical for engineering any tissue to supply
nutrients and oxygen to cells.
Nervous system:
• Generation of nerve tissues is a major focus in tissue engineering . Injuries in the central nervous
system (CNS) are often accompanied by permanent functional impairment, unlike peripheral
nervous system (PNS) damage where the axons are able to re-extend and re-innervate, leading to
functional recovery .
• This is because the environment of the damaged site in CNS blocks the regeneration of neurons.
• Peripheral nerve grafts that include synthetic or biological substrates have been developed to act as
a bridge to guide the nerve regeneration process. To restore the structures lost in the
disorganization of axons during injury it is critical to build a bridge that spans the lesion gap with all
the morphological, chemical, and biological cues that mimic normal tissue.
Bone:
• There are numerous clinical applications that can benefit from bone regeneration therapies
including spinal fusion to alleviate back pain, temporomandibular joint reconstruction to alleviate
jaw pain, and restoration of contour and shape within reconstructed craniofacial bone.
• Significant progress in the development of bone regeneration therapies has been achieved, yet
large critical-sized defects which do not heal remain a significant clinical challenge. Although
several inorganic-, polymeric-, and hybrid-based scaffolds have been examined to engineer bone,
it has been difficult to develop a material that displays optimal mechanical properties and
degradation kinetics for bone repair .
• It is clear that the scaffolds for bone regeneration should have an interconnected macroporosity to
allow three-dimensional bone growth throughout the scaffold.
• Implantation of empty macroporous scaffolds that are devoid of cells typically do not improve the
healing response though combining biodegradable scaffolds with cells is a commonly explored
strategy
Other Applications of Tissue Engineering
• There are several non-traditional, yet useful and important applications of tissue engineering strategies.
In particular, the field of drug screening is in need of advanced in vitro methods for the assessment of
the activity and toxicity of drugs before clinical studies are initiated .
• Since most drugs are metabolized in the liver, microscale hepatocyte systems may allow high throughput
screening for liver toxicity . Furthermore, humans or animals “on a chip” are in development.
• These chips are essentially several reactors with different cell types connected in series which can
stimulate the pathway of a chemical substance through several parts of the body, such as the liver, brain,
and fat.
• In the future, tissue engineering-based drug testing and toxicity assays can provide an alternate strategy
to reduce the use of in vivo animal testing. Moreover, an artificially engineered tissue-engineered system
can provide enhanced control of tissue microenvironments, both in physiological and pathological
conditions (e.g., cancer tumor), contributing to the understanding of complex tissues and organs
• Tissue engineering is a young field that
utilizes cells, biomaterials, physical
signals (e.g., mechanical stimulation),
biochemical signals (e.g., growth factors
and cytokines), and their combinations,
to engineer tissues.
• The most common application of tissue
engineering is to create tissues that can
be used to repair or replace tissues in
the body suffering partial or complete
loss of function.
• However, tissue engineering has started
to find new applications such as the
development of extracorporeal life
support units (e.g., bioartificial liver and
kidney), in vitro disease models, tissues
for drug screening, smart diagnosis,
and personalized medicine.
Year Achievements Reference
1907 Dr. Harrison Ross first observed
living developing nerve fiber
Harrison Rose et al., 1907
1948 First artificial Kidney was
synthesized
Gauvin et al., 2011
1988 3D positioning of cells Klebe RJ , 1988
1993 Term "Tissue engineering" was
defined
Klebe RJ ,1988
1994 Biofabrication Fritz Monika,1994
1997 Commercially available skin Mac Neil ,2007
2002 Commercially available bone Parikh, 2002
2003 Patent for bio-printer Mironov et al., 2003
2008 Decellularized organ Ott et al., 2008
2010 10-year-old child saved Kalathur et al.,2010
2015 Development of soft tissue Pati et al ., 2015
2019 Development of new
stereolithographic process for multi-
vascular networks
Grigoryan et al.,2019
Timeline for the milestone in Tissue engineering.
Cao, Vacanti et al., (1997)
The Vacanti mouse ear was created using a biodegradable
polymer scaffold shaped like a human ear. The scaffold was
seeded with chondrocytes, which are cartilage cells, and implanted
under the skin on the back of a laboratory mouse. Over time, the
chondrocytes proliferated and synthesized new cartilage tissue,
resulting in the growth of an ear-shaped structure.
Different tissue-engineered organs.
(a) Scaffold prepared from synthetic biodegradable
polyglycolic acid (PLA) in the shape of a 3-year-old
auricle.
(b) Scaffolds implanted subcutaneously on the back of an
immunodeficient mouse.
(c) First trachea organ transplant using human's bone
marrow stem cells.
(d) Constructed artificial bladder seeded with human
bladder cells and dipped in a growth solution.
(e) Bioengineered kidney that mimics the function of a
normal kidney the control of the urinary system and
blood filtration.
(f) Tissue-engineered heart valve using human marrow
stromal cells.
Challenges in Tissue Engineering
• In fact, autologous, allogeneic, and xenogeneic cells are all potential sources, and each of these can be
subdivided into stem cells (adult or embryonic) or differentiated cells. Since they all have their own
advantages and disadvantages (immune reaction, differentiation, etc.), the choice of the right source for
the cells and their culture is a challenge by itself.
• The choice of scaffold biomaterials is not an easier task either. The scaffolds must actually respond to
both the structural and functional requirements of the body. It must be biocompatible and should be able
to communicate with the ECM while at the same time providing the needed mechanical support. While
natural materials have better biocompatibility and biodegradability, synthetic ones usually present
stronger mechanical properties.
• Another important challenge in tissue engineering is related to the transportation of nutrients and waste
secretion in the engineered tissue . Since the majority of tissues rely on blood vessels to transport
oxygen and nutrients, the 3D engineered tissue needs to be vascularized with a vascular capillary
network .
• Finally, a major challenge is still present, namely mass production and commercialization of the
engineered tissues. Specific manufacturing conditions and quality control strategies need to be ensured.
The Future of Tissue Engineering
• The last few decades have witnessed major steps in health care, leading to improved surgical
procedures and better management of diseases.
• Consequently, the aforementioned advancements have led to an increased demand for tissues and
organs.
• The ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to bridge the constantly growing gap between organ demand
and availability by producing complete organs .
• Stem cells will continue to be investigated for their differentiation potential, and more applications will be
developed in the future.
• The ultimate goal would be to engineer immune-transparent stem-like cells with clear protocols, enabling
their committed differentiation to targeted tissues. Developments in basic and applied science related to
the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds will be a major future target.
• Potential limitations of such scaffolds will always be the shortage of supplies (e.g., scaffolds from
allogeneic sources), potential immunoreactions, and ethical concerns (e.g., scaffolds from xenogeneic
origins). In future, it is expected that new biomaterials will be developed incorporating selected molecules
to address targeted tissues.
• Moreover, many basic science studies will be conducted to identify the effects of molecules on cells and
determine the right degradation rate and material properties (porosity, mechanical properties, and
structural properties) suitable for each tissue engineering applications.
Advantage of tissue engineering
• Tissue engineering provides long term and much safer solution than other options.
• The traditional transplantation complications are minimized.
• The donar can be patients himself or herself.
• The need for donar tissue is minimal.
• Immuno suppression problem can be minimized.
• The presence of residual foreign material can be minimized.
Disadvantage of tissue engineering
• Cell isolation and preparation, biomaterial of nutrients transport and transplantation is very
complex process.
• It is difficult to achieve cell diffrentiation into desired cell type and ensuring their nutrient supply
after implantation into the body.
• There may be obstacles to growing cells in sufficient quantities.
• The time necessary to develops cells in culture before they can be used and possible lack of
function at the donar site are some other limitations.
THANKYOU.
..

