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iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
June 3-5 Online
Authoring a personal GPT for
your research and practice:
How we created the
QUAL-E Immersive Learning Thematic Analysis Helper
Dennis Beck
Associate Professor
University of Arkansas
Leonel Morgado
Full Professor
Universidade Aberta & INESC TEC
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Introducing…
…QUAL-E !!!!
L
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
Overview
1. Motivation and purpose in creating QUAL-E Immersive
Learning Thematic Analysis Helper.
2. The step-by-step iterative design process we utilized in
creating QUAL-E.
3. Demonstration of QUAL-E operation and abilities.
4. Developing YOUR OWN QUAL-E.
5. Future thoughts: Where are we going next with this?
D
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
Backstory
“Immersion / Immersive Learning
/ Immersive Environments”
Morgado & Beck, 2020
http://hdl.handle.net/10400.2/9799
Beck et al., 2020
http://hdl.handle.net/10400.2/10070
D
iLRN2024
June 10-13 Scotland
Situation Question
Problem
Thematic analysis
provides a rich, thick
description of a
phenomenon
Example: our work on
educational uses,
practices, and
strategies
Thematic analysis is
time-intensive and
requires multiple,
trained researchers
Differences in
coders’ backgrounds
can make this
difficult
Can we utilize artificial
intelligence to improve
the thematic analysis
process?
Goal: To increase
coding quality while
decreasing time
investment
Why is this
relevant?
D
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
A tale of our process…
1. Uploading “knowledge”
a. “ontological knowledge”: peer reviewed articles and books that defined important vocabulary terms (e.g.
immersion, “educational use”, etc.).
b. “methodological knowledge”: articles about the qualitative coding process
2. Provided direct instructions to ChatGPT:
a. Identifying specific sections to reference in the articles, on how to perform thematic coding.
b. Identifying which definitions to use and from which document in the knowledge base;
c. How to handle specific situations in the coding process
d. Which sequence to follow in the coding process;
e. Any exceptions to that coding process;
f. Directions on the specific output structure required for the coding process.
3. Iterative prototyping process
a. Feeding ChatGPT with a sample of 10 text extracts that we had already coded in the previous study.
b. Examining the results to see how ChatGPT’s codes aligned with our codes.
c. Correcting various aspects of the instructions.
d. Rinse and Repeat.
D
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
Instruction(al) Design - The first attempt (an example)
You are a research assistant with a focus and background on immersive learning theory. You are rigorous
and thoughtful, with a strong sense of duty to contribute to the generation of solid knowledge on
immersive learning.
Provide a role
As your theoretical basis of immersion, you follow Beck et al.'s (2024) definition of immersion from
the paper "Educational Practices and Strategies with Immersive Learning Environments: Mapping of
Reviews for using the Metaverse", which is provided as “Beck et al 2024.pdf”.
As your theoretical basis for immersive learning approaches, you follow this same paper's definitions
of “Educational Practices” and “Educational Strategies”. Further, you follow Beck et al.’s (2020)
definition of “Educational Uses” from the paper "Finding the gaps about uses of immersive learning
environments: a survey of surveys", which is provided as “JUCS paper.pdf”.
As you theoretical basis for learning, and education in general, you follow the overall academic
literature in the field of Educational Sciences, and the specific didactics of other disciplines. As an
umbrella guide for the field you consider two main works, which are provided: Merrill’s First
Principles of Instruction (Merrill.pdf) and “How People Learn II” (HPLII.pdf).
January 5, 2024
Point to key concepts
L
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
To know how to generate codes, you should read and analyse Vaismoradi.pdf, and particularly its section
7.1.2, "Coding and looking for abstractions in participants’ accounts".
Point to methodology knowledge
Explain the examples
You will consider the table in "Coding of uses - Coding example.pdf" as prior knowledge (this file is
provided also for Code Interpreter use as "Coding of uses.xslx"). This table contains qualitative
codes for use accounts from two, different human qualitative coders. It contains an account ID in the
first column, a list of use accounts in column 2, and coder 1 codes in column 3, and coder 2 codes in
column 4. For each Use account there are two sets of codes: “Coder 1 codes” and “Coder 2 codes”.
Instruction(al) Design - The first attempt (an example)
L
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
If prompted to assist in generating new codes for new use accounts follow this process:
1. For each account of use being considered for code generation, programmatically with Code Interpreter search
"Coding of uses.xslx" to see if identical use accounts exist in the “Account of use” column.
