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A p p l i e d S c i e n c e
T h e r m o d y n a m i c s
L a w s a n d m e t h o d o l o g y e m b r a c i n g o u r
u n i v e r s e a n d t h i n k i n g
P r o f P C o c h r a n e O B E D S c
w w w. p e t e r c o c h r a n e . c o m
RANKING
Across the entire spectrum of physics,
Einstein liked General Relativity and
Thermodynamics best because they
are both derived from fundamental
considerations of how the universe
works; their completeness; and as
fundamentally emergent properties
of our observations over millennia
“A theoretical physicist who excelled in the art of
‘mind-experiments’ to the point of revolutionising
science, scientific thinking, and methodologies”
Exemplar Subject
The story of Thermodynamics is one scientific investigation and
application at its best. Not only was it conducted over a period
of >200 years, it enjoyed the highest levels of professionalism,
collaboration and technical thoroughness. It also saw new layers
of application, technology, methodology, techniques & practices
as they became available. In turn, these progressively enhanced
measurement and modelling accuracy to broaden our knowledge
at a micro and macro level.
Perhaps most importantly, Thermodynamics rapidly became a
primary tool of exploitation in the advance of applied science/
engineering/technology, spanning micro-tech, to aerospace and
cosmology. I can think of no better story to illustrate the
richness of science methodologies and the value of continuous
collaboration, corroboration and refinement!
Peter Cochrane
7 Jane 2024
Thermo-Dynamics
Special Relativity
Quantum Mechanics
R a n k i n g :
Completeness and strength
Complete and generally applicable to
all sciences, situations and conditions
Complete and specifically applicable
to time, space, motion on all scales
Incomplete & fundamental to the core
of all matter and realities, but still at a
‘further refinement’ phase
A GUT would link these directly,
but it alludes us at this time
Thermo-Dynamics
Special Relativity
Quantum Mechanics
R a n k i n g :
Completeness and strength
Complete and generally applicable to
all sciences, situations and conditions
Complete and specifically applicable
to time, space, motion on all scales
Incomplete & fundamental to the core
of all matter and realities, but still at a
‘further refinement’ phase
A GUT would unify
all our models &
perspectives
U n i v e r s e A new model is overdue - sees latest JWST
Sp
ace
-Tim
e
is
Tor
n
Ap
art
?
Sp
ace
-Tim
e
is
Tor
n
Ap
art
?
U n i v e r s e Soon to be updated ??
Energy Density
Total Energy
O
R
D
E
R
D
IS
O
R
D
E
R
C o s m o l o g Y
I n c r i s i s ?
James Webb Space telescope reveal the standard
model and cosmological constant to be wrong!
• Universe is expanding faster than previously thought
• It is not homogenous but made up of large clusters
• Massive galaxies evolved earlier than predicted
• New and unexpected structures observed
• The ‘Hubble Model’ is now in question!
• New cosmology model may be required
• Books will have to be rewritten
The Big Question = Does this impact Thermodynamics?
Sp
ace
-Tim
e
is
Tor
n
Ap
art
?
Total Energy Constant
O
R
D
E
R
D
IS
O
R
D
E
R
There is considerable debate on our ‘model’ of the universe on almost
every aspect, but as to the total energy stasis: the weight of
opinion seems to be with energy loss as a part of the
expansion et al process. But this is not
certain, and was not an issue in
Boltzmann’s time and
earlier!
U n i v e r s e Addendum: constant energy assumption
Total Energy Decay with Time
Only one big Question = Is it a significant effect
on or off our planet for our
Thermodynamics modelling ?
Sp
ace
-Tim
e
is
Tor
n
Ap
art
?
V O Y A G E R I I Living proof that Thermodynamics is alive and
working well on its tour of interstellar space
Launched on Aug 20 1977
Operational for 47 years to date!
Visited Jupiter (79), Saturn(81), Uranus (86), Neptune (89)
Today May 2024: 136.1 AU (20.4 Bn km) out
Reference 0: 136.1 AU (20.4 Bn km) ~0.022 light years
Reference 1: Limit of Milky Way is 6Bn AU (~95k light years)
Reference 2: Proxima Centauri 253kAU, Betelgeuse 30M AU
Reassurance: On the scale of what our species might
aspire to do or achieve, I think we can
safely assume that the theory and
foundation of thermodynamics
is safe and solid for some
considerable distance
into the future!
Sp
ace
-Tim
e
is
Tor
n
Ap
art
?
U n i v e r s e A concern/uncertainty on the scale of an
all embracing Thermodynamics model …
Expanding Universe: Sees energy decrease with time as matter and radiation is diluted.
Matter to Energy: Nuclear fusion in stars + accretion of matter into black holes, sees
matter converted into energy through radiation release and generation of high-energy
particles contributing to a gradual reduction in the overall energy content of the universe.
Dark energy: A property of space itself, contributing to the overall energy density.
Particle Physics: Decay of unstable particles and annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs
etc al, sees energy conversion from one form to another, altering the total energy.
Conservation of Energy: Still applies within the universe with energy mutation from one
form to another (a consequence of the dynamic cosmos) but it cannot be created or
destroyed.
Sp
ace
-Tim
e
is
Tor
n
Ap
art
?
U n i v e r s e A ‘minor’ concern/uncertainty in the grand scale
of an all embracing assumption for a universal
Thermodynamics model …
An open system can exchange both energy and matter with its surroundings.
A stove top is a good example as heat and water vapour can be lost to the air.
A closed system, can only exchange energy (no matter) with its surroundings.
An electric motor, mobile, computer are good examples
A key assumption underlying all that follows.
Our universe is a closed system where energy and matter remain constant - nothing
enters and nothing leaves - nothing!
At this time we have working technology outside our solar system,
and indeed, beyond our galaxy, and this supports the closed
model ! Voyager 2 it is still sending images back to Earth….and
this ‘truism’ appears to hold.
A cosmological hypothesis that has yet
to be observed in reality. Today, such a
prospect is way beyond our technology
and engineering abilities to disprove or
prove, but does it matter?
W h a t a b o u t
W o r m h o l e s ?
“For now and way into the future we can
rest assured the assumptions and Laws of
Thermodynamics are secure for the further
use of many generations to come”
An observable cosmological event and
manifestation of in
fi
nite gravity/destiny
in the fabric of space time
W h a t a b o u t
B l a c k H o l e s ?
“On the scale of the universe they appear as ‘point
function aberrations’ and violent for any bodies that
stray too close. The ‘jury’ is still out regarding the
issue of where any ‘imbibed’ materials might go
beyond the singularity - and does it change anything?
T h e r m o d y n a m i c s :
e x e m p l A r Y S c i e n c e
1st : Energy cannot be created or destroyed
2nd : All spontaneous processes increase entropy
3rd : A perfect crystal at zero K has zero entropy
L A W S
“After millennia of observation of how nature and the
universe works, these laws have been extensively tried/
tested by practical application/experiments across
e v e r y f i e l d o f h u m a n e n d e a v o u r. T h e y a r e n o w
foundational in the building our modern world”
Entropy: thermal energy/unit temperature of a system unavailable for
doing useful work - aka a measure of the ‘molecular disorder’
T W O T E R M S
T w o Q U I R K S
Enthalpy (H): the sum of the internal Energy and Work Done
Life Systems: introduce localised negative Entropy, but in the universe
overall Entropy always increases
Arrow of Time: implied by Entropy and is unidirectional
S e g u E
Direction - Times Arrow
“It’s atoms (and bits) that matter, and entropy that rules”
O B L I Q U E
T h o u g h t
“Growing structural disorder (errors) in our genomic
and protein strings see our bodies age, and ultimately,
define our demise”
“We work with things made of atoms, use machines
that employ bits, and they are all governed by entropy”
‘Sometimes’ described as a measure of disorder, and explains why
life/everything seems to get more, not less, complicated with time”
P r e q u e l
E N T R O P Y :
A property to be reckoned with
Applicable to, and across, the universe and
everything therein - it is the closest we have
to a GUT - it governs every life-form, system,
science and engineering/technology practice
‘More realistically’ a measure of the distribution (& disposition) of
energy, materials, molecules, atoms, and information”
‘Sometimes’ described as a measure of disorder, and explains why
life/everything seems to get more, not less, complicated with time”
“A component part of the casualty that sees life as an emergent
property of complexity with intelligence an emergent property of life”
P r e q u e l
E N T R O P Y :
A property to be reckoned with
“A core reason for the death/demise of everything and the reason
immortality, perpetual motion, and free energy are impossible”
Applicable to, and across, the universe and
everything therein - it is the closest we have
to a GUT - it governs every life-form, system,
science and engineering/technology practice
‘More realistically’ a measure of the distribution (& disposition) of
energy, materials, molecules, atoms, and information”
Number of Micro-States
Number of Macro States
E N T R O P Y :
A measure of system disorder
System Entropy
“A measure of disorder or randomness in a system, such as a planet, star,
universe, any solid, fluid or gas, a chemical mixture, hydraulic machine, or
living body such as a tree, grass or the human body”
“Entropy is an extraordinary utility/property/measures that remains unique
in the fields of science and engineering”
“Because of my history in information coding,
transmission and recovery, I much prefer this
probabalistic definition
= >
Order
Disorder
= >
E N T R O P Y :
A measure of system disorder
As we reduce the temperature
in the jar we see the chaotic
motion lessen, and if we took it
down to absolute zero (0K) and
all motion would cease
LOW
HIGH
Entr
opy
T o B e A w a r e :
Gas, Fluid, Solids, are not always in an ideal state!
PV = mRT
Boyle’s Gas Law
T o B e A w a r e :
Gas, Fluid, Solids, are not always in an ideal state!
PV = mRT
Boyle’s Gas Law
“A high number of collisions sees
Boyle’s Gas Law break down as ‘non-
linear’ behaviour takes over”
I N f o r m a t i o N
Conceptually: ‘States & Patterns of Things’
Entropy Very Low
Position, shape, size, colour
.
Entropy increases as
size, shape, colour, position,
see many combinatorial possibilities
I N f o r m a t i o N
A measure of system disorder
Variables =
Frequency, Phase, Amplitude
….human ears do not detect phase
Variables =
Dots & Dashes, Speed
Combinatorial Patterns
I N f o r m a t i o N
T H e 0 r y R u l e s !