More Related Content

Similar to Tissue engineering......................pptx

TISSUE DEVELOPMENT WITH TISSUE ENGINEERING APPROACH
TISSUE DEVELOPMENT WITH TISSUE ENGINEERING APPROACHTISSUE DEVELOPMENT WITH TISSUE ENGINEERING APPROACH
TISSUE DEVELOPMENT WITH TISSUE ENGINEERING APPROACH
Felix Obi
 
Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine
Tissue Engineering & Regenerative MedicineTissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine
Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine
Mohamed Labadi
 
Tissue engineering: AN INTRODUCTION
Tissue engineering: AN INTRODUCTION Tissue engineering: AN INTRODUCTION
Tissue engineering: AN INTRODUCTION
Vipin Shukla
 
Tissue engineering
Tissue engineering  Tissue engineering
Tissue engineering
ManobalaSelvaraj2
 
Basics of Tissue engineering
Basics of Tissue engineeringBasics of Tissue engineering
Basics of Tissue engineering
Mahmoud Hamda
 
Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering: past, present and future
Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering: past, present and futureStem Cells and Tissue Engineering: past, present and future
Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering: past, present and future
Ana Rita Ramos
 
Tissue engineering 2
Tissue engineering 2Tissue engineering 2
Tissue engineering 2
KAUSHAL SAHU
 
ajisafevictorayobami3dcellcultures-180128002245 (1).pdf
ajisafevictorayobami3dcellcultures-180128002245 (1).pdfajisafevictorayobami3dcellcultures-180128002245 (1).pdf
ajisafevictorayobami3dcellcultures-180128002245 (1).pdf
DHANASIVALINGAMB
 
3D cell cultures
3D cell cultures3D cell cultures
3D cell cultures
Ayobami Ajisafe
 
Answer scripttemplate (2)
Answer scripttemplate (2)Answer scripttemplate (2)
Answer scripttemplate (2)
owais123siddiqui
 
Tissue engineering
Tissue engineeringTissue engineering
Tissue engineering
Emad Ammari
 
Tissue engineering
Tissue engineeringTissue engineering
Tissue engineering
rajatgothi
 
Three Dimensional Printing Scheme Presentation
Three Dimensional Printing Scheme PresentationThree Dimensional Printing Scheme Presentation
Three Dimensional Printing Scheme Presentation
Rita Barakat
 
Revolution of 3 d organ model in pharmacological research
Revolution of 3 d organ model in pharmacological researchRevolution of 3 d organ model in pharmacological research
Revolution of 3 d organ model in pharmacological research
syeddastagir9
 
Genes and Tissue Culture Assignment Presentation (Group 3)
Genes and Tissue Culture Assignment Presentation (Group 3)Genes and Tissue Culture Assignment Presentation (Group 3)
Genes and Tissue Culture Assignment Presentation (Group 3)
Lim Ke Wen
 
3D-Bioprinting coming of age-from cells to organs
3D-Bioprinting coming of age-from cells to organs3D-Bioprinting coming of age-from cells to organs
3D-Bioprinting coming of age-from cells to organs
Daniel Thomas
 
Tissue engineering
Tissue engineeringTissue engineering
Adult mesenchymal stem cells /dental courses
Adult mesenchymal stem cells  /dental coursesAdult mesenchymal stem cells  /dental courses
Adult mesenchymal stem cells /dental courses
Indian dental academy
 
Bioprinting
Bioprinting Bioprinting
Bioprinting
Chinthu V Saji
 
tissue engineering by sanjana pandey
tissue engineering by sanjana pandeytissue engineering by sanjana pandey
tissue engineering by sanjana pandey
SANJANA PANDEY
 

Similar to Tissue engineering......................pptx (20)