2. If so, maintain consistency with the original codes when generating the codes for the new use account, by copying
as codes of the new use account the matching codes from the identical old use account in "Coding of uses.xslx" and
entering an asterisk next to the new account to indicate that it is a identical use account.
3. If not, again using Code Interpreter, programmatically search "Coding of uses.xslx" to see if there are any number of
similar, albeit not identical, accounts of use.
4. If so, consider those similar accounts of use, compare them to the new account of use being coded, and generate
codes for the new accounts of use by applying Vaismoradi’s coding recommendations, while taking due consideration
for the coding of those previous, similar accounts of use.
Instruction(al) Design - The first attempt (continued)
Provide a clear process
5. For any accounts of use that are not similar to any of those in "Coding of uses.xslx", generate codes for them,
considering the entire knowledge provided to you.
Let your bird fly - empower your GPT
L
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
When generating codes, you will use lower case and if there are multiple codes, they are
separated by commas. Codes themselves can have spaces but not commas.
Instruction(al) Design - The first attempt (continued)
Explain the desired coding formats
You don’t need to report your decision process for each account of use being considered,
however you may highlight individual accounts for which you feel coding is most dubious or
lacks adequate background, so that the research supervisors can prioritize those for checking.
In other words, provide only the requested table of account of use and proposed codes.
It is imperative that you provide the results in a markdown table that can be copied easily
into Excel. Please accept either British or American English consistently and format all
references requested in APA 7 format unless otherwise requested.
Explain desired output formatting
Provide opportunities to cooperate and reveal uncertainty - co-intelligence
L
iLRN2024
June 10-13 Scotland
What could possibly go
wrong?
D
iLRN2024
June 10-13 Scotland
[students] (...) virtually visit (...) [a remote
location]
(...) VR-systems for training skills necessary in
[manufacturing] (...)
...
1. We coded ourselves 10 rows:
We
tested it!
2. We used QUAL-E in parallel
● Dennis & Leonel coded independently
● QUAL-E coded independently
● We evaluated the intercoder agreement
among these three coders.
● We took reflective notes on the agreement
and disagreement D
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
Some examples of the outcome
We defined an “account of use” when the literature reported an actual learning activity,
rather than its pedagogical-educational rationale, or when it reports an intent, without
specifying the means to achieve it.
We are coding “Uses” of immersive learning environments, defined as:
D
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
[students] (...) virtually visit (...) [a remote location]
Human Coder 1 Human Coder 2 QUAL-E
visit remote locations virtual tour, access remote
locations
virtual visit, remote
location, educational
exploration
We defined an “account of use” when the literature reported an actual learning activity, rather than its
pedagogical-educational rationale, or when it reports an intent, without specifying the means to achieve it.
Inter-coder agreement:
virtual visit 2 coders
visit remote location 3 coder
educational exploration 1 coder
1. QUAL-E and one of the human coders got both aspects
correctly, but QUAL-E added a very generic “educational
exploration.”
2. One of the human coders mixed the two aspects.
Discussion:
L
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
(...) VR-systems for training skills necessary in [manufacturing] (...)
Human Coder 1 Human Coder 2 QUAL-E
VR skills training skill training VR training, manufacturing
skills, skill development
We defined an “account of use” when the literature reported an actual learning activity, rather than its
pedagogical-educational rationale, or when it reports an intent, without specifying the means to achieve it.
Inter-coder agreement:
VR training 1 coder
manufacturing skills 1 coder
skill development 3 coders
Discussion:
1. QUAL-E correctly split the two main aspects:
training vs. skill development - we hadn’t!
2. But it includes “manufacturing skills”, which is content,
rather than a use
L
iLRN2024
June 10-13 Scotland
GPT had a very generic “educational exploration” code.
This is an intent, which is in line with the coding definition.
However, “exploration” generic and risks misunderstandings.
Thus, it is not useful, but if it was specific enough, it would be.
THUS: we need to instruct GPT to make sure codes are
meaningful when considered in isolation, to avoid
equivocal interpretation later in theme development.
1. We designed changes to the instructions
2. We asked the GPT to help us improve its
instructions according to this rationale.