A measure of a system state and change
How much and how fast information might be:
- transported (transmitted and received)
- stored and recovered
- manipulated
In short; information theory, defines;
‘the practical and theoretical limits and bounds
on all forms of communication and computing’
“Information is directly related
to the Entropy of a system ie
the degree of order/disorder”
“You can compute (communicate)
with arbitrarily small amounts of
power”
H i s t o r i c a l
P e r s p e c t i v e
& More Depth
Prof Neil Gershenfeld MIT Media Lab
“Life exists because it is able to
locally violate thermodynamics”
Tragic Outcome(s) Entropic formula by
Ludwig Boltzmann
~1872/75
Boltzmann got so frustrated that people would not
believe/accept his theories he committed suicide
whilst on a family holiday - 5 Sept 1906 Duino Italy
Member of Austrian Academy of Sciences 1887
President of the University of Graz 1887
Member of Royal Swedish Academy 1888
Member of Royal Society 1899
Named in his honour:
• Boltzmann Equipartition theorem
• Boltzmann Lattice methods
• Boltzmann brain
• Boltzmann constant
• Boltzmann machine
• Boltzmann equation
• Boltzmann Medal
• Boltzmann (crater)
“An outstanding scientist with the temperament of an outstanding artist”
OUR Scientific MISSION
To f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d a s b e s t w e c a n
Art
Life
Death
Physics
Theory
Biology
Science
Practice
Industry
Education
Chemistry
Philosophy
Experience
Experiment
Manufacturing
Mathematics
Observation
Engineering
Agriculture
Technology
Cosmology
Computing
Production
Philosophy
Economics
Transport
Telecoms
Design
Construction
Management
Information
Sociology
Pharmacy
Medicine
Logistics
Security
Systems
Energy
Health
Cyber
AI/AL
++++
We like to put things in boxes
We teach and learn in boxes
It is fast, efficient, & effective up
to a point
A product of an education
system forged to meet the needs
of the industrial revolution
“Thermodynamics as a subject
cannot be ‘boxed’ as it is so
widely applicable and the closest
we have to a GUT” !
UNDERSTANDINGS
F o r g o t t e n o r d i s c o n n e c t e d
We observe
We participate
We experience things
We learn focussed topics
We are not taught critical thinking
We forget to link our knowledge/practices
Our futures depend on concatenating complex systems
We are knee deep in specialists, but lack the necessary generalists
“A gradual ‘virtualisation’ of everything and detachment from
reality in education, and the professions, sees serious
implications for the way we think, conceptualise, and gain
experience. Scientific progress is founded on a broad
church of skills, experience, and understanding.
The ‘trick’ is to become ‘broad in everything’
whilst retaining the ability to explore in ever
greater depth and detail. To achieve this
demands a progressive embracing of
more technologies leading to a
symbiotic relationship and
team working ”
I hear and I forget,
I see and I remember,
I do and I understand
UNDERSTANDING
M y s t u d e n t e x p e r i e n c e s
Confucius
Confucius
500 BC
Three levels of understanding:
1) As a student ( we grasp concepts)
2) As a practitioner ( it gets real)
3) As a teacher ( we try to explain)
UNDERSTANDING
P r o f e s s i o n e x p e r i e n c e s
I l l u s o r y E D U C AT I O N
A focus on remembering facts, the simple & known
At school, college and
university we are all
spoilt rotten by: a
diet of problems
w i t h s o l u t i o n s ;
the rational, and
the logical; things
prone to simple
analytic processes
and explanation…
in short - a world of
the near 100% linear !
The Universe of Linearity
and all the stuff we know and
fully understand !
The Non-Linear bit
where we know and
understand virtually
nothing!
I l l u s o r y E D U C AT I O N
A focus on remembering facts, the simple & known
At school, college and
university we are all
spoilt rotten by: a
diet of problems
w i t h s o l u t i o n s ;
the rational, and
the logical; things
prone to simple
analytic processes
and explanation…
in short - a world of
the near 100% linear !
The Universe of Linearity
and all the stuff we know and
fully understand !
The Non-Linear bit
where we know and
understand virtually
nothing!
Where we are
educated and all
the stuff we know
and understand !
The Non-Linear Universe
where we know and
understand virtually nothing!
This is the challenge
before us - a sea
of undiscovered
knowledge that
might just see
us survive and
p r o s p e r a s a
species provided
we can change
and adapt at a
fast enough rate
…and it starts with
E D U C A T I O N
Learning By Doing
Trial, error, mistakes, understanding
Budding
Engineer
Scientist
I just had a
brilliant idea
and it might
just work!
Factories for the mind
Remember facts, master processes, understand zip!
A product of contiguous industrial revolutions…?
Don’t think, just do: focus on getting the right
answer; mistakes & errors considered to bad
Idealistic
IFF ONLY !
“The way you might think it
all works if you hadn’t had
the experience of being a
researcher in industry and/
or university”
“The keys to success are
fl
exibility, adaptability and
dogged tenacity, always
being prepared to give it
another go, ‘reset’ and
start over if needs be”
U n d e r s ta n d i n g i s v i ta l
The journey can often be more important than the goal
Identify
Problem
Formulate
Hypothesis
Observe
Experiment
Analyse
Results
Analyse
Results
Confirm
Hypothesis
Write Up
Defend
Ideal Trajectory
Time
U
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g
/
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
U n d e r s ta n d i n g i s v i ta l
The journey can often be more important than the goal
Identify
Problem
Formulate
Hypothesis
Observe
Experiment
Analyse
Results
Analyse
Results
Confirm
Hypothesis
Write Up
Defend
Ideal Trajectory
Messy Reality
Errors
Mistakes
Blind Alleys
Equipment Fails
Measurement Fails
Bad Guesses
Intuition Fails
Hypothesis Fail
Competing Research
Theoretical Hiatus
Confounding
Results Time
U
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g
/
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
Recasting
Change of Emphasis
New Direction
New Theory
Unanticipated
Outcomes!
New/Novel
Discoveries
DESPITE ALL We Know
P e o p l e a r e w a s t i n g t h e i r l i v e s a n d $ M
- Fools
- The Ignorant
- Tricksters @ Charlatans
F R E E E N E R G Y I S A L I V E
A N D W E L L - B U T S T I L L
N O T D E L I V E R I N G ! !
T H I S C A U S E I S Y E T
A N O T H E R I R R A T I O N A L
B E L I E F S Y S T E M ! !
PERPETUAL MOTION
And Free En ergy
I t a l l b o i l s d o w n t o t h i s ,
a n d i t i s s o o b v i o u s !
NOTHING IS FREE
E v e r y t h i n g i s c o n n e c t e d
E n e r g y i s n o t m a g i c !
T h e r e i s n o f r e e e n e r g y !
T h e r e i s a l w a y s a p r i c e t o p a y !
1 0 0 % e f f i c i e n c y i s u n a t t a i n a b l e !
To l e v i t a t e a 1 0 0 k g h u m a n @ 1 m / s
@ a r a n g e o f 0 m ~ 1 k W
@ a r a n g e o f 1 m ~ 1 0 k W
@ a r a n g e o f 2 0 m ~ 4 M W
H a r r y d e f i n i t e l y n e e d s a t h i c k e r a r m a n d w a n d ! !
A n d w h e r e m o d e m s h i s e n e r g y c o m e f r o m ? ?
W H AT / W H E R E I S T H E F O R C E ?
M y s t i c i s m d o e s n o t & n e v e r w i l l s o l v e o u r p r o b l e m s !
E n e r g y i s n o t m a g i c !
T h e re i s n o f re e e n e r g y !
T h e re i s a l w ay s a p r i c e t o p ay !
1 0 0 % e f f i c i e n c y i s u n a t t a i n a b l e !
H u m a n b r a i n ~ 6 0 - 1 0 0 W
H u m a n b o d y ~ 1 0 0 - 1 , 0 0 0 W
L i f t i n g p o w e r r e q u i r e d ~ 4 0 0 M W
L u k e n e e d s a m u c h t h i c k e r a r m ! !
THE 30S VERSION
There is a game
We are all in the game
No one can opt out !
B AD NEWS: You can’t win the game
GOOD NEWS: You can break even
LIMITATION: But only on a very cold day
B AD NEWS: It never gets that cold !
A fundamental realisation simplified
G e n e s i s / C h a l l e n g e
Limited energy exploitation of Wind, Water, Fire
“The 17C saw a growing global population, wars, with exploration
and colonisation, demanding a move to industrialisation and
greater production at far lower costs, which in turn, was limited
by supply chains, human resources, and transportation, national
and international trade”
G e n e s i s / C h a l l e n g e
Limited energy exploitation of Wind, Water, Fire
“The 17C saw a growing global population, wars, with exploration
and colonisation, demanding a move to industrialisation and
greater production at far lower costs, which in turn, was limited
by supply chains, human resources, and transportation, national
and international trade”
All too inefficient, expensive,
costly, slow, and unable
to satisfy demand
Applied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdf
A Lo n g G e s tat i o n
F i r e > Wa t e r > S t e a m E n g i n e 1 7 1 2
Hero/Heron
Alexandrea
~150BC
Thomas Newcomen
Thomas Savery
~1712
S c i e n t i f i c
Foundation
P e r s p e c t i v e t h i n k i n g
~1662 Robert Boyle
Gas Law
~1666 Issac Newton
Laws of Motion
1) A body is at rest or in linear motion until acted
upon by some external force
2) Force is the time rate of change of momentum
3) For every action in nature there is always an equal
and opposite reaction
Volume and Pressure are inversely related when
Temperature is constant
F = d(mv)
dt
s = ut + ft2
P.V = k
P.V = mRT
Remarkable Minds
Rudimentary examination of early machines
One vital step at a time
~1850 Rudolf Clausius
William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)
~1900 Max Plank
All proved and stated: The First and Second
Laws of Thermodynamics:
- the total heat in a closed system is
conserved
- there really is no free lunch
- 100% efficiency can never be realised
- perpetual motion machines are impossible
[
Heat converted
to work analysis
Work converted
to heat analysis
Gave ‘Entropy’ its name and the
fi
rst to
lecture and teach the subject
Entropy from the Greek
En = enérgeia + tropos = turning point
Entropy, black
body radiation,
dilute solutions,
thermo-electricity
De
fi
ned absolute
zero ~ -267C
The RUN UP
F I N I S H I N G L I N E
Pulling it all together in line/order
Formulated the relationship between entropy and
the number of ways the atoms/molecules of a
system can be arranged
In statistical mechanics, Boltzmann’s equation
de
fi
nes the Entropy ’S’ of an ideal gas relative to
the quantity W = number of micro-states
corresponding to the macro-state
S = k Log W
Applies to:
Coding
Biology
Cosmos
Biology
AI & AL
Security
Computing
Intelligence
Information
Chemical Reactions
Thermal Reactions
All Engine Types
Atomic Actions
Refrigeration
Game theory
Systems
Comms
+++
Considered the physics of heat flow on
a particle activity and probability basis
alone to derive his formula
The hotter things are the greater atomic
movement and Entropy - and the more
uncertain the position of every atom
As Temperature => -273.15 K : Entropy => Constant
C o r r o b o r at i o n s
Theory, observations, practice confirmed
The ef
fi
ciency "Carnot engine" depends only on the
temperature difference within the engine.
First Law Conservation of mass
and energy for a closed system
Entropy development from a statistical
interpretation of the Second Law.
Information Theory
Phase theory and the application
In the
fi
eld of Chemistry
Introduced the concept of Entropy
Formulated the Second Law
Formulated equations of sate
Established state dependencies
De
fi
ned relationship to
fl
uid mechanics
De
fi
ned the useful work available from a closed system
Claud Shannon
Expansive
History &
F u t u r e ?