TISSUE DEVELOPMENT WITH TISSUE ENGINEERING APPROACH
TISSUE DEVELOPMENT WITH TISSUE ENGINEERING APPROACHTISSUE DEVELOPMENT WITH TISSUE ENGINEERING APPROACH
TISSUE DEVELOPMENT WITH TISSUE ENGINEERING APPROACH
 
Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine
Tissue Engineering & Regenerative MedicineTissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine
Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine
 
Tissue engineering: AN INTRODUCTION
Tissue engineering: AN INTRODUCTION Tissue engineering: AN INTRODUCTION
Tissue engineering: AN INTRODUCTION
 
Tissue engineering
Tissue engineering  Tissue engineering
Tissue engineering
 
Basics of Tissue engineering
Basics of Tissue engineeringBasics of Tissue engineering
Basics of Tissue engineering
 
Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering: past, present and future
Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering: past, present and futureStem Cells and Tissue Engineering: past, present and future
Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering: past, present and future
 
Tissue engineering 2
Tissue engineering 2Tissue engineering 2
Tissue engineering 2
 
ajisafevictorayobami3dcellcultures-180128002245 (1).pdf
ajisafevictorayobami3dcellcultures-180128002245 (1).pdfajisafevictorayobami3dcellcultures-180128002245 (1).pdf
ajisafevictorayobami3dcellcultures-180128002245 (1).pdf
 
3D cell cultures
3D cell cultures3D cell cultures
3D cell cultures
 
Answer scripttemplate (2)
Answer scripttemplate (2)Answer scripttemplate (2)
Answer scripttemplate (2)
 
Tissue engineering
Tissue engineeringTissue engineering
Tissue engineering
 
Tissue engineering
Tissue engineeringTissue engineering
Tissue engineering
 
Three Dimensional Printing Scheme Presentation
Three Dimensional Printing Scheme PresentationThree Dimensional Printing Scheme Presentation
Three Dimensional Printing Scheme Presentation
 
Revolution of 3 d organ model in pharmacological research
Revolution of 3 d organ model in pharmacological researchRevolution of 3 d organ model in pharmacological research
Revolution of 3 d organ model in pharmacological research
 
Genes and Tissue Culture Assignment Presentation (Group 3)
Genes and Tissue Culture Assignment Presentation (Group 3)Genes and Tissue Culture Assignment Presentation (Group 3)
Genes and Tissue Culture Assignment Presentation (Group 3)
 
3D-Bioprinting coming of age-from cells to organs
3D-Bioprinting coming of age-from cells to organs3D-Bioprinting coming of age-from cells to organs
3D-Bioprinting coming of age-from cells to organs
 
Tissue engineering
Tissue engineeringTissue engineering
Tissue engineering
 
Adult mesenchymal stem cells /dental courses
Adult mesenchymal stem cells  /dental coursesAdult mesenchymal stem cells  /dental courses
Adult mesenchymal stem cells /dental courses
 
Bioprinting
Bioprinting Bioprinting
Bioprinting
 
tissue engineering by sanjana pandey
tissue engineering by sanjana pandeytissue engineering by sanjana pandey
tissue engineering by sanjana pandey
 

More from Cherry

Large scale production of streptomycin.pptx
Large scale production of streptomycin.pptxLarge scale production of streptomycin.pptx
Large scale production of streptomycin.pptx
Cherry
 
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL.....pptx
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL.....pptxINDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL.....pptx
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL.....pptx
Cherry
 
AMYLASE..............................pptx
AMYLASE..............................pptxAMYLASE..............................pptx
AMYLASE..............................pptx
Cherry
 
Penicillin...........................pptx
Penicillin...........................pptxPenicillin...........................pptx
Penicillin...........................pptx
Cherry
 
RETROGRESSIVE CHANGES, CONCEPT OF CLIMAX COMMUNITIES AND RESILIENCE OF COMMU...
RETROGRESSIVE CHANGES, CONCEPT OF  CLIMAX COMMUNITIES AND RESILIENCE OF COMMU...RETROGRESSIVE CHANGES, CONCEPT OF  CLIMAX COMMUNITIES AND RESILIENCE OF COMMU...
RETROGRESSIVE CHANGES, CONCEPT OF CLIMAX COMMUNITIES AND RESILIENCE OF COMMU...
Cherry
 
COMMUNITY DYNAMICS CHARACTERISTICS- CYCLIC AND NON-CYCLIC REPLACEMENT CHANGES...
COMMUNITY DYNAMICS CHARACTERISTICS- CYCLIC AND NON-CYCLIC REPLACEMENT CHANGES...COMMUNITY DYNAMICS CHARACTERISTICS- CYCLIC AND NON-CYCLIC REPLACEMENT CHANGES...
COMMUNITY DYNAMICS CHARACTERISTICS- CYCLIC AND NON-CYCLIC REPLACEMENT CHANGES...
Cherry
 
Remote sensing.......................pptx
Remote sensing.......................pptxRemote sensing.......................pptx
Remote sensing.......................pptx
Cherry
 
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptxMETHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
Cherry
 
AIZOACEAE............................pptx
AIZOACEAE............................pptxAIZOACEAE............................pptx
AIZOACEAE............................pptx
Cherry
 
Cryoprervation techniques.............pptx
Cryoprervation techniques.............pptxCryoprervation techniques.............pptx
Cryoprervation techniques.............pptx
Cherry
 
APPLICATIONS OF GM ANIMALS...........pptx
APPLICATIONS OF GM ANIMALS...........pptxAPPLICATIONS OF GM ANIMALS...........pptx
APPLICATIONS OF GM ANIMALS...........pptx
Cherry
 
Tropical coastal ecosystems...........pptx
Tropical coastal ecosystems...........pptxTropical coastal ecosystems...........pptx
Tropical coastal ecosystems...........pptx
Cherry
 