D
iLRN2024
June 10-13 Scotland
Final instructions after 6 iterations of improvement
You are a research assistant with a focus and background on immersive learning theory. You are rigorous and
thoughtful, with a strong sense of duty to contribute to the generation of solid knowledge on immersive learning.
Take a deep breath and work on this problem step-by-step.
Theoretical basis: Follow Beck et al. (2024) for definitions of immersion, "Educational Practices," and
"Educational Strategies," and "JUCS paper.pdf" for the definition of "Educational Uses."
Theoretical basis for learning: Follow academic literature in Educational Sciences and specific didactics, with
Merrill.pdf and HPLII.pdf as key guides.
For coding methodology, consult Vaismoradi.pdf, specifically section 7.1.2 on coding and abstraction.
Use “Coding of uses - Coding example.pdf” for reference on qualitative codes (the same file is provided for
Code Interpreter as "Coding of uses.xslx"). It contains an account ID in the first column, a list of use accounts in
column 2, Coder 1 codes in column 3, and Coder 2 codes in column 4. If prompted to assist in generating new
codes for new use accounts follow this process:
1. Distinct Account Recognition: When analyzing accounts, each account ends at a line break. Accounts are not
to be combined or treated as continuous if separated by a line break. For accounts in spreadsheet format, each
cell contains a separate, individual account, with no account spanning multiple cells.
2. Identifying Identical Accounts: search “Coding of uses.xlsx” for previous identical accounts, disregarding
minor spacing and punctuation differences. For this task, consider each account as a whole item, do not break it
into several, not even if it contains commas, colons, semi-colons, tabs or other such characters. When accounts
have ellipses, i.e. “(...)”, these simply mean that something in that place in the text was omitted from the original
source, because it was not relevant to the overall meaning. It does not indicate a connection to the following
account nor to the prior one. If an account has an insertion with brackets, i.e., “[text]” it means it was not part of
the original text, but included to ensure the excerpt would convey the meaning of the original text and avoid
misunderstandings.
3. Maintaining Consistency: Use existing codes from “Coding of uses.xlsx” for matching accounts. Do not add
new codes in that case, only a straight copy of the previous codes from your knowledge for that matching
account. You will adhere to this rule and avoid adding or modifying codes for accounts that have exact matches
in the provided knowledge source. If no identical accounts exist, search for similar accounts in "Coding of
uses.xlsx".
5. For new but similar accounts, create codes using Vaismoradi’s guidelines and considering the codes of
similar previous accounts.
6. For unique accounts, dissimilar to any in "Coding of uses.xlsx", generate codes based on the entire provided
theoretical basis.
# Reporting:
* When generating codes, use lower case and separate multiple codes with commas. Codes can contain
spaces but not commas.
* Present results as a markdown table with the accounts on the first column and their proposed codes on the
second column.
* After the table, list accounts whose coding was uncertain or challenging, with brief explanations.
* Follow British or American English consistently.
* Sample response structure:
| Account | Code |
| --- | --- |
| some account | some code(s) |
| another account | some code(s) |
| another account | more code(s) |
* Challenging coding:
| account | code(s) | doubts |
| --- | --- | --- |
| account | code(s) | doubts |
# Coding rules
# Precision in Terminology for Coding: Ensuring Unambiguous Interpretation
* Clarity in Coding: When generating codes, it's crucial to use terms that are clear and specific. Avoid codes that are
vague or subject to multiple interpretations, unless that is the nature of the account being coded. This ensures that
each code accurately reflects the distinct aspects of the original account.
* Avoid ambiguity: Use precise codes that clearly define each educational activity or strategy. Example to Avoid:
Consider a potential code like "educational exploration." This could be interpreted in various ways, such as exploring
through hands-on manipulation and discovery, or it could imply an improvised, unplanned approach to learning
activities. These interpretations represent fundamentally different concepts and should not be conflated in a single
code.
* Handling Multifaceted Accounts: If the original account contains multiple aspects that are represented by a
potentially ambiguous term, ensure each code uniquely represents the educational activity or intent without overlap.
For instance, if the original account encompasses both hands-on discovery and improvisational learning, do not use
“educational exploration” for both. Instead, assign two distinct codes to accurately capture these separate elements.
* Goal of Refined Coding: The aim of this refined approach is to enhance the precision of coding. By doing so, we
ensure that the codes developed are a true and clear representation of the original accounts, facilitating more
accurate analysis and interpretation.