ONGOING!
Thermodynamics
Chemistry Engineering
Heat Engines
Power Generation
Reactions
Phase Changes
Info Theory
Computing
Communication
Classical
Thermodynamics
Macroscopic
Statistical
Mechanics
Microscopic
Equilibrium E
ffi
ciency Entropy
E M B R A C E S
S C I E N t i f i c
S p e c t r u m
A fundamental/far-reaching discipline
spanning aspects (all) sciences.
Essential for understanding and
optimising processes, predicting the
behaviours, understanding the old, and
developing the new!
Communications
Computing
1945
Robotics + AI ?
2022 ?
E M B R A C E S ( e n t i r e ? )
S C I E N t i f i c
S p e c t r u m
“The methodology and thinking of thermodynamics
has yet to be embraced by economics, politics, and
commerce, but it is a desperately needed if we are
to achieve sustainable civilisations on this planet”
“We are living in/on a contained system with
fi
nite resources and
negligible access to o
ff
-planet facilities. Controlling our population
size and resource exploitation is essential to our survival”
T h e r m o d y n a m i c
F a i l u r e a ss u r e d
Finite material, energy, resources, people supply
Finite market size, competition and demand
Finite limits to pro
fi
tability and investment
Finite number of countries in the stack
Automation, robotics, AI transformation
Limits to innovation and social systems
Clashing of political/
fi
nancial models
Finite source, sink, and energy
fl
ow
“In
fi
nite growth is impossible on a
fi
nite planet”
“Rampant capitalism (as we know out) will destroy everything”
“To become rich in a
fi
nite system means that someone else has to become poor”
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1
Water transport & limited green energy ~1770
Water and water
fl
ow suf
fi
ciently understood and
characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to
Newtonian Mechanics
~ 6 Tonnes
~5 bhp @ <10%
Ef
fi
ciency of
energy extraction
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1
Water transport & limited green energy ~1770
Water and water
fl
ow suf
fi
ciently understood and
characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to
Newtonian Mechanics
~ 6 Tonnes
~5 bhp @ <10%
Ef
fi
ciency of
energy extraction
BIG Unknowns
How big a wheel ?
What shape the blades ?
Over
fl
ow or under
fl
ow of water ?
How high the head & volume of water ?
L I M I T I N G C A S C A D E
Every mill wheel takes energy out of the river
L I M I T I N G C A S C A D E
Every mill wheel takes energy out of the river
*
*
*
*
*
* Water and water
fl
ow suf
fi
ciently understood and
characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to
Newtonian Mechanics
The
fi
ght for ef
fi
ciency was driven
by building mill after mill along
rivers only to run out of energy….a
victory for science, engineering,
innovation…and a foundation for
the rationale of thermodynamics
A story repeated with the steam
engine and the belt drive…with
energy distribution, friction and
ef
fi
ciency…the next big hurdles
Water transport & limited green energy ~1770
C h r o n o l o g y & D E TA I L
Experiments, intuition, guessing, theory, understanding
Mathematician Leonhard Euler and son Albert (1750s) experimented with/characterised waterwheels
Mathematician Jean-Victor Poncelet (1862) proposed inward-
fl
owing radial turbine - modern turbine precursor
Engineer Samuel B. Howd (1838) patented enclosed vertical spindle & curved blades.
Hydraulic Engineer James B. Francis (1892) added guide vanes and shaped blades
Francis turbine still the most widely used for medium-high heads/pressure
Engineer James Thomson added pivoted curved guide vanes to optimise
fl
ow
NOTE: Non of these people were ‘single-topic’ (delta function) thinkers! They
had broad/deep educational backgrounds, and an interest in ‘everything’ - most
were intensely practical, and solving problems of all kinds was their forte’
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 2
Steam power and ‘engine design’ rudimentary with
many accidents and inefficiencies apparent due
to the lack of scientific knowledge and sound
engineering principles
Steam transport and energy from coal ~1850
BIG Unknowns
What fuel ?
What
fl
uid ?
What pressure ?
What size piston ?
How ef
fi
cient the design ?
~ 10 Tonnes
30 bhp
@ < 15%
Efficiency
LEARNING By Building
Big accidents
People hurt/killed
Understanding essential
Without knowledge and understanding…
Water and water
fl
ow suf
fi
ciently
understood and characterised by
Archimedes, and adaptations to
Any fool can build a water mill
and/or a steam engine, but it
takes science and engineering
to build a good/ef
fi
cient/safe
machine
~ 100 Tonnes
~500 bhp
@ < 20%
Efficiency
COAL, FIRE, WATER, STEAM, BELT
A long path to understanding and efficiency realisation
~0.3 Tonne
~300bhp
@ < 20%
Efficiency
~2 Tonnes
~100kbhp
@ >95%
Efficiency
~500 bhp
@ < 15%
Efficiency
Energy Distribution by BELT
A long path to understanding and efficiency realisation
~200bhp
@ < 20%
Efficiency
~100kbhp
@ >95%
Efficiency
TITANIC
~50,000 bhp
Engines x 2 ~ 50k bhp Total
Speed ~ 22 knots
Coal ~ 825 Tons/day
Engines = 2
Boiler Rooms = 6
Boilers = 24
Furnaces = 72
SCIENCE TO THE RESCUE
Deep knowledge & understanding creates acceleration
All our transport, energy, industrial,
civil, military, information & network
systems hinge on this knowledge
~5k bhp
@ <15%
Efficiency
SCIENCE TO THE RESCUE
Deep knowledge & understanding creates acceleration
All our transport, energy, industrial,
civil, military, information & network
systems hinge on this knowledge
Riding a horse to walking on the moon < 200 years
Riding on a train to riding on a rocket <100 years
~5k bhp
@ <15%
Efficiency
I R O N M A N
2017 world record
4 Jet Engines ~ 130kg thrust total
Speed ~ 51.53km/h
Power ~ 350bhp/turbine
This is a progressive story of:
More energy generated
Less material and fuel used
Higher ef
fi
ciency achieved
In short: far more for far less (repeated)
THEORY FORMULATION
It all starts with the observed nature of heat
…followed by a realisation of a general and universal applicability…
Biology
Systems
Robotics
Chemistry
Cosmology
Information
Network(s/ing)
Communications
Arti
fi
cial Intelligence
+++++ almost everything else
…with each discipline assuming the same precepts,
but taking different routes, applying different
emphasis, interpretation & application sets
THEORY FORMULATION
It all starts with the observed nature of heat
…followed by a realisation of a general and universal applicability…
Biology
Systems
Robotics
Chemistry
Cosmology
Information
Network(s/ing)
Communications
Arti
fi
cial Intelligence
+++++ almost everything else
…with each discipline assuming the same precepts,
but taking different routes, applying different
emphasis, interpretation & application sets
“Sad to say Thermodynamics as
a subject is now often neglected
in schools, colleges, universities
as a consequence of trying to
provide industry ready students”
“Seeing Information Theory as a
sub-division of Thermodynamics
can be contentious with purists
on both sides, but in my view it
is unworthy of serious debate”
“At this point we are heading
toward a basic analysis to af
fi
rm
and broaden our grasp of the
topic. So, please excuse any
‘repeats’ of previously stated
facts and observations”
I N I T I A L F O R M U L AT I O N
All derived from the kinetic theory of gases
Law 0: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third then all are in equilibrium
Law 1: Conservation - energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system
Law 2: Celestial Ratchet - entropy of any isolated system always increases
Law 3: System Entropy - approaches a constant as temperature approaches 0K
…theories, experiments, trials, observations repeated multiple
times and ways by hundreds of teams across the planet over
Supported by repeated observation and zero violations over
millennia, with repeated tests by many individuals and teams plus
engineering application over 100s of years. Proven:’truths’
established by standing on the shoulders of giants.…
If two systems are in thermal equilibrium
with a third then all are in equilibrium
LAW 0: Defines temperature and heat flow without
reference to entropy
Cold Water
+
Hot Water
+
Dish
}All want to be
at the same
temperature
Flow is hot to cold and never the reverse direction
LAW 1: Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system
Energy can only change in form potential, kinetic, heat
Perhaps obvious from Einstein E = mc2
In a universe, or system, of constant mass the energy is also constant
Internal Energy = Heat Input + Work Done by System
∆u = Q + W
“Quantum Mechanics is a
‘bit of an excerption’ here”
S tat u s : “ W h a t w e k n o w ”
Total mass/energy of the universe is constant
Dark Energy ?
Quantum Dynamics ?
Black Holes ?
String Theory ?
Worm Holes ?
Multi-Dimensionality ?
Relativity
Quantum
Mechanics
Experiments
Observations
Experiences
Measurements
Theories
S tat u s : “ W h a t w e k n o w ”
Total mass/energy of the universe is constant
Dark Energy ?
Quantum Dynamics ?
Black Holes ?
String Theory ?
Worm Holes ?
Multi-Dimensionality ?
Relativity
Quantum
Mechanics
Experiments
Observations
Experiences
Measurements
Theories
Science/Engineering
Just because it isn’t perfect or fully
understood or quanti
fi
ed, it doesn’t
mean to say we can’t exploit it !
Hiatus
We do not have the means to test
such hypotheses at this time & have
to draw a line under our knowledge
by saying Thermodynamics works !!
Mass Conservation
Matter leaving the universe
balanced by matter entering
via Black/Worm Holes & More ??
LAW 2: Full energy and state accounting
Celestial Ratchet - entropy of any isolated system always increases
Entropy can be thought of in terms of order and disorder
All systems tend toward a disordered state
Times Arrow - One way processes
We remember the past and not the future
Drop a cup and it smashes, but the reverse never happens
A battery always discharges it never decides to recharge itself
We live and then die and not the other way round - there are no zombies
The more energy is dispersed - the greater the entropy
Hot coffee in a mug is concentrated - but as the heat dissipates the
heat flow sees entropy fall in the mug and rise in the environment
One way processes
From order to disorder
Entropy always increases
This is the universe we live in - our experiences
LAW 2 : Times Arrow
Doesn’t do reverse gear
Order from disorder isn’t simple
Entropy never decreases
LAW 2 : Times Arrow
Doesn’t do reverse gear
Order from disorder isn’t simple
Entropy never decreases
We have never witnessed any reverse order processes, whilst theoretically
feasible, their probability is so close to zero we can say they will never
happen….and we have no evidence of time travellers either !!