Phytogeography........................pptx
Phytogeography........................pptxPhytogeography........................pptx
Phytogeography........................pptx
Cherry
 
Structural annotation................pptx
Structural annotation................pptxStructural annotation................pptx
Structural annotation................pptx
Cherry
 
Adventitious shoot regeneration.....pptx
Adventitious shoot regeneration.....pptxAdventitious shoot regeneration.....pptx
Adventitious shoot regeneration.....pptx
Cherry
 
Triploidy ...............................pptx
Triploidy ...............................pptxTriploidy ...............................pptx
Triploidy ...............................pptx
Cherry
 
SYNTHETIC SEED PRODUCTION.............pptx
SYNTHETIC SEED PRODUCTION.............pptxSYNTHETIC SEED PRODUCTION.............pptx
SYNTHETIC SEED PRODUCTION.............pptx
Cherry
 
Reporter genes.......................pptx
Reporter genes.......................pptxReporter genes.......................pptx
Reporter genes.......................pptx
Cherry
 
Somaclonal Variation.....................pptx
Somaclonal Variation.....................pptxSomaclonal Variation.....................pptx
Somaclonal Variation.....................pptx
Cherry
 
INSERTIONAL INACTIVATION AND COMPLEMENTATION OF DEFINED MUTATION (1).pptx
INSERTIONAL INACTIVATION AND COMPLEMENTATION OF DEFINED MUTATION (1).pptxINSERTIONAL INACTIVATION AND COMPLEMENTATION OF DEFINED MUTATION (1).pptx
INSERTIONAL INACTIVATION AND COMPLEMENTATION OF DEFINED MUTATION (1).pptx
Cherry
 

More from Cherry (20)

Large scale production of streptomycin.pptx
Large scale production of streptomycin.pptxLarge scale production of streptomycin.pptx
Large scale production of streptomycin.pptx
 
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL.....pptx
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL.....pptxINDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL.....pptx
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL.....pptx
 
AMYLASE..............................pptx
AMYLASE..............................pptxAMYLASE..............................pptx
AMYLASE..............................pptx
 
Penicillin...........................pptx
Penicillin...........................pptxPenicillin...........................pptx
Penicillin...........................pptx
 
RETROGRESSIVE CHANGES, CONCEPT OF CLIMAX COMMUNITIES AND RESILIENCE OF COMMU...
RETROGRESSIVE CHANGES, CONCEPT OF  CLIMAX COMMUNITIES AND RESILIENCE OF COMMU...RETROGRESSIVE CHANGES, CONCEPT OF  CLIMAX COMMUNITIES AND RESILIENCE OF COMMU...
RETROGRESSIVE CHANGES, CONCEPT OF CLIMAX COMMUNITIES AND RESILIENCE OF COMMU...
 
COMMUNITY DYNAMICS CHARACTERISTICS- CYCLIC AND NON-CYCLIC REPLACEMENT CHANGES...
COMMUNITY DYNAMICS CHARACTERISTICS- CYCLIC AND NON-CYCLIC REPLACEMENT CHANGES...COMMUNITY DYNAMICS CHARACTERISTICS- CYCLIC AND NON-CYCLIC REPLACEMENT CHANGES...
COMMUNITY DYNAMICS CHARACTERISTICS- CYCLIC AND NON-CYCLIC REPLACEMENT CHANGES...
 
Remote sensing.......................pptx
Remote sensing.......................pptxRemote sensing.......................pptx
Remote sensing.......................pptx
 
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptxMETHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
 
AIZOACEAE............................pptx
AIZOACEAE............................pptxAIZOACEAE............................pptx
AIZOACEAE............................pptx
 
Cryoprervation techniques.............pptx
Cryoprervation techniques.............pptxCryoprervation techniques.............pptx
Cryoprervation techniques.............pptx
 
APPLICATIONS OF GM ANIMALS...........pptx
APPLICATIONS OF GM ANIMALS...........pptxAPPLICATIONS OF GM ANIMALS...........pptx
APPLICATIONS OF GM ANIMALS...........pptx
 
Tropical coastal ecosystems...........pptx
Tropical coastal ecosystems...........pptxTropical coastal ecosystems...........pptx
Tropical coastal ecosystems...........pptx
 
Phytogeography........................pptx
Phytogeography........................pptxPhytogeography........................pptx
Phytogeography........................pptx
 
Structural annotation................pptx
Structural annotation................pptxStructural annotation................pptx
Structural annotation................pptx
 
Adventitious shoot regeneration.....pptx
Adventitious shoot regeneration.....pptxAdventitious shoot regeneration.....pptx
Adventitious shoot regeneration.....pptx
 
Triploidy ...............................pptx
Triploidy ...............................pptxTriploidy ...............................pptx
Triploidy ...............................pptx
 
SYNTHETIC SEED PRODUCTION.............pptx
SYNTHETIC SEED PRODUCTION.............pptxSYNTHETIC SEED PRODUCTION.............pptx
SYNTHETIC SEED PRODUCTION.............pptx
 
Reporter genes.......................pptx
Reporter genes.......................pptxReporter genes.......................pptx
Reporter genes.......................pptx
 
Somaclonal Variation.....................pptx
Somaclonal Variation.....................pptxSomaclonal Variation.....................pptx
Somaclonal Variation.....................pptx
 
INSERTIONAL INACTIVATION AND COMPLEMENTATION OF DEFINED MUTATION (1).pptx
INSERTIONAL INACTIVATION AND COMPLEMENTATION OF DEFINED MUTATION (1).pptxINSERTIONAL INACTIVATION AND COMPLEMENTATION OF DEFINED MUTATION (1).pptx
INSERTIONAL INACTIVATION AND COMPLEMENTATION OF DEFINED MUTATION (1).pptx
 