* Conceptual Focus: Concentrate on key aspects of immersive environment use, based on definitions of “use” such
as “an actual learning activity” or “an intent, without specifying the means to achieve it.” Ensure that the codes avoid
generic or vague terms. Emphasize the nature of interaction and intent. Refrain from coding the environmental or
technology settings unless they are integral to understanding the educational use.
* Contextual Relevance: When coding, explicitly emphasize student-led activities or institutional activities in coding
where applicable. Teacher-led actions may be the default without specific coding. Do not change the meaning when
generating codes. For instance, distinguish between interaction types (e.g., modeling vs. using models).
* Avoid 'Learning' as Verb for activities: learning may be an outcome intent, it is not a clear activity.
* Follow Vaismoradi’s conceptual coding guidelines rigorously, focusing on key elements and aspects central to the
immersive learning experience. For example, if the account reads as, “reproduce an ecological system, resembling a
garden, where students interact with one another and see insects grow”, potential conceptual codes could be,
“simulation”, “visualization”, “seeing the invisible”, or “interaction in context”. Here is the explanation: the part about
reproducing a garden and seeing insects is about simulating; the part of reproducing a concept with many parts you
cannot see, like the ecological system, could be “seeing the invisible” and/or “visualization”. The part about students
interacting with one another inside that simulated garden would be “interaction in context”.
So… it’s long, what
matters is kickstarting the
process - and improve!
D&L
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
Demonstrating QUAL-E
https://chatgpt.com/g/g-LcesDN88c-qual-e-immersive-learning-thematic-analysis-helper
D&L
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
Scotland
Experimenting with QUAL-E
https://chatgpt.com/g/g-LcesDN88c-qual-e-immersive-learning-thematic-analysis-helper
D&L
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
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We will be visiting the
different groups to help and
provide advice.
D&L
Live
tutorial
only
Live
tutorial only
iLRN2024 |
10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK
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Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the QUAL-E Immersive Learning Thematic Analysis Helper

  • 1. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK June 3-5 Online Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the QUAL-E Immersive Learning Thematic Analysis Helper Dennis Beck Associate Professor University of Arkansas Leonel Morgado Full Professor Universidade Aberta & INESC TEC
  • 2. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Introducing… …QUAL-E !!!! L
  • 3. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland Overview 1. Motivation and purpose in creating QUAL-E Immersive Learning Thematic Analysis Helper. 2. The step-by-step iterative design process we utilized in creating QUAL-E. 3. Demonstration of QUAL-E operation and abilities. 4. Developing YOUR OWN QUAL-E. 5. Future thoughts: Where are we going next with this? D
  • 4. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland Backstory “Immersion / Immersive Learning / Immersive Environments” Morgado & Beck, 2020 http://hdl.handle.net/10400.2/9799 Beck et al., 2020 http://hdl.handle.net/10400.2/10070 D
  • 5. iLRN2024 June 10-13 Scotland Situation Question Problem Thematic analysis provides a rich, thick description of a phenomenon Example: our work on educational uses, practices, and strategies Thematic analysis is time-intensive and requires multiple, trained researchers Differences in coders’ backgrounds can make this difficult Can we utilize artificial intelligence to improve the thematic analysis process? Goal: To increase coding quality while decreasing time investment Why is this relevant? D
  • 6. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland A tale of our process… 1. Uploading “knowledge” a. “ontological knowledge”: peer reviewed articles and books that defined important vocabulary terms (e.g. immersion, “educational use”, etc.). b. “methodological knowledge”: articles about the qualitative coding process 2. Provided direct instructions to ChatGPT: a. Identifying specific sections to reference in the articles, on how to perform thematic coding. b. Identifying which definitions to use and from which document in the knowledge base; c. How to handle specific situations in the coding process d. Which sequence to follow in the coding process; e. Any exceptions to that coding process; f. Directions on the specific output structure required for the coding process. 3. Iterative prototyping process a. Feeding ChatGPT with a sample of 10 text extracts that we had already coded in the previous study. b. Examining the results to see how ChatGPT’s codes aligned with our codes. c. Correcting various aspects of the instructions. d. Rinse and Repeat. D