Order Disorder
LAW 2 : Times Arrow
More elements >> greater complexity
and entropy
Range of Components:
China fragments
Coffee molecules
Dissolved sugar molecules
Dispersed milk/cream molecules
L AW 2 : T i m e s A r r o w
“It takes more energy to solve a
problem than that to create it”
“You can’t use the same tools to solve a
problem as the ones that created it”
“No problem can be solved from the
same level of consciousness that created it”
Alb
er
t Einstein
Axiomatic for AI & humans:
LAW 2: Entropy
- Turbo charger and turbo booster in an internal combustion cycle
- Activation energy necessary to initiate a chemical reaction
- Photosynthesis as a form of energy transformation
- Energy conversion of aviation fuel in a jet engine
- Chlorophyll as a mechanism of energy storage
- Spread of heat from the sun across the earth
- Ef
fi
ciency of a modern power station
- After burner cycle of a jet turbine
The nature of heat/energy
fl
ow/spread/dissipation
The ‘purists’ always ‘retreat’ to this founding conceptualisation/formulation applicable to:
These, and many more, are the ‘quali
fi
ed/recognised’ boundaries of the science founded
on heat, energy, and reactions. Here, formulations are directly related to the original
roots of thermodynamics without abstraction, modi
fi
cation or mutation!
- A measure/number of possible arrangements the atoms in a system can have
- Measure of how (dis)organised energy is in a system of atoms or molecules
- The level of (dis)organisation of characters on a page or bits in a message
- The level of social activity and or physical movement in a crowd
- The effectiveness of passwords, coding and encryption
- The level of cohesion in a fighting force
Order/disorder is a popular visualisation
The ‘purists’ tend to wince at this perspective as, for many, it strays too far from
the thermodynamic origins in the property and heat based formulations:
The level of ‘bastardisation’ of the original thermodynamic concepts and formulations
increases as we come down this list - however, they, and many more, prove to be
useful across many fields - BUT we should note that, as useful as they may be, they
are not the same as the original starting point, but can be statistically justified
LAW 2: Entropy
D
Order Disorder
Temperature
Disorder
Energy
LAW 2: Entropy
Order/disorder growth visualisation
Dynamic/
Stochastic
Complexity
Order/disorder information growth
Order Disorder
. , : ; i if iff
I need to
talk with
you soon
The concept of information
entropy was introduced by
Claude Shannon in his 1948
paper "A Mathematical Theory
of Communication"
Information
LAW 2: Entropy
No EXCEPTION: LIFE!!
Creates order
Time’s arrow isn’t in reverse !
-ve Entropy partly de
fi
nes life systems
Only possible (and true) in small pockets
Life is an insigni
fi
cant element of a bigger system
Entropy goes negative as order emerges from disorder
Does not detract signi
fi
cantly from the universal trend toward total disorder
WE ALWAYS have to consider any system
in the context of the whole environment…
..the Entropy of a closed/isolated/
constrained system can experience/see +
or -ve Entropy, but the whole only ever
sees a +ve change
ENTROPY : Basic System Form
Energy
Sink
Transformation
of the form of energy, movement
of atoms & molecules or information
format, organisation, meaning
Engine
Energy
Source
Work Output
movement
chemical reaction
temperature change
Energy has to ‘
fl
ow’
or no work can be
extracted/occur
ENTROPY : Impossibilities
Engine
Energy
Source
No Work Output
Energy
Sink
Engine
Engine
There are no perpetual motion machines or free energy - there never will be !
Energy is not ‘
fl
owing’
so no work is done/
extracted
- No free energy
- No free material
- No free processes
- No perpetual motion machines
Remember This : Everything costs !!
Energy Out < Energy In
Ef
fi
ciency Always < 100%
“Beware of atomic processes
we have to take care defining
the micro, macro, & universe”
No ‘prime mover’ - no ‘input energy’
ENTROPY: Basic System Form
Energy
Sink
Engine transforms
the form of energy
Engine
Energy
Source
Work Output ⇒ Energy Output = E1 - E2 = ∆E ∝T1 -T2
movement
chemical reaction
temperature change
Energy Suppled = E1 ∝T1
Energy Dissipated = E2 ∝T2
Ef
fi
ciency = T1 - T2
T1
ENTROPY: Basic System Form
Energy
Sink
Engine transforms
the form of energy
Engine
Energy
Source
Work Output ⇒ Energy Output = E1 - E2 = ∆E ∝T1 -T2
movement
chemical reaction
temperature change
Energy Suppled = E1 ∝T1
Energy Dissipated = E2 ∝T2
NOTICE : The work/energy output is
dictated by the temperature differential
and the ef
fi
ciency of the machine. For a
given ef
fi
ciency the output = Z( T1 - T2)
NOTICE : Entropy de
fi
nes the energy
available to do useful work in a
thermodynamic process
Ef
fi
ciency = T1 - T2
T1
GENERAL FORM
Derived from the kinetic theory of gases
Historically; Thermodynamics and nearly
all the early thinking emerged from
considerations of a number a number of
i n d u s t r i a l p ro b l e m s re l a t e d t o h e a t
generation, flow and exploitation in the
transformation into motion
Development; It was soon realised and
shown that all the laws could be derived
from the study of molecular movement at
an individual and fundamental level - and
therefore, be based on a statistical model
c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s
associated with movement and location
ENTROPY/PHASE CHANGE
Solid - Fluid - Gas transitions can be very abrupt
Three Common States of Matter
Max order
Min Entropy
Max Entropy
Min Order
ENTROPY/PHASE CHANGE
Solid - Fluid - Gas transitions can be very abrupt
Three Common States of Matter
Plasmas are the Fourth State: electrons
are torn away from their parent atoms
Max order
Min Entropy
Max Entropy
Min Order
ENTROPY FormulationS
Many formulation variants - some more convenient or easier to deal with than
others depending on educational background/mode of thinking distribution but
the outcome/form is always the same and so are all the conclusions. There are
no con
fl
icts or exceptions created by the many different methodologies, particular
application, or discipline. This is a level of surety and con
fi
dence rarely achieved in
the majority of scienti
fi
c endeavours!
ENTROPY : Thermal Derivation ~1840
∆S ≈ ∆E ≈ k∆T
Relative change in Entropy
T
Integrating over the entire space/system is then trivial:
∂S ≈ ∂E
T
∫
∫ S = kß logW
T
T
kß
= Boltzmann’s Constant = 1.38065 × 10−23 J/K
Joules/Kelvin
This W nomenclature was ‘standardised’
from later probabalistic derivations
Original formulation in 1842 by Boltzmann did not use
W =Wahrscheinlichkeit (German for probability) - it
was introduced by Max Plank in 1900
≈ k ∂T
∫
“More than a hint of how this
might be further extended
into coding and information
theory”
ENTROPY : Statistical Derivation ~1900
A measure of the number of possible micro-states of a system in thermodynamic
equilibrium, consistent with its macro-state
A full formulation is rendered impossibly large unless all the micro-states are statistically
independent and all the probabilities are the same for the whole macro-state
W = Wahrscheinlichkeit (probability) of a macro-state for some probability distribution of micro-states - positions and
momenta of all molecules - the most general expression of the thermodynamic entropy
N = The total number of molecules/components
Ni = The individual molecules/components
N!
N
Ni !
∏i
W =
Total number of positions of total population
Total number of individual positions/molecule
“More than a hint of how this
might be further extended
into coding and information
theory”
ENTROPY : Statistical Thermodynamics
In many practical cases a system’s thermodynamic micro-states are not equally
probable: eg, high energy states are less probable than low energy at a
fi
xed
temperature
And so the equal probabilities assumption does not always obtain, but a well
established generalisation is given by Gibbs:
This formulation is the most useful and most cited
in engineering and information science…and there
are many similar forms including Shannon’s Bound
S = ⎲
⎲
i
pi log pi
-kß
Iff all the probabilities are equal, then this reduces to:
S = kß logW
ENTROPY : Commonly cited forms
The springboard for
information theory
and info systems
understanding
EXCEPTION ALERT: New Dimensions ??
Our reality of 4 dimensions appears to be a fraction of an 11 dimensional universe.
But all of the above is based on millennia of evidential understanding of our 4D
‘reality’ and the Laws of Physics appear immutable. Though challenged and tested
continually they remain steadfast and the foundation of our understandings.
There is always room for new discoveries, but unless there is another reality of
different and/or more dimensions the Laws of Thermodynamics remains our
most complete model, at the core of our base understandings of the universe in
which we live.
POSITIONING: Human knowledge
E = mc2
S = kß log W
kß
= 1.38065 × 10−23 J/K
If this is mankind’s most prophetic equation:
Then this is a very close second:
Profound consequences: Time travel is impossible and nothing lives or lasts forever
“Both come with great surety,
and con
fi
dence founded
extensive application,
trial, and testing”
LAW 3: Entropy => ‘k’ a constant as T => 0 Kelvin
The only law founded on unique measurement trends
“The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute
zero is exactly equal to zero”
In a sense this law is more hypothetical than any of the other
three as it cannot be directly demonstrated - ie we cannot
create perfect crystals or a temperature of absolute zero !
“Perfect order and thus zero entropy is only
possible at absolute zero”
https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.3828
LAW 3: Entropy => ‘k’ a constant as T => 0 Kelvin
The only law founded on unique measurement trends
“The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute
zero is exactly equal to zero”
In a sense this law is more hypothetical than any of the other
three as it cannot be directly demonstrated - ie we cannot
create perfect crystals or a temperature of absolute zero !
“Perfect order and thus zero entropy is only
possible at absolute zero”
https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.3828
Diamond covalent structure: Each carbon atom is
bonded to four other carbon atoms in a regular
tetrahedral network.
TO BE AWARE: ENTHALPY
A measure of the total energy of a system
The internal energy plus that required to create a system
Entropy S = Joules/Kelvin - a measure of how energy is distributed in a system
Enthalpy H = Joules - A systems internal energy + p.v
TO BE CLEAR
OTHER TERMS
Endothermic = Absorbing Energy
Exothermic = Releasing Energy
Adiabatic = No Energy Exchange
More generally applicable in chemistry
and chemical engineering et al and not
information systems ??
{
Terms commonly employed in many
other
fi
elds but not in general use for
information systems and theory
{
Josiah Willard Gibbs (Feb 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903)
An American scientist who made important theoretical
contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.
His work on the applications of thermodynamics was
instrumental in transforming physical chemistry from
‘cooking’ into a rigorous inductive science.
Gibbs Formula of Enthalpy and Entropy de
fi
nes a point
of chemical phase change/reaction
UNSUNG HEROES: So many!
“It can be argued that civilisation and its technology enablers are the sustainability
problem”
This axiom has a brilliant/controversial thermodynamic proof byTim Denton in a 2007/9 paper
suggesting Civilisation itself is a heat engine - producing 9.6 milliwatts of heat for ever dollar of
GDP normalised to 1990 value.
The insight is quite brilliant, and the implications terrifying.
FURTHER FOOD FOR THOUGHT !
Make it your practice to read wider than your lecture notes and
printed books. Search out the radical, the deep thinkers, and
those who posit the challenging!
“you don't solve problems from within the system that created those same problems”
Axiom - Einstein
TO CONTEMPLATE - THE FRIVOLOUS ?
Analysing and making sense of the extreme including the non-sensical
1) What are the limitations to building a matter transporter - aka Start Trek?