Recently uploaded

在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
vluwdy49
 
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdfMethods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdfGadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
Advanced-Concepts-Team
 
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdfMending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
Selcen Ozturkcan
 
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart AgricultureAlternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
International Food Policy Research Institute- South Asia Office
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of ProteinsGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
Areesha Ahmad
 
Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...
Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...
Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...
Travis Hills MN
 
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
PsychoTech Services
 
23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx
23PH301 - Optics  -  Optical Lenses.pptx23PH301 - Optics  -  Optical Lenses.pptx
23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx
RDhivya6
 
HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1
HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1
HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1
Shashank Shekhar Pandey
 
Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)
Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)
Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)
Sciences of Europe
 
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdfAJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR
 
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
frank0071
 
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically youngThe debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
Sérgio Sacani
 
Tissue fluids_etiology_volume regulation_pressure.pptx
Tissue fluids_etiology_volume regulation_pressure.pptxTissue fluids_etiology_volume regulation_pressure.pptx
Tissue fluids_etiology_volume regulation_pressure.pptx
muralinath2
 
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNERandomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
University of Maribor
 
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
by6843629
 
快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
hozt8xgk
 
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
Sérgio Sacani
 

Recently uploaded (20)

在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
 
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdfMethods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
 
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdfGadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
 
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
 
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdfMending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
 
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart AgricultureAlternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of ProteinsGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
 
Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...
Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...
Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...
 
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
 
23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx
23PH301 - Optics  -  Optical Lenses.pptx23PH301 - Optics  -  Optical Lenses.pptx
23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx
 
HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1
HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1
HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1
 
Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)
Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)
Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)
 
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdfAJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
 
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...
 
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically youngThe debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
 
Tissue fluids_etiology_volume regulation_pressure.pptx
Tissue fluids_etiology_volume regulation_pressure.pptxTissue fluids_etiology_volume regulation_pressure.pptx
Tissue fluids_etiology_volume regulation_pressure.pptx
 
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNERandomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
 