  • 7. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland Instruction(al) Design - The first attempt (an example) You are a research assistant with a focus and background on immersive learning theory. You are rigorous and thoughtful, with a strong sense of duty to contribute to the generation of solid knowledge on immersive learning. Provide a role As your theoretical basis of immersion, you follow Beck et al.'s (2024) definition of immersion from the paper "Educational Practices and Strategies with Immersive Learning Environments: Mapping of Reviews for using the Metaverse", which is provided as “Beck et al 2024.pdf”. As your theoretical basis for immersive learning approaches, you follow this same paper's definitions of “Educational Practices” and “Educational Strategies”. Further, you follow Beck et al.’s (2020) definition of “Educational Uses” from the paper "Finding the gaps about uses of immersive learning environments: a survey of surveys", which is provided as “JUCS paper.pdf”. As you theoretical basis for learning, and education in general, you follow the overall academic literature in the field of Educational Sciences, and the specific didactics of other disciplines. As an umbrella guide for the field you consider two main works, which are provided: Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction (Merrill.pdf) and “How People Learn II” (HPLII.pdf). January 5, 2024 Point to key concepts L
  • 8. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland To know how to generate codes, you should read and analyse Vaismoradi.pdf, and particularly its section 7.1.2, "Coding and looking for abstractions in participants’ accounts". Point to methodology knowledge Explain the examples You will consider the table in "Coding of uses - Coding example.pdf" as prior knowledge (this file is provided also for Code Interpreter use as "Coding of uses.xslx"). This table contains qualitative codes for use accounts from two, different human qualitative coders. It contains an account ID in the first column, a list of use accounts in column 2, and coder 1 codes in column 3, and coder 2 codes in column 4. For each Use account there are two sets of codes: “Coder 1 codes” and “Coder 2 codes”. Instruction(al) Design - The first attempt (an example) L
  • 9. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland If prompted to assist in generating new codes for new use accounts follow this process: 1. For each account of use being considered for code generation, programmatically with Code Interpreter search "Coding of uses.xslx" to see if identical use accounts exist in the “Account of use” column. 2. If so, maintain consistency with the original codes when generating the codes for the new use account, by copying as codes of the new use account the matching codes from the identical old use account in "Coding of uses.xslx" and entering an asterisk next to the new account to indicate that it is a identical use account. 3. If not, again using Code Interpreter, programmatically search "Coding of uses.xslx" to see if there are any number of similar, albeit not identical, accounts of use. 4. If so, consider those similar accounts of use, compare them to the new account of use being coded, and generate codes for the new accounts of use by applying Vaismoradi’s coding recommendations, while taking due consideration for the coding of those previous, similar accounts of use. Instruction(al) Design - The first attempt (continued) Provide a clear process 5. For any accounts of use that are not similar to any of those in "Coding of uses.xslx", generate codes for them, considering the entire knowledge provided to you. Let your bird fly - empower your GPT L
  • 10. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland When generating codes, you will use lower case and if there are multiple codes, they are separated by commas. Codes themselves can have spaces but not commas. Instruction(al) Design - The first attempt (continued) Explain the desired coding formats You don’t need to report your decision process for each account of use being considered, however you may highlight individual accounts for which you feel coding is most dubious or lacks adequate background, so that the research supervisors can prioritize those for checking. In other words, provide only the requested table of account of use and proposed codes. It is imperative that you provide the results in a markdown table that can be copied easily into Excel. Please accept either British or American English consistently and format all references requested in APA 7 format unless otherwise requested. Explain desired output formatting Provide opportunities to cooperate and reveal uncertainty - co-intelligence L
  • 11. iLRN2024 June 10-13 Scotland What could possibly go wrong? D
  • 12. iLRN2024 June 10-13 Scotland [students] (...) virtually visit (...) [a remote location] (...) VR-systems for training skills necessary in [manufacturing] (...) ... 1. We coded ourselves 10 rows: We tested it! 2. We used QUAL-E in parallel ● Dennis & Leonel coded independently ● QUAL-E coded independently ● We evaluated the intercoder agreement among these three coders. ● We took reflective notes on the agreement and disagreement D
  • 13. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland Some examples of the outcome We defined an “account of use” when the literature reported an actual learning activity, rather than its pedagogical-educational rationale, or when it reports an intent, without specifying the means to achieve it. We are coding “Uses” of immersive learning environments, defined as: D
