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FOLIC ACID (B9]
Gandham. Rajeev
Department of Biochemistry,
Akash Institute of Medical Sciences &
Research Centre,
Devanahalli, Bangalore,
Karnataka, India.
E-Mail: gandhamrajeev33@gmail.com
 The word folic acid is derived from latin word
Folium means leaf & it is also isolated from the
leafy vegetable spinach
 Folic acid mainly consists of three components
 Pteridine ring
 PABA (p-amino benzoic acid)
 Glutamic acid residue (1 to 7 residues)
 Hence it is known as Pteroyl-glutamic acid
 Tetrahydrofolate (THF or FH4) is the active
form of folic acid
5
10
N
H
H
HN
I
H
H2N
N
N
H
I
N
- CH2 – NH-
O
II
- C
H
I
- N - CH –COO-
I
CH2
I
CH2
I
COO-
8
7
6
5
Folic Acid
Dihydrofolate
reductase
2NADPH + 2H+
2NADP
5,6,7,8 – Tetrahydrofolic acid (THF)
 Absorption:
 Formation of monoglutamate form:
 Most of the dietary folic acid exists as
polyglutamate with 3-7 glutamate residues
 It is not absorbed in the intestine
 The glutamate side chains are cleaved by the
enzyme folate conjugase or
polylpolyglutamate hydrolase
 Only monoglutamyl form of folic acid is absorbed
from the intestine
 The enzyme folate conjugase is present in
duodenum & jejunum
 Mucosal uptake & metabolism in mucosal cell
 Folate monoglutamate is taken up by the
mucosal cell
 In the mucosal cell, folate monoglutamate is
reduced to tetrahydrofolate & methylated to form
N5 methyl tetrahydrofolate (in circulation)
 N5 methyl tetrahydrofolate enters the
circulation
 Storage:
 Inside the cells, tetrahydrofolates are found as
polyglumates (with 5-6 amino acid residues)
 Which are biologically most potent
 Polyglutamate is the storage form of folic acid
 It is mainly stored in the liver (10-20 mg)
 Folic acid is not biologically active
 The active coenzyme forms of folic acid are
 Tetrahydrofolic acid (FH4)
 N5 methyl tetrahydrofolic acid (N5FH4)
 N5,N10 methylene tetrahydrofolic acid
 N10 formyl tetrahydrofolate(N10 formyl FH4)
 N5 formimino tetrahydrofolate (N5 formimino
FH4)
 N5 formyl tetrahydrofolate (N5 formyl FH4)
 N5,10 methenyl tetrahydrofolate N5,10 methenyl
FH4)
 N5 formyl THF -CHO
 N10 formyl THF -CHO
 N5 formimino THF -CH=NH
 N5,N10 methenyl THF= CH
 N5,N10 methylene THF =CH2
 N5 methyl THF - CH3
 The coenzymes of folic acid are actively
involved in the one carbon metabolism
 THF acts as an acceptor or donor of one
carbon units (formyl, methyl etc.) in reactions
involving amino acid & nucleotide metabolism
 The one carbon units bind with THF at
position N5 or N10 or on both N5 &N10 of
pteroyl structure
 Amino acid metabolism is important for
transfer or exchange of one carbon units
 The following one carbon fragments are
involved in biological reactions
 Methyl (-CH3)
 Hydroxymethyl (-CH2OH)
 Methylene (=CH2)
 Methenyl (-CH=)
 Formyl (-CH=O)
 Formimino (-CH=NH)
 THF is a versatile coenzyme actively
participates in one carbon metabolism
 Transfer of methyl groups from S-
adenosylmethionine
 B12 is also involved
 The one carbon units covalently binds with
THF at position N5 or N10 or on both N5
&N10 of pteroyl structure of folate
 Many compounds particularly amino acids act as
donors of one carbon units
 The formate is released from glycine & tryptophan
metabolism combines with THF to form N10 –
formyl THF
 Histidine contributes formimino fragment to
produce N5 – formimino THF
 Serine is converted to glycine, N5,N10 methylene
THF is formed
 This is most common entry of 1C units into one
carbon pool
 Choline contributes to the formation of N5
methyl THF
 Different derivatives of THF carrying one
carbon units are interconvertible, & this is
metabolically significant for the continuity of
one carbon pool
Utilization of one carbon units
 Utilized for synthesis of wide variety of
compounds
 These includes
 Purines
 Formylmithionine tRNA (initiation of protein
synthesis)
 Glycine
 Pyrimidine nucleotide etc
Role of methionine & vitamin B12
 Methyl group is an important one carbon unit
 Methionine is active donor of methyl groups in