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
 
快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
 
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
 

Tissue engineering......................pptx

  • 2. What is ‘TISSUE ENGINEERING’…
  • 3. Tissue Engineering is... “an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences towards the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function or a whole organ”
  • 4. • The term Tissue Engineering (TE) was first presented to the broad scientific community in 1993 by Langer and Vacanti. • Tissue engineering aims to restore tissue and organ function by employing biological and engineering strategies to clinical problems. • The functional failure of tissues and organs is a severe and costly healthcare problem, as their replacement is limited by the availability of compatible donors .
  • 5. Why Tissue Engineering is Important • Supply of donor organs cannot keep up with demand. • Other available therapies such as surgical reconstruction, drug therapy, synthetic prostheses, and medical devices aren't always successful. • It will eliminate any risk of organ rejection because the new organ would be made from the person's own tissue. • It repairs tissues, organs, and bones successfully • Victims of organ/tissue defects will not have to suffer
  • 6. Principle of Tissue Engineering: The general principles of tissue engineering involve combining living cells with a natural/synthetic support or scaffold that is also biodegradable to build a three dimensional living construct that is functionally, structurally and mechanically equal to or better than the tissue that is to be replaced.
  • 7. Regenerative medicine is a broad field that includes tissue engineering but also incorporates research on self-healing – where the body uses its own systems, sometimes with help foreign biological material to recreate cells and rebuild tissues and organs. The terms “tissue engineering” and “regenerative medicine” have become largely interchangeable, as the field hopes to focus on cures instead of treatments for complex, often chronic diseases. This field continues to evolve. In addition to medical applications, non-therapeutic applications include using tissues as biosensors to detect biological or chemical threat agents, and tissue chips that can be used to test the toxicity of an experimental medication. Examples include cell therapies (the injection of stem cells or progenitor cells); immunomodulation therapy (regeneration by biologically active molecules administered alone or as secretions by infused cells); and tissue engineering (transplantation of laboratory grown organs and tissues).
  • 8. The Triad of Tissue Engineering Tissue engineering applications typically involve the combination of three pillars: cells, signals, and scaffolds, which represent the “triad of tissue engineering”.
  • 9. Approaches in Tissue Engineering Incorporating the three elements of tissue engineering needs a good scaffolding technique. Over the years, different approaches have been developed, resulting in scaffolds that can support the cells and encourage tissue growth after implantation.
  • 10. PROCESS OF TISSUE ENGINEERING Steps (1)Start building material (e.g., extracellular matrix, biodegradable polymer). (2) Shape it as needed. (3) Seed it with living cells. (4) Bathe it with growth factors. (5) Cells multiply & fill up the scaffold & grow into three-dimensional tissue. (6) Implanted in the body. (7) Cells recreate their intended tissue functions. (8) Blood vessels attach themselves to the new tissue. (9) The scaffold dissolves. (10) The newly grown tissue eventually blends in with its surroundings.
  • 11.
  • 12. Step 1: • Get Tissue Sample (Cells) from the body. • Patients own cells • Researches have to break tissue apart using, enzymes that digest the extracellular material that normally holds cells together. • Cells need structure, nutrients, and oxygen Scaffold Step 2: GROWING CELLS INTO NEW TISSUE • Cells need a scaffold, For tissue regeneration • Scaffold: It gives cells structure on which they need to grow, without them cells are free floating, cannot connect with each other, communicate or form tissue. • Scaffold is biocompatible and biodegradable • Scaffolds provide the structure that cells need for a certain period of time until they have formed enough tissue to have their own structure. • Scaffold dissolves once structure of cells is formed.
  • 13. Step 3: IMPLANTING NEW TISSUE • Bioengineered Tissue Implants Regenerate Damaged Knee Cartilage Science Daily. • Cartilage was removed from 23 patients with an average age of 36 years. • After growing the cells in culture for 14 days, the researchers seeded them onto scaffolds made of esterified hyaluronic acid, grew them for another 14 days on the scaffolds, and then implanted them into the injured knees of the study patients. • Cartilage regeneration was seen in ten of 23 patients, including in some patients with preexisting early osteoarthritis of the knee secondary to traumatic injury. • Maturation of the implanted, tissue-engineered cartilage was evident as early as 11 months after implantation.
  • 14. The potential of stem cells capable of self-renewal- can divide and renew themselves for long periods unspecialized cells that can differentiate into other types of cells
  • 15.
  • 16. SCAFFOLDS: • Cells are often implanted or 'seeded' into an artificial structure capable of supporting three-dimensional tissue formation. These structures, typically called scaffolds usually serve at least one of the following purposes: • Allow cell attachment and migration. • Deliver and retain cells and biochemical factors. • Enable diffusion of vital cell nutrients and expressed products. • Exert certain mechanical and biological influences to modify the behavior of the cell phase.
  • 17. Requirements for scaffolds • High porosity and an adequate pore size • Biodegradability rate at which degradation occurs has to coincide as much as possible with the rate of tissue formation • Inject ability
  • 18. DIFFERENT TYPES OD SCAFFOLD FABRICATION TECHNIQUES • The conventional tissue engineering scaffold production techniques include thermally induced phase separation (TIPS), fiber bonding, electrospinning, solvent casting and particulate leaching, membrane lamination, freeze-drying, and gas foaming . • The recent development in scaffold fabrication mainly comprises integration with computer- aided design (CAD) software such as stereolithography, bioplotting, solvent-based free forming, combination modelling technique, fused deposition modelling, 3D printing, and selective laser sintering (SLS) . • The techniques retain the ability to maintain pore structures, cell–cell interaction, reduction in mechanical instability, and control over mitigation of the cellular matrix.
  • 19. Scaffold Fabrication: • Scaffold fabrication is a critical step in tissue engineering as it provides the structural support necessary for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. • There are several methods used to fabricate scaffolds: 1. 3D Printing: Also known as additive manufacturing, 3D printing allows for the precise layer-by-layer deposition of materials to create scaffolds with complex geometries and controlled porosity. This technique enables customization of scaffold properties such as pore size, interconnectivity, and mechanical strength.
  • 20. 2. Electrospinning: Electrospinning involves the use of an electric field to draw polymer solutions or melts into ultrafine fibers. These fibers are collected to form nanofibrous scaffolds with a high surface area-to-volume ratio, which can closely mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture. 3. Decellularization: Decellularization is a technique where cellular components are removed from natural tissues, leaving behind an acellular scaffold composed of the ECM. These scaffolds retain the native tissue's biochemical composition and mechanical properties, making them suitable for tissue engineering applications.
  • 21. Cell Seeding Techniques: • Once scaffolds are fabricated, cells need to be introduced onto or into them to initiate tissue formation. • Several cell seeding techniques are employed: 1. Static Seeding: In static seeding, cells are typically pipetted or seeded directly onto the scaffold surface and allowed to adhere through gravity or gentle agitation. While simple and straightforward, static seeding may result in uneven cell distribution. 2. Dynamic Seeding: Dynamic seeding involves the use of bioreactor systems where scaffolds are placed in a chamber with controlled flow conditions. This allows for better distribution of cells throughout the scaffold, enhancing cell attachment and proliferation.