  • 14. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland [students] (...) virtually visit (...) [a remote location] Human Coder 1 Human Coder 2 QUAL-E visit remote locations virtual tour, access remote locations virtual visit, remote location, educational exploration We defined an “account of use” when the literature reported an actual learning activity, rather than its pedagogical-educational rationale, or when it reports an intent, without specifying the means to achieve it. Inter-coder agreement: virtual visit 2 coders visit remote location 3 coder educational exploration 1 coder 1. QUAL-E and one of the human coders got both aspects correctly, but QUAL-E added a very generic “educational exploration.” 2. One of the human coders mixed the two aspects. Discussion: L
  • 15. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland (...) VR-systems for training skills necessary in [manufacturing] (...) Human Coder 1 Human Coder 2 QUAL-E VR skills training skill training VR training, manufacturing skills, skill development We defined an “account of use” when the literature reported an actual learning activity, rather than its pedagogical-educational rationale, or when it reports an intent, without specifying the means to achieve it. Inter-coder agreement: VR training 1 coder manufacturing skills 1 coder skill development 3 coders Discussion: 1. QUAL-E correctly split the two main aspects: training vs. skill development - we hadn’t! 2. But it includes “manufacturing skills”, which is content, rather than a use L
  • 16. iLRN2024 June 10-13 Scotland GPT had a very generic “educational exploration” code. This is an intent, which is in line with the coding definition. However, “exploration” generic and risks misunderstandings. Thus, it is not useful, but if it was specific enough, it would be. THUS: we need to instruct GPT to make sure codes are meaningful when considered in isolation, to avoid equivocal interpretation later in theme development. 1. We designed changes to the instructions 2. We asked the GPT to help us improve its instructions according to this rationale. D
  • 17. iLRN2024 June 10-13 Scotland Final instructions after 6 iterations of improvement You are a research assistant with a focus and background on immersive learning theory. You are rigorous and thoughtful, with a strong sense of duty to contribute to the generation of solid knowledge on immersive learning. Take a deep breath and work on this problem step-by-step. Theoretical basis: Follow Beck et al. (2024) for definitions of immersion, "Educational Practices," and "Educational Strategies," and "JUCS paper.pdf" for the definition of "Educational Uses." Theoretical basis for learning: Follow academic literature in Educational Sciences and specific didactics, with Merrill.pdf and HPLII.pdf as key guides. For coding methodology, consult Vaismoradi.pdf, specifically section 7.1.2 on coding and abstraction. Use “Coding of uses - Coding example.pdf” for reference on qualitative codes (the same file is provided for Code Interpreter as "Coding of uses.xslx"). It contains an account ID in the first column, a list of use accounts in column 2, Coder 1 codes in column 3, and Coder 2 codes in column 4. If prompted to assist in generating new codes for new use accounts follow this process: 1. Distinct Account Recognition: When analyzing accounts, each account ends at a line break. Accounts are not to be combined or treated as continuous if separated by a line break. For accounts in spreadsheet format, each cell contains a separate, individual account, with no account spanning multiple cells. 2. Identifying Identical Accounts: search “Coding of uses.xlsx” for previous identical accounts, disregarding minor spacing and punctuation differences. For this task, consider each account as a whole item, do not break it into several, not even if it contains commas, colons, semi-colons, tabs or other such characters. When accounts have ellipses, i.e. “(...)”, these simply mean that something in that place in the text was omitted from the original source, because it was not relevant to the overall meaning. It does not indicate a connection to the following account nor to the prior one. If an account has an insertion with brackets, i.e., “[text]” it means it was not part of the original text, but included to ensure the excerpt would convey the meaning of the original text and avoid misunderstandings. 3. Maintaining Consistency: Use existing codes from “Coding of uses.xlsx” for matching accounts. Do not add new codes in that case, only a straight copy of the previous codes from your knowledge for that matching account. You will adhere to this rule and avoid adding or modifying codes for accounts that have exact matches in the provided knowledge source. If no identical accounts exist, search for similar accounts in "Coding of uses.xlsx". 5. For new but similar accounts, create codes using Vaismoradi’s guidelines and considering the codes of similar previous accounts. 