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PANTHOTHENIC ACID (B5]
Gandham. Rajeev
Department of Biochemistry,
Akash Institute of Medical Sciences
& Research Centre,
Devanahalli, Bangalore,
Karnataka, India.
E-Mail: gandhamrajeev33@gmail.com
PANTOTHENIC ACID (B5)
 Pantos means ‘everywhere’
 It is widely distributed in nature
 It is formerly known as chick anti-dermatitis factor
 Its metabolic role as a coenzyme A (Discovered by
Lipmann)
 Chemistry:
 Pantothenic acid is composed of pantoic acid
joined to β – alanine by a peptide bond
 It is stable to heat & destroyed by acid & alkali
 Absorption: It is present in food either free form
or coenzyme form
 Coenzyme form is hydrolyzed to free form by
intestinal pyrophosphatase
 Free pantothenic acid is absorbed from upper part
of small intestine by sodium dependent transport
system
 Transport it enters portal circulation & transported
to various tissues
 Coenzyme A & Form
 Coenzyme A & 4-phosphopantetheine
 Pantothenic acid is first phosphorylated to form 4-
phospho pantothenic acid
 4-phosphopantothenic acid is converted into 4-
phosphopantothenylcysteine by the transfer of
cysteine molecule to 4-phosphopantothenic acid
 4-phosphopantothenylcysteine is decarboxylated
to form 4-phosphopantetheine
 4-phosphopantetheine is converted to dephospho
coenzyme A by transfer of AMP
 Dephospho coenzyme A phosphorylated to form
CoA
OH - CH2 – C – CH – C – NH - CH2 - CH2 – COO -
CH3
I
O
II
I
CH3
OH
I
Pantoic acid β - Alanine
Pantothenic acid
4-phospho pantothenate
4-phosphopantothenyl cysteine
Cysteine
ATP
ADP
ATP
ADP
4-phosphopantotheine
Dephospho-coenzyme A
Coenzyme A
ATP
PPi
CH2 – C – CH – C – NH - CH2 - CH2 – CO-N-CH2 - CH2 - SH
CH3
I
O
II
I
CH3
OH
I
I
O
I
P
I
O
I
P
O
-O - =O
-O - = O – CH2
H
N
NN
N
NH2
I
OH
HH H
-O - =O
O
I
P
I
O-
Ribose - 3 P
Adenine
H
I
Coenzyme A
 Role of 4-phosphopantetheine
 4-phosphopantetheine is required for De novo
synthesis of FA
 4-phosphopantetheine is a carrier of acyl groups
 4-phosphopantetheine is attached to ACP of FAS
complex
 4-phosphopantetheine contributes to peripheral
SH group of FAS complex
 Acyl groups are attached to SH groups of FAS
 The functions of pantothenic acid are exerted
through coenzyme A or CoA (A for acetylation)
 Co A is involved in all the metabolisms
 It plays a role in integrating various metabolic
pathways
 Coenzyme A has a terminal thiol or sulfhydryl
group (-SH)
 SH group is the reactive site
 Hence CoA-SH is used
 Acyl groups are linked to coenzyme A by thioester
bond, to give acyl CoA
 CoA serves as a carrier of activated acetyl or acyl
groups
 Enzymes requiring Coenzyme A as
cofactor:
 Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
 α- Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex
 FAS complex
 Thiolase, HMG CoA synthase
 Acetyl Co A is formed from oxidation of pyruvate to
, amino acids, FA, ketone bodies
 Utilization: Acetyl CoA is utilized for oxidation
through TCA cycle to provide energy
 It essential for formation of Acetylcholine
 Acetylcholine is neurotransmitter
 Acetyl CoA is the substrate for synthesis of FA,
cholesterol, Amino acids, & ketone bodies
 Succinyl Co A is formed from propionyl CoA and
α- ketoglutarate
 Propionyl CoA is formed from oxidation of odd
chain FA,valine, isoleucine, methionine
 Utilization succinyl CoA is oxidized through TCA
cycle
 Succinate is utilized for metabolism ketone
bodies
 It is also used for synthesis of heme
 Propionyl CoA is formed from oxidation of odd
chain fatty acids, isoleucine, methionine & valine
 Utilization:- Propionyl CoA is converted to
succinyl CoA
Acetyl CoA
Ketone Bodies
Pyruvate
Fatty Acids
Ketogenic amino acids
CO2 + H2O
Ketone Bodies
Fatty Acids
Acetyl Choline
Cholesterol
 Rich soueces: Yeast, eggs, liver & meat
 Good sources:- vegetables & grains
RDA:
Adults - 10 mg/day
Children - 7 mg/day
 Deficiency of pantothenic acid (CoA) is rare in
humans
 Experimental studies:
 By giving antagonist of B5 such as ω - methyl
pantathenic acid
 Burning feet syndrome is observed
 It is characterized by numbness & tingling of toes,
burning pain in the feet, sleep disturbances,
dermatitis & depression
 Harper’s Biochemistry 25th Edition.
 Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry by Tietz.
 Text Book of Medical Biochemistry-A R Aroor.