2) Is it possible for any life form to survive in its own waste materials?
3) Does a pregnant mother see an increase or decrease in her entropy?
4) When someone/thing dies, does its entropy stop increasing?
5) What is the ultimate limit to our information storage capacity?
6) In the movie ‘The Martian’ would his survival strategy actually work?
7) Where are heaven and hell located and how much energy do they consume?
8) …..
TO CONTEMPLATE: SERIOUS PROBLEMS
Fashion, fad, political and scienti
fi
c correctness are almost never in alignment
1) Do our waste recycling programs actually work ?
2) Should we be burning plastic waste instead of recycling?
3) Are electric vehicles really green ?
4) Do wind farms cost in ecologically?
5) Can wave power save us?
6) Is tidal power a better option?
7) Can we actually live ‘off grid’ and bene
fi
t the planet?
8) Do solar cells create more pollutants than they save?
9) Can ‘natural/vertical farming’ feed the planet?
10)Could we actually freeze technologically driven change?
T h a n k Y o u
www.petercochrane.com
With a salute to Carl Sagan
“At the heart of science is an essential balance
between two seemingly contradictory attitudes — an
openness to new ideas, no matter how bizarre or
counterintuitive they may be, and the most ruthless
skeptical scrutiny of all ideas, old and new. This is
how deep truths are winnowed from deep nonsense."

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  • 1. A p p l i e d S c i e n c e T h e r m o d y n a m i c s L a w s a n d m e t h o d o l o g y e m b r a c i n g o u r u n i v e r s e a n d t h i n k i n g P r o f P C o c h r a n e O B E D S c w w w. p e t e r c o c h r a n e . c o m
  • 2. RANKING Across the entire spectrum of physics, Einstein liked General Relativity and Thermodynamics best because they are both derived from fundamental considerations of how the universe works; their completeness; and as fundamentally emergent properties of our observations over millennia “A theoretical physicist who excelled in the art of ‘mind-experiments’ to the point of revolutionising science, scientific thinking, and methodologies”
  • 3. Exemplar Subject The story of Thermodynamics is one scientific investigation and application at its best. Not only was it conducted over a period of >200 years, it enjoyed the highest levels of professionalism, collaboration and technical thoroughness. It also saw new layers of application, technology, methodology, techniques & practices as they became available. In turn, these progressively enhanced measurement and modelling accuracy to broaden our knowledge at a micro and macro level. Perhaps most importantly, Thermodynamics rapidly became a primary tool of exploitation in the advance of applied science/ engineering/technology, spanning micro-tech, to aerospace and cosmology. I can think of no better story to illustrate the richness of science methodologies and the value of continuous collaboration, corroboration and refinement! Peter Cochrane 7 Jane 2024
  • 4. Thermo-Dynamics Special Relativity Quantum Mechanics R a n k i n g : Completeness and strength Complete and generally applicable to all sciences, situations and conditions Complete and specifically applicable to time, space, motion on all scales Incomplete & fundamental to the core of all matter and realities, but still at a ‘further refinement’ phase
  • 5. A GUT would link these directly, but it alludes us at this time Thermo-Dynamics Special Relativity Quantum Mechanics R a n k i n g : Completeness and strength Complete and generally applicable to all sciences, situations and conditions Complete and specifically applicable to time, space, motion on all scales Incomplete & fundamental to the core of all matter and realities, but still at a ‘further refinement’ phase A GUT would unify all our models & perspectives
  • 6. U n i v e r s e A new model is overdue - sees latest JWST Sp ace -Tim e is Tor n Ap art ?
  • 7. Sp ace -Tim e is Tor n Ap art ? U n i v e r s e Soon to be updated ?? Energy Density Total Energy O R D E R D IS O R D E R
  • 8. C o s m o l o g Y I n c r i s i s ? James Webb Space telescope reveal the standard model and cosmological constant to be wrong! • Universe is expanding faster than previously thought • It is not homogenous but made up of large clusters • Massive galaxies evolved earlier than predicted • New and unexpected structures observed • The ‘Hubble Model’ is now in question! • New cosmology model may be required • Books will have to be rewritten The Big Question = Does this impact Thermodynamics?
  • 9. Sp ace -Tim e is Tor n Ap art ? Total Energy Constant O R D E R D IS O R D E R There is considerable debate on our ‘model’ of the universe on almost every aspect, but as to the total energy stasis: the weight of opinion seems to be with energy loss as a part of the expansion et al process. But this is not certain, and was not an issue in Boltzmann’s time and earlier! U n i v e r s e Addendum: constant energy assumption Total Energy Decay with Time Only one big Question = Is it a significant effect on or off our planet for our Thermodynamics modelling ?
  • 10. Sp ace -Tim e is Tor n Ap art ? V O Y A G E R I I Living proof that Thermodynamics is alive and working well on its tour of interstellar space Launched on Aug 20 1977 Operational for 47 years to date! Visited Jupiter (79), Saturn(81), Uranus (86), Neptune (89) Today May 2024: 136.1 AU (20.4 Bn km) out Reference 0: 136.1 AU (20.4 Bn km) ~0.022 light years Reference 1: Limit of Milky Way is 6Bn AU (~95k light years) Reference 2: Proxima Centauri 253kAU, Betelgeuse 30M AU Reassurance: On the scale of what our species might aspire to do or achieve, I think we can safely assume that the theory and foundation of thermodynamics is safe and solid for some considerable distance into the future!
  • 11. Sp ace -Tim e is Tor n Ap art ? U n i v e r s e A concern/uncertainty on the scale of an all embracing Thermodynamics model … Expanding Universe: Sees energy decrease with time as matter and radiation is diluted. Matter to Energy: Nuclear fusion in stars + accretion of matter into black holes, sees matter converted into energy through radiation release and generation of high-energy particles contributing to a gradual reduction in the overall energy content of the universe. Dark energy: A property of space itself, contributing to the overall energy density. Particle Physics: Decay of unstable particles and annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs etc al, sees energy conversion from one form to another, altering the total energy. Conservation of Energy: Still applies within the universe with energy mutation from one form to another (a consequence of the dynamic cosmos) but it cannot be created or destroyed.
  • 12. Sp ace -Tim e is Tor n Ap art ? U n i v e r s e A ‘minor’ concern/uncertainty in the grand scale of an all embracing assumption for a universal Thermodynamics model … An open system can exchange both energy and matter with its surroundings. A stove top is a good example as heat and water vapour can be lost to the air. A closed system, can only exchange energy (no matter) with its surroundings. An electric motor, mobile, computer are good examples A key assumption underlying all that follows. Our universe is a closed system where energy and matter remain constant - nothing enters and nothing leaves - nothing! At this time we have working technology outside our solar system, and indeed, beyond our galaxy, and this supports the closed model ! Voyager 2 it is still sending images back to Earth….and this ‘truism’ appears to hold.
  • 13. A cosmological hypothesis that has yet to be observed in reality. Today, such a prospect is way beyond our technology and engineering abilities to disprove or prove, but does it matter? W h a t a b o u t W o r m h o l e s ? “For now and way into the future we can rest assured the assumptions and Laws of Thermodynamics are secure for the further use of many generations to come”
  • 14. An observable cosmological event and manifestation of in fi nite gravity/destiny in the fabric of space time W h a t a b o u t B l a c k H o l e s ? “On the scale of the universe they appear as ‘point function aberrations’ and violent for any bodies that stray too close. The ‘jury’ is still out regarding the issue of where any ‘imbibed’ materials might go beyond the singularity - and does it change anything?
  • 15. T h e r m o d y n a m i c s : e x e m p l A r Y S c i e n c e
  • 16. 1st : Energy cannot be created or destroyed 2nd : All spontaneous processes increase entropy 3rd : A perfect crystal at zero K has zero entropy L A W S “After millennia of observation of how nature and the universe works, these laws have been extensively tried/ tested by practical application/experiments across e v e r y f i e l d o f h u m a n e n d e a v o u r. T h e y a r e n o w foundational in the building our modern world”
  • 17. Entropy: thermal energy/unit temperature of a system unavailable for doing useful work - aka a measure of the ‘molecular disorder’ T W O T E R M S T w o Q U I R K S Enthalpy (H): the sum of the internal Energy and Work Done Life Systems: introduce localised negative Entropy, but in the universe overall Entropy always increases Arrow of Time: implied by Entropy and is unidirectional
  • 18. S e g u E Direction - Times Arrow
  • 19. “It’s atoms (and bits) that matter, and entropy that rules” O B L I Q U E T h o u g h t “Growing structural disorder (errors) in our genomic and protein strings see our bodies age, and ultimately, define our demise” “We work with things made of atoms, use machines that employ bits, and they are all governed by entropy”
  • 20. ‘Sometimes’ described as a measure of disorder, and explains why life/everything seems to get more, not less, complicated with time” P r e q u e l E N T R O P Y : A property to be reckoned with Applicable to, and across, the universe and everything therein - it is the closest we have to a GUT - it governs every life-form, system, science and engineering/technology practice ‘More realistically’ a measure of the distribution (& disposition) of energy, materials, molecules, atoms, and information”
  • 21. ‘Sometimes’ described as a measure of disorder, and explains why life/everything seems to get more, not less, complicated with time” “A component part of the casualty that sees life as an emergent property of complexity with intelligence an emergent property of life” P r e q u e l E N T R O P Y : A property to be reckoned with “A core reason for the death/demise of everything and the reason immortality, perpetual motion, and free energy are impossible” Applicable to, and across, the universe and everything therein - it is the closest we have to a GUT - it governs every life-form, system, science and engineering/technology practice ‘More realistically’ a measure of the distribution (& disposition) of energy, materials, molecules, atoms, and information”
  • 22. Number of Micro-States Number of Macro States E N T R O P Y : A measure of system disorder System Entropy “A measure of disorder or randomness in a system, such as a planet, star, universe, any solid, fluid or gas, a chemical mixture, hydraulic machine, or living body such as a tree, grass or the human body” “Entropy is an extraordinary utility/property/measures that remains unique in the fields of science and engineering” “Because of my history in information coding, transmission and recovery, I much prefer this probabalistic definition = > Order Disorder = >
  • 23. E N T R O P Y : A measure of system disorder As we reduce the temperature in the jar we see the chaotic motion lessen, and if we took it down to absolute zero (0K) and all motion would cease LOW HIGH Entr opy
  • 24. T o B e A w a r e : Gas, Fluid, Solids, are not always in an ideal state! PV = mRT Boyle’s Gas Law
  • 25. T o B e A w a r e : Gas, Fluid, Solids, are not always in an ideal state! PV = mRT Boyle’s Gas Law “A high number of collisions sees Boyle’s Gas Law break down as ‘non- linear’ behaviour takes over”
  • 26. I N f o r m a t i o N Conceptually: ‘States & Patterns of Things’ Entropy Very Low Position, shape, size, colour . Entropy increases as size, shape, colour, position, see many combinatorial possibilities
  • 27. I N f o r m a t i o N A measure of system disorder Variables = Frequency, Phase, Amplitude ….human ears do not detect phase Variables = Dots & Dashes, Speed Combinatorial Patterns
  • 28. I N f o r m a t i o N T H e 0 r y R u l e s ! A measure of a system state and change How much and how fast information might be: - transported (transmitted and received) - stored and recovered - manipulated In short; information theory, defines; ‘the practical and theoretical limits and bounds on all forms of communication and computing’ “Information is directly related to the Entropy of a system ie the degree of order/disorder”
  • 29. “You can compute (communicate) with arbitrarily small amounts of power” H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e & More Depth Prof Neil Gershenfeld MIT Media Lab “Life exists because it is able to locally violate thermodynamics”
  • 30. Tragic Outcome(s) Entropic formula by Ludwig Boltzmann ~1872/75 Boltzmann got so frustrated that people would not believe/accept his theories he committed suicide whilst on a family holiday - 5 Sept 1906 Duino Italy Member of Austrian Academy of Sciences 1887 President of the University of Graz 1887 Member of Royal Swedish Academy 1888 Member of Royal Society 1899 Named in his honour: • Boltzmann Equipartition theorem • Boltzmann Lattice methods • Boltzmann brain • Boltzmann constant • Boltzmann machine • Boltzmann equation • Boltzmann Medal • Boltzmann (crater) “An outstanding scientist with the temperament of an outstanding artist”
  • 31. OUR Scientific MISSION To f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d a s b e s t w e c a n Art Life Death Physics Theory Biology Science Practice Industry Education Chemistry Philosophy Experience Experiment Manufacturing Mathematics Observation Engineering Agriculture Technology Cosmology Computing Production Philosophy Economics Transport Telecoms Design Construction Management Information Sociology Pharmacy Medicine Logistics Security Systems Energy Health Cyber AI/AL ++++ We like to put things in boxes We teach and learn in boxes It is fast, efficient, & effective up to a point A product of an education system forged to meet the needs of the industrial revolution “Thermodynamics as a subject cannot be ‘boxed’ as it is so widely applicable and the closest we have to a GUT” !