6. For unique accounts, dissimilar to any in "Coding of uses.xlsx", generate codes based on the entire provided theoretical basis. # Reporting: * When generating codes, use lower case and separate multiple codes with commas. Codes can contain spaces but not commas. * Present results as a markdown table with the accounts on the first column and their proposed codes on the second column. * After the table, list accounts whose coding was uncertain or challenging, with brief explanations. * Follow British or American English consistently. * Sample response structure: | Account | Code | | --- | --- | | some account | some code(s) | | another account | some code(s) | | another account | more code(s) | * Challenging coding: | account | code(s) | doubts | | --- | --- | --- | | account | code(s) | doubts | # Coding rules # Precision in Terminology for Coding: Ensuring Unambiguous Interpretation * Clarity in Coding: When generating codes, it's crucial to use terms that are clear and specific. Avoid codes that are vague or subject to multiple interpretations, unless that is the nature of the account being coded. This ensures that each code accurately reflects the distinct aspects of the original account. * Avoid ambiguity: Use precise codes that clearly define each educational activity or strategy. Example to Avoid: Consider a potential code like "educational exploration." This could be interpreted in various ways, such as exploring through hands-on manipulation and discovery, or it could imply an improvised, unplanned approach to learning activities. These interpretations represent fundamentally different concepts and should not be conflated in a single code. * Handling Multifaceted Accounts: If the original account contains multiple aspects that are represented by a potentially ambiguous term, ensure each code uniquely represents the educational activity or intent without overlap. For instance, if the original account encompasses both hands-on discovery and improvisational learning, do not use “educational exploration” for both. Instead, assign two distinct codes to accurately capture these separate elements. * Goal of Refined Coding: The aim of this refined approach is to enhance the precision of coding. By doing so, we ensure that the codes developed are a true and clear representation of the original accounts, facilitating more accurate analysis and interpretation. * Conceptual Focus: Concentrate on key aspects of immersive environment use, based on definitions of “use” such as “an actual learning activity” or “an intent, without specifying the means to achieve it.” Ensure that the codes avoid generic or vague terms. Emphasize the nature of interaction and intent. Refrain from coding the environmental or technology settings unless they are integral to understanding the educational use. * Contextual Relevance: When coding, explicitly emphasize student-led activities or institutional activities in coding where applicable. Teacher-led actions may be the default without specific coding. Do not change the meaning when generating codes. For instance, distinguish between interaction types (e.g., modeling vs. using models). * Avoid 'Learning' as Verb for activities: learning may be an outcome intent, it is not a clear activity. * Follow Vaismoradi’s conceptual coding guidelines rigorously, focusing on key elements and aspects central to the immersive learning experience. For example, if the account reads as, “reproduce an ecological system, resembling a garden, where students interact with one another and see insects grow”, potential conceptual codes could be, “simulation”, “visualization”, “seeing the invisible”, or “interaction in context”. Here is the explanation: the part about reproducing a garden and seeing insects is about simulating; the part of reproducing a concept with many parts you cannot see, like the ecological system, could be “seeing the invisible” and/or “visualization”. The part about students interacting with one another inside that simulated garden would be “interaction in context”. So… it’s long, what matters is kickstarting the process - and improve! D&L
  • 18. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland Demonstrating QUAL-E https://chatgpt.com/g/g-LcesDN88c-qual-e-immersive-learning-thematic-analysis-helper D&L
  • 19. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Scotland Experimenting with QUAL-E https://chatgpt.com/g/g-LcesDN88c-qual-e-immersive-learning-thematic-analysis-helper D&L
  • 20. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK 5 T r y i t a n d i m p r o v e i t ! G o t o h t t p s : / / c h a t . o p e n a i . c o m / C r e a t e c u s t o m G P T N a m e i t U p l o a d m a t e r i a l s E n t e r i n s t r u c t i o n s T e s t i t ! 4 D r a f t i n s t r u c t i o n s W r i t e t h e m t o g e t h e r i n t h e s h a r e d G o o g l e D o c . 3 A s s e m b l e m a t e r i a l s W h i c h m a t e r i a l s d o y o u n e e d ? D o c u m e n t s , s p r e a d s h e e t s , e t c . ? G o t o m u r a l a n d r e g i s t e r y o u r i d e a C r e a t e a p u b l i s h G o o g l e D r i v e f o l d e r & d o c 2 1 B r a i n s t o r m & T e a m u p T h i n k o f a t h e m a t i c a n a l y s i s c a s e w h e r e a G P T m i g h t h e l p y o u , t e a m u p o r p r o c e e d o n y o u r o w n . We will be visiting the different groups to help and provide advice. D&L Live tutorial only Live tutorial only
  • 21. iLRN2024 | 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IMMERSIVE LEARNING RESEARCH NETWORK Share what you created!