 Text Book of Biochemistry-DM Vasudevan
 Text Book of Biochemistry-MN Chatterjea
 Text Book of Biochemistry-Dr.U.Satyanarana
Pantothenic acid(B5)

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Pantothenic acid(B5)

  • 1. PANTHOTHENIC ACID (B5] Gandham. Rajeev Department of Biochemistry, Akash Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Devanahalli, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. E-Mail: gandhamrajeev33@gmail.com
  • 2.
  • 4.  Pantos means ‘everywhere’  It is widely distributed in nature  It is formerly known as chick anti-dermatitis factor  Its metabolic role as a coenzyme A (Discovered by Lipmann)  Chemistry:  Pantothenic acid is composed of pantoic acid joined to β – alanine by a peptide bond  It is stable to heat & destroyed by acid & alkali
  • 5.  Absorption: It is present in food either free form or coenzyme form  Coenzyme form is hydrolyzed to free form by intestinal pyrophosphatase  Free pantothenic acid is absorbed from upper part of small intestine by sodium dependent transport system  Transport it enters portal circulation & transported to various tissues
  • 6.  Coenzyme A & Form  Coenzyme A & 4-phosphopantetheine  Pantothenic acid is first phosphorylated to form 4- phospho pantothenic acid  4-phosphopantothenic acid is converted into 4- phosphopantothenylcysteine by the transfer of cysteine molecule to 4-phosphopantothenic acid  4-phosphopantothenylcysteine is decarboxylated to form 4-phosphopantetheine
  • 7.  4-phosphopantetheine is converted to dephospho coenzyme A by transfer of AMP  Dephospho coenzyme A phosphorylated to form CoA
  • 8. OH - CH2 – C – CH – C – NH - CH2 - CH2 – COO - CH3 I O II I CH3 OH I Pantoic acid β - Alanine Pantothenic acid 4-phospho pantothenate 4-phosphopantothenyl cysteine Cysteine ATP ADP ATP ADP 4-phosphopantotheine Dephospho-coenzyme A Coenzyme A ATP PPi
  • 9. CH2 – C – CH – C – NH - CH2 - CH2 – CO-N-CH2 - CH2 - SH CH3 I O II I CH3 OH I I O I P I O I P O -O - =O -O - = O – CH2 H N NN N NH2 I OH HH H -O - =O O I P I O- Ribose - 3 P Adenine H I Coenzyme A
  • 10.  Role of 4-phosphopantetheine  4-phosphopantetheine is required for De novo synthesis of FA  4-phosphopantetheine is a carrier of acyl groups  4-phosphopantetheine is attached to ACP of FAS complex  4-phosphopantetheine contributes to peripheral SH group of FAS complex  Acyl groups are attached to SH groups of FAS
  • 11.  The functions of pantothenic acid are exerted through coenzyme A or CoA (A for acetylation)  Co A is involved in all the metabolisms  It plays a role in integrating various metabolic pathways  Coenzyme A has a terminal thiol or sulfhydryl group (-SH)  SH group is the reactive site  Hence CoA-SH is used
  • 12.  Acyl groups are linked to coenzyme A by thioester bond, to give acyl CoA  CoA serves as a carrier of activated acetyl or acyl groups  Enzymes requiring Coenzyme A as cofactor:  Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex  α- Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex  FAS complex  Thiolase, HMG CoA synthase
  • 13.  Acetyl Co A is formed from oxidation of pyruvate to , amino acids, FA, ketone bodies  Utilization: Acetyl CoA is utilized for oxidation through TCA cycle to provide energy  It essential for formation of Acetylcholine  Acetylcholine is neurotransmitter  Acetyl CoA is the substrate for synthesis of FA, cholesterol, Amino acids, & ketone bodies
  • 14.  Succinyl Co A is formed from propionyl CoA and α- ketoglutarate  Propionyl CoA is formed from oxidation of odd chain FA,valine, isoleucine, methionine  Utilization succinyl CoA is oxidized through TCA cycle  Succinate is utilized for metabolism ketone bodies  It is also used for synthesis of heme
  • 15.  Propionyl CoA is formed from oxidation of odd chain fatty acids, isoleucine, methionine & valine  Utilization:- Propionyl CoA is converted to succinyl CoA
  • 16. Acetyl CoA Ketone Bodies Pyruvate Fatty Acids Ketogenic amino acids CO2 + H2O Ketone Bodies Fatty Acids Acetyl Choline Cholesterol
  • 17.  Rich soueces: Yeast, eggs, liver & meat  Good sources:- vegetables & grains RDA: Adults - 10 mg/day Children - 7 mg/day
  • 18.  Deficiency of pantothenic acid (CoA) is rare in humans  Experimental studies:  By giving antagonist of B5 such as ω - methyl pantathenic acid  Burning feet syndrome is observed  It is characterized by numbness & tingling of toes, burning pain in the feet, sleep disturbances, dermatitis & depression
  • 19.
  • 20.  Harper’s Biochemistry 25th Edition.  Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry by Tietz.  Text Book of Medical Biochemistry-A R Aroor.  Text Book of Biochemistry-DM Vasudevan  Text Book of Biochemistry-MN Chatterjea  Text Book of Biochemistry-Dr.U.Satyanarana