  • 32. UNDERSTANDINGS F o r g o t t e n o r d i s c o n n e c t e d We observe We participate We experience things We learn focussed topics We are not taught critical thinking We forget to link our knowledge/practices Our futures depend on concatenating complex systems We are knee deep in specialists, but lack the necessary generalists “A gradual ‘virtualisation’ of everything and detachment from reality in education, and the professions, sees serious implications for the way we think, conceptualise, and gain experience. Scientific progress is founded on a broad church of skills, experience, and understanding. The ‘trick’ is to become ‘broad in everything’ whilst retaining the ability to explore in ever greater depth and detail. To achieve this demands a progressive embracing of more technologies leading to a symbiotic relationship and team working ”
  • 33. I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand UNDERSTANDING M y s t u d e n t e x p e r i e n c e s Confucius Confucius 500 BC
  • 34. Three levels of understanding: 1) As a student ( we grasp concepts) 2) As a practitioner ( it gets real) 3) As a teacher ( we try to explain) UNDERSTANDING P r o f e s s i o n e x p e r i e n c e s
  • 35. I l l u s o r y E D U C AT I O N A focus on remembering facts, the simple & known At school, college and university we are all spoilt rotten by: a diet of problems w i t h s o l u t i o n s ; the rational, and the logical; things prone to simple analytic processes and explanation… in short - a world of the near 100% linear ! The Universe of Linearity and all the stuff we know and fully understand ! The Non-Linear bit where we know and understand virtually nothing!
  • 36. I l l u s o r y E D U C AT I O N A focus on remembering facts, the simple & known At school, college and university we are all spoilt rotten by: a diet of problems w i t h s o l u t i o n s ; the rational, and the logical; things prone to simple analytic processes and explanation… in short - a world of the near 100% linear ! The Universe of Linearity and all the stuff we know and fully understand ! The Non-Linear bit where we know and understand virtually nothing! Where we are educated and all the stuff we know and understand ! The Non-Linear Universe where we know and understand virtually nothing! This is the challenge before us - a sea of undiscovered knowledge that might just see us survive and p r o s p e r a s a species provided we can change and adapt at a fast enough rate …and it starts with E D U C A T I O N
  • 37. Learning By Doing Trial, error, mistakes, understanding Budding Engineer Scientist I just had a brilliant idea and it might just work!
  • 38. Factories for the mind Remember facts, master processes, understand zip! A product of contiguous industrial revolutions…? Don’t think, just do: focus on getting the right answer; mistakes & errors considered to bad
  • 39. Idealistic IFF ONLY ! “The way you might think it all works if you hadn’t had the experience of being a researcher in industry and/ or university” “The keys to success are fl exibility, adaptability and dogged tenacity, always being prepared to give it another go, ‘reset’ and start over if needs be”
  • 40. U n d e r s ta n d i n g i s v i ta l The journey can often be more important than the goal Identify Problem Formulate Hypothesis Observe Experiment Analyse Results Analyse Results Confirm Hypothesis Write Up Defend Ideal Trajectory Time U n d e r s t a n d i n g / L e a r n i n g
  • 41. U n d e r s ta n d i n g i s v i ta l The journey can often be more important than the goal Identify Problem Formulate Hypothesis Observe Experiment Analyse Results Analyse Results Confirm Hypothesis Write Up Defend Ideal Trajectory Messy Reality Errors Mistakes Blind Alleys Equipment Fails Measurement Fails Bad Guesses Intuition Fails Hypothesis Fail Competing Research Theoretical Hiatus Confounding Results Time U n d e r s t a n d i n g / L e a r n i n g Recasting Change of Emphasis New Direction New Theory Unanticipated Outcomes! New/Novel Discoveries
  • 42. DESPITE ALL We Know P e o p l e a r e w a s t i n g t h e i r l i v e s a n d $ M - Fools - The Ignorant - Tricksters @ Charlatans F R E E E N E R G Y I S A L I V E A N D W E L L - B U T S T I L L N O T D E L I V E R I N G ! ! T H I S C A U S E I S Y E T A N O T H E R I R R A T I O N A L B E L I E F S Y S T E M ! !
  • 43. PERPETUAL MOTION And Free En ergy I t a l l b o i l s d o w n t o t h i s , a n d i t i s s o o b v i o u s !
  • 44. NOTHING IS FREE E v e r y t h i n g i s c o n n e c t e d E n e r g y i s n o t m a g i c ! T h e r e i s n o f r e e e n e r g y ! T h e r e i s a l w a y s a p r i c e t o p a y ! 1 0 0 % e f f i c i e n c y i s u n a t t a i n a b l e ! To l e v i t a t e a 1 0 0 k g h u m a n @ 1 m / s @ a r a n g e o f 0 m ~ 1 k W @ a r a n g e o f 1 m ~ 1 0 k W @ a r a n g e o f 2 0 m ~ 4 M W H a r r y d e f i n i t e l y n e e d s a t h i c k e r a r m a n d w a n d ! ! A n d w h e r e m o d e m s h i s e n e r g y c o m e f r o m ? ?
  • 45. W H AT / W H E R E I S T H E F O R C E ? M y s t i c i s m d o e s n o t & n e v e r w i l l s o l v e o u r p r o b l e m s ! E n e r g y i s n o t m a g i c ! T h e re i s n o f re e e n e r g y ! T h e re i s a l w ay s a p r i c e t o p ay ! 1 0 0 % e f f i c i e n c y i s u n a t t a i n a b l e ! H u m a n b r a i n ~ 6 0 - 1 0 0 W H u m a n b o d y ~ 1 0 0 - 1 , 0 0 0 W L i f t i n g p o w e r r e q u i r e d ~ 4 0 0 M W L u k e n e e d s a m u c h t h i c k e r a r m ! !
  • 46. THE 30S VERSION There is a game We are all in the game No one can opt out ! B AD NEWS: You can’t win the game GOOD NEWS: You can break even LIMITATION: But only on a very cold day B AD NEWS: It never gets that cold ! A fundamental realisation simplified
  • 47. G e n e s i s / C h a l l e n g e Limited energy exploitation of Wind, Water, Fire “The 17C saw a growing global population, wars, with exploration and colonisation, demanding a move to industrialisation and greater production at far lower costs, which in turn, was limited by supply chains, human resources, and transportation, national and international trade”
  • 48. G e n e s i s / C h a l l e n g e Limited energy exploitation of Wind, Water, Fire “The 17C saw a growing global population, wars, with exploration and colonisation, demanding a move to industrialisation and greater production at far lower costs, which in turn, was limited by supply chains, human resources, and transportation, national and international trade” All too inefficient, expensive, costly, slow, and unable to satisfy demand
  • 50. A Lo n g G e s tat i o n F i r e > Wa t e r > S t e a m E n g i n e 1 7 1 2 Hero/Heron Alexandrea ~150BC Thomas Newcomen Thomas Savery ~1712
  • 51. S c i e n t i f i c Foundation P e r s p e c t i v e t h i n k i n g ~1662 Robert Boyle Gas Law ~1666 Issac Newton Laws of Motion 1) A body is at rest or in linear motion until acted upon by some external force 2) Force is the time rate of change of momentum 3) For every action in nature there is always an equal and opposite reaction Volume and Pressure are inversely related when Temperature is constant F = d(mv) dt s = ut + ft2 P.V = k P.V = mRT
  • 53. One vital step at a time ~1850 Rudolf Clausius William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) ~1900 Max Plank All proved and stated: The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics: - the total heat in a closed system is conserved - there really is no free lunch - 100% efficiency can never be realised - perpetual motion machines are impossible [ Heat converted to work analysis Work converted to heat analysis Gave ‘Entropy’ its name and the fi rst to lecture and teach the subject Entropy from the Greek En = enérgeia + tropos = turning point Entropy, black body radiation, dilute solutions, thermo-electricity De fi ned absolute zero ~ -267C The RUN UP
  • 54. F I N I S H I N G L I N E Pulling it all together in line/order Formulated the relationship between entropy and the number of ways the atoms/molecules of a system can be arranged In statistical mechanics, Boltzmann’s equation de fi nes the Entropy ’S’ of an ideal gas relative to the quantity W = number of micro-states corresponding to the macro-state S = k Log W Applies to: Coding Biology Cosmos Biology AI & AL Security Computing Intelligence Information Chemical Reactions Thermal Reactions All Engine Types Atomic Actions Refrigeration Game theory Systems Comms +++ Considered the physics of heat flow on a particle activity and probability basis alone to derive his formula
  • 55. The hotter things are the greater atomic movement and Entropy - and the more uncertain the position of every atom As Temperature => -273.15 K : Entropy => Constant C o r r o b o r at i o n s Theory, observations, practice confirmed
  • 56. The ef fi ciency "Carnot engine" depends only on the temperature difference within the engine. First Law Conservation of mass and energy for a closed system Entropy development from a statistical interpretation of the Second Law. Information Theory Phase theory and the application In the fi eld of Chemistry Introduced the concept of Entropy Formulated the Second Law Formulated equations of sate Established state dependencies De fi ned relationship to fl uid mechanics De fi ned the useful work available from a closed system Claud Shannon Expansive History & F u t u r e ?