  • 22. 3. Perfusion Seeding: Perfusion seeding takes dynamic seeding a step further by continuously perfusing cell suspension through the scaffold using a pump system. This method ensures uniform cell distribution and nutrient delivery, promoting cell viability and tissue formation.
  • 23. Tissue Culture Methods: • Tissue culture techniques are employed to maintain cells or tissues in vitro under controlled conditions. • This is essential for studying cellular behavior, tissue development, and for producing functional tissue constructs. Key tissue culture methods include: 1. 2D Cell Culture: In 2D cell culture, cells are typically grown as monolayers on flat surfaces such as tissue culture plates. While simple and widely used, 2D culture lacks the three- dimensional context present in vivo, which may affect cell behavior and function. 2. 3D Cell Culture: 3D cell culture involves culturing cells in three-dimensional environments that mimic the in vivo tissue architecture more closely. This can be achieved using hydrogels, scaffolds, or spheroid culture methods, providing cells with a more physiologically relevant environment. 3. Bioreactor Culture: Bioreactors are dynamic culture systems that provide controlled conditions such as temperature, pH, oxygen levels, and mechanical stimulation. Bioreactor culture allows for the scaling up of tissue constructs and the simulation of physiological conditions, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications.
  • 24. Advantages and Disadvantages of different types of scaffolds fabrication techniques for tissue engineering application.
  • 25. Various forms of 3D scaffolds
  • 26.
  • 27. APPLICATIONS OF TISSUE ENGINEERING • The main goal of tissue engineering is to regenerate and replace human tissues and organs through a combination of biological, clinical, and engineering approaches. Replacing/Regenerating Target Organs • Skin: • Tissue-engineered skin aims to restore barrier function to patients for whom this has been severely compromised, e.g., burn patients. • Skin is a widely explored engineered tissue, and several commercial skin products are available, e.g., Epicel® by Genzyme is a product based on autologous cells grown to cover a wound; Apligraf® by Organogenesis is a dual layer skin equivalent with keratinocytes and fibroblasts on collagen gel; Dermagraft® by Advanced Tissue Science uses a similar approach with dermal fibroblast on resorbable polymer, among many others . • These products treat burns, ulcers, deep wounds, and other injuries. Collagen, fibrin, hyaluronic acid, and poly(lactic glycolic acid) are mainly used in skin substitute matrices. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts compose the majority of cells in skin tissue, thus expanding and transplanting these cells within biocompatible matrices is key to successful skin regeneration .
  • 28. Liver: • Liver transplantation is end-stage treatment for many liver diseases. Several factors including drug use, alcohol abuse, and viruses like Hepatitis can cause acute liver failure. It is important to completely replace the damaged liver or support the patients that wait for donor organs or suffer from chronic liver diseases with tissue-engineered livers . • Intense efforts exist to develop a bridging device that can support a patient’s liver function until a donor is available, e.g., dialysis, charcoal hemoperfusion, immobilized enzymes or exchange transfusion. Several extracorporeal systems use patients’ own cells in a hollow-fiber, spoutedbed or flat-bed device, which reduce the chance of immune rejection. • Several bioartificial livers (BAL) have been developed and designed to flow patient’s plasma through a bioreactor that houses/maintains hepatocytes sandwiched between artificial plates or capillaries.
  • 29. Pancreas: • Diabetes is the fifth highest cause of death . One type of diabetes is type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), an autoimmune disease which destroys the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. T1DM is relevant to tissue engineering, since it can be treated by replacing the destroyed pancreatic islet cells. • Techniques for pancreatic tissue engineering aim to release insulin from transplanted islets into the blood to restore normal blood glucose levels. • Three main approaches are used: a tubular membrane that encapsulates islets and connects to blood vessels; hollow fibers containing islets embedded in a polymer matrix; and encapsulation of islets in microcapsules . • The membranes used in the perfusion devices and coatings in microcapsules are developed from biocompatible polymers that allow insulin to diffuse into the bloodstream, while protecting the cells from destruction by immune cells. An insufficient source of islet cells presents a challenge, but recent advances with stem cells may overcome this.
  • 30. Heart • Many patients are left with damaged or malfunctioning cardiac tissue that lead to arrhythmias and diminished cardiac output. Tissue engineering is actively pursing treatments for myocardial infarction, congenital heart defects, and stenotic valves through regenerating cardiac tissues. • Heart valves are developed by transplanting autologous cells onto a scaffold, growing and maturing the cell- seeded scaffold, and finally transplanting the valves into the patient. • Decellularized heart valves consist of extracellular matrix which is repopulated with host cells, but they can potentially produce severe immune response . • Alternatively, biomaterial-based heart valves are designed from various natural materials, e.g., collagen, fibrin, and synthetic polymers, e.g., PLGA, poly(hydroxy butyrate) . Biomaterial-based heart valves have advantageous characteristics, including malleability and improved mechanical strength. • Cells for cardiovascular applications are usually obtained from donor tissues, e.g, peripheral arteries with mixed populations of myofibroblasts and endothelial cells, as well as established cell lines of myofibroblasts and endothelial cells. There are several successful applications of tissue-engineered heart valves for both in vitro and in vivo models. Additionally, efforts have been made to regenerate myocardium by scaffold-based approaches with natural and synthetic materials
  • 31. Blood vessels: • Poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) PTFE and Dacron® grafts have traditionally been used as vascular grafts, particularly for large diameter vessels. However, these grafts are largely unsuccessful for small diameter blood vessels, due to thrombogenicity and compliance mismatch. • Tissue engineering strategies therefore provide great opportunities for development of blood vessels. Decellularized arteries with well-preserved extra cellular proteins have been repopulated with cells both in vitro and in vivo to generate blood vessels . • Polymer-based scaffolds are often used as a template to guide the regeneration of blood vessels. • Also, recently developed microfluidic and microfabrication techniques allow the complex architecture of a blood vessel with defined microstructures to be realized . • In an alternative approach, sheets of smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix are generated under flow conditions in the absence of scaffold, and are subsequently rolled over a support to mature into a vessel structure . • An emerging approach focuses on combining endothelial cells with mesenchymal stem cells or smooth muscle cells to help stabilize the blood vessel and help aid in the vessel pruning process . • It is important to note that formation of new blood vessels is critical for engineering any tissue to supply nutrients and oxygen to cells.
  • 32. Nervous system: • Generation of nerve tissues is a major focus in tissue engineering . Injuries in the central nervous system (CNS) are often accompanied by permanent functional impairment, unlike peripheral nervous system (PNS) damage where the axons are able to re-extend and re-innervate, leading to functional recovery . • This is because the environment of the damaged site in CNS blocks the regeneration of neurons. • Peripheral nerve grafts that include synthetic or biological substrates have been developed to act as a bridge to guide the nerve regeneration process. To restore the structures lost in the disorganization of axons during injury it is critical to build a bridge that spans the lesion gap with all the morphological, chemical, and biological cues that mimic normal tissue.