  • 58. Thermodynamics Chemistry Engineering Heat Engines Power Generation Reactions Phase Changes Info Theory Computing Communication Classical Thermodynamics Macroscopic Statistical Mechanics Microscopic Equilibrium E ffi ciency Entropy E M B R A C E S S C I E N t i f i c S p e c t r u m A fundamental/far-reaching discipline spanning aspects (all) sciences. Essential for understanding and optimising processes, predicting the behaviours, understanding the old, and developing the new!
  • 59. Communications Computing 1945 Robotics + AI ? 2022 ? E M B R A C E S ( e n t i r e ? ) S C I E N t i f i c S p e c t r u m “The methodology and thinking of thermodynamics has yet to be embraced by economics, politics, and commerce, but it is a desperately needed if we are to achieve sustainable civilisations on this planet” “We are living in/on a contained system with fi nite resources and negligible access to o ff -planet facilities. Controlling our population size and resource exploitation is essential to our survival”
  • 60. T h e r m o d y n a m i c F a i l u r e a ss u r e d Finite material, energy, resources, people supply Finite market size, competition and demand Finite limits to pro fi tability and investment Finite number of countries in the stack Automation, robotics, AI transformation Limits to innovation and social systems Clashing of political/ fi nancial models Finite source, sink, and energy fl ow “In fi nite growth is impossible on a fi nite planet” “Rampant capitalism (as we know out) will destroy everything” “To become rich in a fi nite system means that someone else has to become poor”
  • 61. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1 Water transport & limited green energy ~1770 Water and water fl ow suf fi ciently understood and characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to Newtonian Mechanics ~ 6 Tonnes ~5 bhp @ <10% Ef fi ciency of energy extraction
  • 62. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1 Water transport & limited green energy ~1770 Water and water fl ow suf fi ciently understood and characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to Newtonian Mechanics ~ 6 Tonnes ~5 bhp @ <10% Ef fi ciency of energy extraction BIG Unknowns How big a wheel ? What shape the blades ? Over fl ow or under fl ow of water ? How high the head & volume of water ?
  • 63. L I M I T I N G C A S C A D E Every mill wheel takes energy out of the river
  • 64. L I M I T I N G C A S C A D E Every mill wheel takes energy out of the river * * * * * * Water and water fl ow suf fi ciently understood and characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to Newtonian Mechanics The fi ght for ef fi ciency was driven by building mill after mill along rivers only to run out of energy….a victory for science, engineering, innovation…and a foundation for the rationale of thermodynamics A story repeated with the steam engine and the belt drive…with energy distribution, friction and ef fi ciency…the next big hurdles
  • 65. Water transport & limited green energy ~1770 C h r o n o l o g y & D E TA I L Experiments, intuition, guessing, theory, understanding Mathematician Leonhard Euler and son Albert (1750s) experimented with/characterised waterwheels Mathematician Jean-Victor Poncelet (1862) proposed inward- fl owing radial turbine - modern turbine precursor Engineer Samuel B. Howd (1838) patented enclosed vertical spindle & curved blades. Hydraulic Engineer James B. Francis (1892) added guide vanes and shaped blades Francis turbine still the most widely used for medium-high heads/pressure Engineer James Thomson added pivoted curved guide vanes to optimise fl ow NOTE: Non of these people were ‘single-topic’ (delta function) thinkers! They had broad/deep educational backgrounds, and an interest in ‘everything’ - most were intensely practical, and solving problems of all kinds was their forte’
  • 66. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 2 Steam power and ‘engine design’ rudimentary with many accidents and inefficiencies apparent due to the lack of scientific knowledge and sound engineering principles Steam transport and energy from coal ~1850 BIG Unknowns What fuel ? What fl uid ? What pressure ? What size piston ? How ef fi cient the design ? ~ 10 Tonnes 30 bhp @ < 15% Efficiency
  • 67. LEARNING By Building Big accidents People hurt/killed Understanding essential Without knowledge and understanding… Water and water fl ow suf fi ciently understood and characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to Any fool can build a water mill and/or a steam engine, but it takes science and engineering to build a good/ef fi cient/safe machine ~ 100 Tonnes ~500 bhp @ < 20% Efficiency
  • 68. COAL, FIRE, WATER, STEAM, BELT A long path to understanding and efficiency realisation ~0.3 Tonne ~300bhp @ < 20% Efficiency ~2 Tonnes ~100kbhp @ >95% Efficiency ~500 bhp @ < 15% Efficiency
  • 69. Energy Distribution by BELT A long path to understanding and efficiency realisation ~200bhp @ < 20% Efficiency ~100kbhp @ >95% Efficiency
  • 70. TITANIC ~50,000 bhp Engines x 2 ~ 50k bhp Total Speed ~ 22 knots Coal ~ 825 Tons/day Engines = 2 Boiler Rooms = 6 Boilers = 24 Furnaces = 72
  • 71. SCIENCE TO THE RESCUE Deep knowledge & understanding creates acceleration All our transport, energy, industrial, civil, military, information & network systems hinge on this knowledge ~5k bhp @ <15% Efficiency
  • 72. SCIENCE TO THE RESCUE Deep knowledge & understanding creates acceleration All our transport, energy, industrial, civil, military, information & network systems hinge on this knowledge Riding a horse to walking on the moon < 200 years Riding on a train to riding on a rocket <100 years ~5k bhp @ <15% Efficiency
  • 73. I R O N M A N 2017 world record 4 Jet Engines ~ 130kg thrust total Speed ~ 51.53km/h Power ~ 350bhp/turbine This is a progressive story of: More energy generated Less material and fuel used Higher ef fi ciency achieved In short: far more for far less (repeated)
  • 74. THEORY FORMULATION It all starts with the observed nature of heat …followed by a realisation of a general and universal applicability… Biology Systems Robotics Chemistry Cosmology Information Network(s/ing) Communications Arti fi cial Intelligence +++++ almost everything else …with each discipline assuming the same precepts, but taking different routes, applying different emphasis, interpretation & application sets
  • 75. THEORY FORMULATION It all starts with the observed nature of heat …followed by a realisation of a general and universal applicability… Biology Systems Robotics Chemistry Cosmology Information Network(s/ing) Communications Arti fi cial Intelligence +++++ almost everything else …with each discipline assuming the same precepts, but taking different routes, applying different emphasis, interpretation & application sets “Sad to say Thermodynamics as a subject is now often neglected in schools, colleges, universities as a consequence of trying to provide industry ready students” “Seeing Information Theory as a sub-division of Thermodynamics can be contentious with purists on both sides, but in my view it is unworthy of serious debate” “At this point we are heading toward a basic analysis to af fi rm and broaden our grasp of the topic. So, please excuse any ‘repeats’ of previously stated facts and observations”
  • 76. I N I T I A L F O R M U L AT I O N All derived from the kinetic theory of gases Law 0: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third then all are in equilibrium Law 1: Conservation - energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system Law 2: Celestial Ratchet - entropy of any isolated system always increases Law 3: System Entropy - approaches a constant as temperature approaches 0K …theories, experiments, trials, observations repeated multiple times and ways by hundreds of teams across the planet over Supported by repeated observation and zero violations over millennia, with repeated tests by many individuals and teams plus engineering application over 100s of years. Proven:’truths’ established by standing on the shoulders of giants.…
  • 77. If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third then all are in equilibrium LAW 0: Defines temperature and heat flow without reference to entropy Cold Water + Hot Water + Dish }All want to be at the same temperature Flow is hot to cold and never the reverse direction
  • 78. LAW 1: Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system Energy can only change in form potential, kinetic, heat Perhaps obvious from Einstein E = mc2 In a universe, or system, of constant mass the energy is also constant Internal Energy = Heat Input + Work Done by System ∆u = Q + W “Quantum Mechanics is a ‘bit of an excerption’ here”
  • 79. S tat u s : “ W h a t w e k n o w ” Total mass/energy of the universe is constant Dark Energy ? Quantum Dynamics ? Black Holes ? String Theory ? Worm Holes ? Multi-Dimensionality ? Relativity Quantum Mechanics Experiments Observations Experiences Measurements Theories
  • 80. S tat u s : “ W h a t w e k n o w ” Total mass/energy of the universe is constant Dark Energy ? Quantum Dynamics ? Black Holes ? String Theory ? Worm Holes ? Multi-Dimensionality ? Relativity Quantum Mechanics Experiments Observations Experiences Measurements Theories Science/Engineering Just because it isn’t perfect or fully understood or quanti fi ed, it doesn’t mean to say we can’t exploit it ! Hiatus We do not have the means to test such hypotheses at this time & have to draw a line under our knowledge by saying Thermodynamics works !! Mass Conservation Matter leaving the universe balanced by matter entering via Black/Worm Holes & More ??
  • 81. LAW 2: Full energy and state accounting Celestial Ratchet - entropy of any isolated system always increases Entropy can be thought of in terms of order and disorder All systems tend toward a disordered state Times Arrow - One way processes We remember the past and not the future Drop a cup and it smashes, but the reverse never happens A battery always discharges it never decides to recharge itself We live and then die and not the other way round - there are no zombies The more energy is dispersed - the greater the entropy Hot coffee in a mug is concentrated - but as the heat dissipates the heat flow sees entropy fall in the mug and rise in the environment
  • 82. One way processes From order to disorder Entropy always increases This is the universe we live in - our experiences LAW 2 : Times Arrow
  • 83. Doesn’t do reverse gear Order from disorder isn’t simple Entropy never decreases LAW 2 : Times Arrow
  • 84. Doesn’t do reverse gear Order from disorder isn’t simple Entropy never decreases We have never witnessed any reverse order processes, whilst theoretically feasible, their probability is so close to zero we can say they will never happen….and we have no evidence of time travellers either !! Order Disorder LAW 2 : Times Arrow
  • 85. More elements >> greater complexity and entropy Range of Components: China fragments Coffee molecules Dissolved sugar molecules Dispersed milk/cream molecules L AW 2 : T i m e s A r r o w “It takes more energy to solve a problem than that to create it” “You can’t use the same tools to solve a problem as the ones that created it” “No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it” Alb er t Einstein Axiomatic for AI & humans:
  • 86. LAW 2: Entropy - Turbo charger and turbo booster in an internal combustion cycle - Activation energy necessary to initiate a chemical reaction - Photosynthesis as a form of energy transformation - Energy conversion of aviation fuel in a jet engine - Chlorophyll as a mechanism of energy storage - Spread of heat from the sun across the earth - Ef fi ciency of a modern power station - After burner cycle of a jet turbine The nature of heat/energy fl ow/spread/dissipation The ‘purists’ always ‘retreat’ to this founding conceptualisation/formulation applicable to: These, and many more, are the ‘quali fi ed/recognised’ boundaries of the science founded on heat, energy, and reactions. Here, formulations are directly related to the original roots of thermodynamics without abstraction, modi fi cation or mutation!
  • 87. - A measure/number of possible arrangements the atoms in a system can have - Measure of how (dis)organised energy is in a system of atoms or molecules - The level of (dis)organisation of characters on a page or bits in a message - The level of social activity and or physical movement in a crowd - The effectiveness of passwords, coding and encryption - The level of cohesion in a fighting force Order/disorder is a popular visualisation The ‘purists’ tend to wince at this perspective as, for many, it strays too far from the thermodynamic origins in the property and heat based formulations: The level of ‘bastardisation’ of the original thermodynamic concepts and formulations increases as we come down this list - however, they, and many more, prove to be useful across many fields - BUT we should note that, as useful as they may be, they are not the same as the original starting point, but can be statistically justified LAW 2: Entropy
  • 88. D Order Disorder Temperature Disorder Energy LAW 2: Entropy Order/disorder growth visualisation Dynamic/ Stochastic Complexity
  • 89. Order/disorder information growth Order Disorder . , : ; i if iff I need to talk with you soon The concept of information entropy was introduced by Claude Shannon in his 1948 paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" Information LAW 2: Entropy
  • 90. No EXCEPTION: LIFE!! Creates order Time’s arrow isn’t in reverse ! -ve Entropy partly de fi nes life systems Only possible (and true) in small pockets Life is an insigni fi cant element of a bigger system Entropy goes negative as order emerges from disorder Does not detract signi fi cantly from the universal trend toward total disorder WE ALWAYS have to consider any system in the context of the whole environment… ..the Entropy of a closed/isolated/ constrained system can experience/see + or -ve Entropy, but the whole only ever sees a +ve change
  • 91. ENTROPY : Basic System Form Energy Sink Transformation of the form of energy, movement of atoms & molecules or information format, organisation, meaning Engine Energy Source Work Output movement chemical reaction temperature change Energy has to ‘ fl ow’ or no work can be extracted/occur
  • 92. ENTROPY : Impossibilities Engine Energy Source No Work Output Energy Sink Engine Engine There are no perpetual motion machines or free energy - there never will be ! Energy is not ‘ fl owing’ so no work is done/ extracted
  • 93. - No free energy - No free material - No free processes - No perpetual motion machines Remember This : Everything costs !! Energy Out < Energy In Ef fi ciency Always < 100% “Beware of atomic processes we have to take care defining the micro, macro, & universe” No ‘prime mover’ - no ‘input energy’
  • 94. ENTROPY: Basic System Form Energy Sink Engine transforms the form of energy Engine Energy Source Work Output ⇒ Energy Output = E1 - E2 = ∆E ∝T1 -T2 movement chemical reaction temperature change Energy Suppled = E1 ∝T1 Energy Dissipated = E2 ∝T2 Ef fi ciency = T1 - T2 T1
  • 95. ENTROPY: Basic System Form Energy Sink Engine transforms the form of energy Engine Energy Source Work Output ⇒ Energy Output = E1 - E2 = ∆E ∝T1 -T2 movement chemical reaction temperature change Energy Suppled = E1 ∝T1 Energy Dissipated = E2 ∝T2 NOTICE : The work/energy output is dictated by the temperature differential and the ef fi ciency of the machine. For a given ef fi ciency the output = Z( T1 - T2) NOTICE : Entropy de fi nes the energy available to do useful work in a thermodynamic process Ef fi ciency = T1 - T2 T1
  • 96. GENERAL FORM Derived from the kinetic theory of gases Historically; Thermodynamics and nearly all the early thinking emerged from considerations of a number a number of i n d u s t r i a l p ro b l e m s re l a t e d t o h e a t generation, flow and exploitation in the transformation into motion Development; It was soon realised and shown that all the laws could be derived from the study of molecular movement at an individual and fundamental level - and therefore, be based on a statistical model c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s associated with movement and location
  • 97. ENTROPY/PHASE CHANGE Solid - Fluid - Gas transitions can be very abrupt Three Common States of Matter Max order Min Entropy Max Entropy Min Order
  • 98. ENTROPY/PHASE CHANGE Solid - Fluid - Gas transitions can be very abrupt Three Common States of Matter Plasmas are the Fourth State: electrons are torn away from their parent atoms Max order Min Entropy Max Entropy Min Order
  • 99. ENTROPY FormulationS Many formulation variants - some more convenient or easier to deal with than others depending on educational background/mode of thinking distribution but the outcome/form is always the same and so are all the conclusions. There are no con fl icts or exceptions created by the many different methodologies, particular application, or discipline. This is a level of surety and con fi dence rarely achieved in the majority of scienti fi c endeavours!
  • 100. ENTROPY : Thermal Derivation ~1840 ∆S ≈ ∆E ≈ k∆T Relative change in Entropy T Integrating over the entire space/system is then trivial: ∂S ≈ ∂E T ∫ ∫ S = kß logW T T kß = Boltzmann’s Constant = 1.38065 × 10−23 J/K Joules/Kelvin This W nomenclature was ‘standardised’ from later probabalistic derivations Original formulation in 1842 by Boltzmann did not use W =Wahrscheinlichkeit (German for probability) - it was introduced by Max Plank in 1900 ≈ k ∂T ∫ “More than a hint of how this might be further extended into coding and information theory”
  • 101. ENTROPY : Statistical Derivation ~1900 A measure of the number of possible micro-states of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, consistent with its macro-state A full formulation is rendered impossibly large unless all the micro-states are statistically independent and all the probabilities are the same for the whole macro-state W = Wahrscheinlichkeit (probability) of a macro-state for some probability distribution of micro-states - positions and momenta of all molecules - the most general expression of the thermodynamic entropy N = The total number of molecules/components Ni = The individual molecules/components N! N Ni ! ∏i W = Total number of positions of total population Total number of individual positions/molecule “More than a hint of how this might be further extended into coding and information theory”
  • 102. ENTROPY : Statistical Thermodynamics In many practical cases a system’s thermodynamic micro-states are not equally probable: eg, high energy states are less probable than low energy at a fi xed temperature And so the equal probabilities assumption does not always obtain, but a well established generalisation is given by Gibbs: This formulation is the most useful and most cited in engineering and information science…and there are many similar forms including Shannon’s Bound S = ⎲ ⎲ i pi log pi -kß Iff all the probabilities are equal, then this reduces to: S = kß logW
  • 103. ENTROPY : Commonly cited forms The springboard for information theory and info systems understanding
  • 104. EXCEPTION ALERT: New Dimensions ?? Our reality of 4 dimensions appears to be a fraction of an 11 dimensional universe. But all of the above is based on millennia of evidential understanding of our 4D ‘reality’ and the Laws of Physics appear immutable. Though challenged and tested continually they remain steadfast and the foundation of our understandings. There is always room for new discoveries, but unless there is another reality of different and/or more dimensions the Laws of Thermodynamics remains our most complete model, at the core of our base understandings of the universe in which we live.
  • 105. POSITIONING: Human knowledge E = mc2 S = kß log W kß = 1.38065 × 10−23 J/K If this is mankind’s most prophetic equation: Then this is a very close second: Profound consequences: Time travel is impossible and nothing lives or lasts forever “Both come with great surety, and con fi dence founded extensive application, trial, and testing”
  • 106. LAW 3: Entropy => ‘k’ a constant as T => 0 Kelvin The only law founded on unique measurement trends “The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero” In a sense this law is more hypothetical than any of the other three as it cannot be directly demonstrated - ie we cannot create perfect crystals or a temperature of absolute zero ! “Perfect order and thus zero entropy is only possible at absolute zero” https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.3828
  • 107. LAW 3: Entropy => ‘k’ a constant as T => 0 Kelvin The only law founded on unique measurement trends “The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero” In a sense this law is more hypothetical than any of the other three as it cannot be directly demonstrated - ie we cannot create perfect crystals or a temperature of absolute zero ! “Perfect order and thus zero entropy is only possible at absolute zero” https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.3828 Diamond covalent structure: Each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms in a regular tetrahedral network.
  • 108. TO BE AWARE: ENTHALPY A measure of the total energy of a system The internal energy plus that required to create a system Entropy S = Joules/Kelvin - a measure of how energy is distributed in a system Enthalpy H = Joules - A systems internal energy + p.v TO BE CLEAR OTHER TERMS Endothermic = Absorbing Energy Exothermic = Releasing Energy Adiabatic = No Energy Exchange More generally applicable in chemistry and chemical engineering et al and not information systems ?? { Terms commonly employed in many other fi elds but not in general use for information systems and theory {
  • 109. Josiah Willard Gibbs (Feb 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) An American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry from ‘cooking’ into a rigorous inductive science. Gibbs Formula of Enthalpy and Entropy de fi nes a point of chemical phase change/reaction UNSUNG HEROES: So many!
  • 110. “It can be argued that civilisation and its technology enablers are the sustainability problem” This axiom has a brilliant/controversial thermodynamic proof byTim Denton in a 2007/9 paper suggesting Civilisation itself is a heat engine - producing 9.6 milliwatts of heat for ever dollar of GDP normalised to 1990 value. The insight is quite brilliant, and the implications terrifying. FURTHER FOOD FOR THOUGHT ! Make it your practice to read wider than your lecture notes and printed books. Search out the radical, the deep thinkers, and those who posit the challenging! “you don't solve problems from within the system that created those same problems” Axiom - Einstein
  • 111. TO CONTEMPLATE - THE FRIVOLOUS ? Analysing and making sense of the extreme including the non-sensical 1) What are the limitations to building a matter transporter - aka Start Trek? 2) Is it possible for any life form to survive in its own waste materials? 3) Does a pregnant mother see an increase or decrease in her entropy? 4) When someone/thing dies, does its entropy stop increasing? 5) What is the ultimate limit to our information storage capacity? 6) In the movie ‘The Martian’ would his survival strategy actually work? 7) Where are heaven and hell located and how much energy do they consume? 8) …..
  • 112. TO CONTEMPLATE: SERIOUS PROBLEMS Fashion, fad, political and scienti fi c correctness are almost never in alignment 1) Do our waste recycling programs actually work ? 2) Should we be burning plastic waste instead of recycling? 3) Are electric vehicles really green ? 4) Do wind farms cost in ecologically? 5) Can wave power save us? 6) Is tidal power a better option? 7) Can we actually live ‘off grid’ and bene fi t the planet? 8) Do solar cells create more pollutants than they save? 9) Can ‘natural/vertical farming’ feed the planet? 10)Could we actually freeze technologically driven change?
  • 113. T h a n k Y o u www.petercochrane.com With a salute to Carl Sagan “At the heart of science is an essential balance between two seemingly contradictory attitudes — an openness to new ideas, no matter how bizarre or counterintuitive they may be, and the most ruthless skeptical scrutiny of all ideas, old and new. This is how deep truths are winnowed from deep nonsense."