  • 33. Bone: • There are numerous clinical applications that can benefit from bone regeneration therapies including spinal fusion to alleviate back pain, temporomandibular joint reconstruction to alleviate jaw pain, and restoration of contour and shape within reconstructed craniofacial bone. • Significant progress in the development of bone regeneration therapies has been achieved, yet large critical-sized defects which do not heal remain a significant clinical challenge. Although several inorganic-, polymeric-, and hybrid-based scaffolds have been examined to engineer bone, it has been difficult to develop a material that displays optimal mechanical properties and degradation kinetics for bone repair . • It is clear that the scaffolds for bone regeneration should have an interconnected macroporosity to allow three-dimensional bone growth throughout the scaffold. • Implantation of empty macroporous scaffolds that are devoid of cells typically do not improve the healing response though combining biodegradable scaffolds with cells is a commonly explored strategy
  • 34. Other Applications of Tissue Engineering • There are several non-traditional, yet useful and important applications of tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the field of drug screening is in need of advanced in vitro methods for the assessment of the activity and toxicity of drugs before clinical studies are initiated . • Since most drugs are metabolized in the liver, microscale hepatocyte systems may allow high throughput screening for liver toxicity . Furthermore, humans or animals “on a chip” are in development. • These chips are essentially several reactors with different cell types connected in series which can stimulate the pathway of a chemical substance through several parts of the body, such as the liver, brain, and fat. • In the future, tissue engineering-based drug testing and toxicity assays can provide an alternate strategy to reduce the use of in vivo animal testing. Moreover, an artificially engineered tissue-engineered system can provide enhanced control of tissue microenvironments, both in physiological and pathological conditions (e.g., cancer tumor), contributing to the understanding of complex tissues and organs
  • 35. • Tissue engineering is a young field that utilizes cells, biomaterials, physical signals (e.g., mechanical stimulation), biochemical signals (e.g., growth factors and cytokines), and their combinations, to engineer tissues. • The most common application of tissue engineering is to create tissues that can be used to repair or replace tissues in the body suffering partial or complete loss of function. • However, tissue engineering has started to find new applications such as the development of extracorporeal life support units (e.g., bioartificial liver and kidney), in vitro disease models, tissues for drug screening, smart diagnosis, and personalized medicine.
  • 36. Year Achievements Reference 1907 Dr. Harrison Ross first observed living developing nerve fiber Harrison Rose et al., 1907 1948 First artificial Kidney was synthesized Gauvin et al., 2011 1988 3D positioning of cells Klebe RJ , 1988 1993 Term "Tissue engineering" was defined Klebe RJ ,1988 1994 Biofabrication Fritz Monika,1994 1997 Commercially available skin Mac Neil ,2007 2002 Commercially available bone Parikh, 2002 2003 Patent for bio-printer Mironov et al., 2003 2008 Decellularized organ Ott et al., 2008 2010 10-year-old child saved Kalathur et al.,2010 2015 Development of soft tissue Pati et al ., 2015 2019 Development of new stereolithographic process for multi- vascular networks Grigoryan et al.,2019 Timeline for the milestone in Tissue engineering.
  • 37. Cao, Vacanti et al., (1997) The Vacanti mouse ear was created using a biodegradable polymer scaffold shaped like a human ear. The scaffold was seeded with chondrocytes, which are cartilage cells, and implanted under the skin on the back of a laboratory mouse. Over time, the chondrocytes proliferated and synthesized new cartilage tissue, resulting in the growth of an ear-shaped structure.
  • 38. Different tissue-engineered organs. (a) Scaffold prepared from synthetic biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PLA) in the shape of a 3-year-old auricle. (b) Scaffolds implanted subcutaneously on the back of an immunodeficient mouse. (c) First trachea organ transplant using human's bone marrow stem cells. (d) Constructed artificial bladder seeded with human bladder cells and dipped in a growth solution. (e) Bioengineered kidney that mimics the function of a normal kidney the control of the urinary system and blood filtration. (f) Tissue-engineered heart valve using human marrow stromal cells.
  • 39. Challenges in Tissue Engineering • In fact, autologous, allogeneic, and xenogeneic cells are all potential sources, and each of these can be subdivided into stem cells (adult or embryonic) or differentiated cells. Since they all have their own advantages and disadvantages (immune reaction, differentiation, etc.), the choice of the right source for the cells and their culture is a challenge by itself. • The choice of scaffold biomaterials is not an easier task either. The scaffolds must actually respond to both the structural and functional requirements of the body. It must be biocompatible and should be able to communicate with the ECM while at the same time providing the needed mechanical support. While natural materials have better biocompatibility and biodegradability, synthetic ones usually present stronger mechanical properties. • Another important challenge in tissue engineering is related to the transportation of nutrients and waste secretion in the engineered tissue . Since the majority of tissues rely on blood vessels to transport oxygen and nutrients, the 3D engineered tissue needs to be vascularized with a vascular capillary network . • Finally, a major challenge is still present, namely mass production and commercialization of the engineered tissues. Specific manufacturing conditions and quality control strategies need to be ensured.
  • 40. The Future of Tissue Engineering • The last few decades have witnessed major steps in health care, leading to improved surgical procedures and better management of diseases. • Consequently, the aforementioned advancements have led to an increased demand for tissues and organs. • The ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to bridge the constantly growing gap between organ demand and availability by producing complete organs . • Stem cells will continue to be investigated for their differentiation potential, and more applications will be developed in the future. • The ultimate goal would be to engineer immune-transparent stem-like cells with clear protocols, enabling their committed differentiation to targeted tissues. Developments in basic and applied science related to the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds will be a major future target. • Potential limitations of such scaffolds will always be the shortage of supplies (e.g., scaffolds from allogeneic sources), potential immunoreactions, and ethical concerns (e.g., scaffolds from xenogeneic origins). In future, it is expected that new biomaterials will be developed incorporating selected molecules to address targeted tissues. • Moreover, many basic science studies will be conducted to identify the effects of molecules on cells and determine the right degradation rate and material properties (porosity, mechanical properties, and structural properties) suitable for each tissue engineering applications.
  • 41. Advantage of tissue engineering • Tissue engineering provides long term and much safer solution than other options. • The traditional transplantation complications are minimized. • The donar can be patients himself or herself. • The need for donar tissue is minimal. • Immuno suppression problem can be minimized. • The presence of residual foreign material can be minimized. Disadvantage of tissue engineering • Cell isolation and preparation, biomaterial of nutrients transport and transplantation is very complex process. • It is difficult to achieve cell diffrentiation into desired cell type and ensuring their nutrient supply after implantation into the body. • There may be obstacles to growing cells in sufficient quantities. • The time necessary to develops cells in culture before they can be used and possible lack of function at the donar site are some other limitations.