transmethylation reactions
 After the release of methyl group, methionine
is converted to homocysteine
 For regeneration of methionine, homocysteine
& N5-methyl THF are required & this reaction
is dependent on Vitamin B12
 The one carbon pool, under the control of THF,
is linked with methionine metabolism through
Vitamin B12
Glycine
Tryptophan
Formate N10-Formyl THF
Purine (C2)
Histidine
FIGLU N5-FormiminoTHF N5,N10-Methenyl THF
Serine N5,N10-Methylene THF
Choline
Betaine
N5 Methyl THF
B12
Methionine
S-Adenosyl Methionine
Homocysteine
CH3-
Transmethylation
Formylmethionine
Purines (C8)
Serine
Thymidylate
Major sources
Major Products
THF
THF
THF
THF
One Carbon Metabolism
 Rich sources are green leafy vegetables such
as spinach, cauliflower
 Poor sources are liver, kidney, milk, fruits
Men -100 µg/day
Women -100 µg/day
Pregnancy -400 µg/day
Lactation -150 µg/day
 Dietary deficiency is the most common cause
of folic acid
 Dietary deficiencies are caused by
 Inadequate intake seen in alcoholics
 Overcooking of food resulting in loss of folic
acid activity
 Impaired absorption due to small intestinal
diseases,
 Drugs interfere with folic acid absorption-
sulfamethaxazole
 Increased demand of folic acid seen in
pregnancy
 Hemolytic anemia
 Hence folic acid preparations are prescribed in
pregnancy &hemolytic anemia
 Other causes
 Loss of folic acid seen in patients undergoing
dialysis
 Impaired synthesis of active form seen in
patients receiving folic acid antagonists such as
methotrexate
 Megaloblastic anemia characterized by
hyperchromic macrocytic anemia (due to
maturation bloked)
 Magaloblastic changes are seen in bone
marrow & mucosa
 Patients look pale
 Glossitis
 Peripheral smear shows macrocytic
hyperchromic anemia
 Hypersegmentation of neutrophils is common
 Bone marrow shows megaloblastic changes
characterized by abnormally large size of
erythroid cells with cytoplasmic maturation
but impaired nuclear maturation due to
defective DNA synthesis
 Defective red cell production
 Low plasma folic acid levels (<3ng/ml)
 Low red cell folic acid levels (<150 ng/ml)
 Normal plasma Vitamin B12 levels
 Increased plasma LDH levels
 FIGLU excretion test:-
 Folic acid deficiency is associated with
increased excretion of formiminoglutamate
(FIGLU) in urine
 Due to impaired conversion of FIGLU to
glutamate in a reaction requiring FH4
Histidine
FIGLU
Formimino FH4
Histidine
Glutamate
FH4
FIGLU
Formimino FH4
Glutamate
FH4
Urine
Folic acid
deficiency
 Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy
helps to prevent neural tube defects
 Mainly involved in brain & spinal cord
 Science, folic acid involved in nucleic acid &
amino acid metabolism
 Deficiency results in impaired & aberrant
neural development
 Homocysteine is a risk factor for CHD
 Folic acid is required for conversion of
homocysteine to methionine
 Deficiency is associated with increased
plasma levels of Homocysteine
 Folic acid suplementation decreases plasma
homocysteine levels
 Homocysteine levels are also increased in
Vitamin B12 & Pyridoxine deficiency
 Aminopterin & Amethopterin (methotrexate)
 Aminopterin & Amethopterin (methotrexate)
competitevely inhibit the enzyme dihydrofolate
reductase in humans
 It impaires the formation of active form of
tetrahydrofolate from dihydrofolate
 Significance:-
 During the conversion of deoxyuridylate to
deoxythymidylate, dihydrofalate is formed,
utilizes N5,10 methylene FH4
 Deoxythymidylate is required for DNA
synthesis
 Folic acid antagonists will block DNA synthesis
& inhibit cell division
 Clinical uses:-
 Aminopterin & Amethopterin (methotrexate)
inhibit DNA synthesis in cancer cells
 Used in treatment of cancer
 Particularly leukemia & choriocarcinoma
 It is a folic acid antagonist & it inhibits the
bacterial dihydrofolate reductase
 Thus impairs the deoxythymidylate synthesis
leading to decreased synthesis of DNA
 It is mainly used in bacterial infections
 Harper’s Biochemistry 25th Edition.
 Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry by Tietz.
 Text Book of Medical Biochemistry-A R Aroor.
 Text Book of Biochemistry-DM Vasudevan
 Text Book of Biochemistry-MN Chatterjea
 Text Book of Biochemistry-Dr.U.Satyanarana

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Folic acid (B9)

  • 1. FOLIC ACID (B9] Gandham. Rajeev Department of Biochemistry, Akash Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Devanahalli, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. E-Mail: gandhamrajeev33@gmail.com
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.  The word folic acid is derived from latin word Folium means leaf & it is also isolated from the leafy vegetable spinach  Folic acid mainly consists of three components  Pteridine ring  PABA (p-amino benzoic acid)  Glutamic acid residue (1 to 7 residues)  Hence it is known as Pteroyl-glutamic acid
  • 5.  Tetrahydrofolate (THF or FH4) is the active form of folic acid 5 10
  • 6.
  • 7. N H H HN I H H2N N N H I N - CH2 – NH- O II - C H I - N - CH –COO- I CH2 I CH2 I COO- 8 7 6 5 Folic Acid Dihydrofolate reductase 2NADPH + 2H+ 2NADP 5,6,7,8 – Tetrahydrofolic acid (THF)
  • 8.  Absorption:  Formation of monoglutamate form:  Most of the dietary folic acid exists as polyglutamate with 3-7 glutamate residues  It is not absorbed in the intestine  The glutamate side chains are cleaved by the enzyme folate conjugase or polylpolyglutamate hydrolase
  • 9.  Only monoglutamyl form of folic acid is absorbed from the intestine  The enzyme folate conjugase is present in duodenum & jejunum  Mucosal uptake & metabolism in mucosal cell  Folate monoglutamate is taken up by the mucosal cell  In the mucosal cell, folate monoglutamate is reduced to tetrahydrofolate & methylated to form N5 methyl tetrahydrofolate (in circulation)
  • 10.  N5 methyl tetrahydrofolate enters the circulation  Storage:  Inside the cells, tetrahydrofolates are found as polyglumates (with 5-6 amino acid residues)  Which are biologically most potent  Polyglutamate is the storage form of folic acid  It is mainly stored in the liver (10-20 mg)
  • 11.  Folic acid is not biologically active  The active coenzyme forms of folic acid are  Tetrahydrofolic acid (FH4)  N5 methyl tetrahydrofolic acid (N5FH4)  N5,N10 methylene tetrahydrofolic acid  N10 formyl tetrahydrofolate(N10 formyl FH4)  N5 formimino tetrahydrofolate (N5 formimino FH4)
  • 12.  N5 formyl tetrahydrofolate (N5 formyl FH4)  N5,10 methenyl tetrahydrofolate N5,10 methenyl FH4)  N5 formyl THF -CHO  N10 formyl THF -CHO  N5 formimino THF -CH=NH  N5,N10 methenyl THF= CH  N5,N10 methylene THF =CH2  N5 methyl THF - CH3
  • 13.  The coenzymes of folic acid are actively involved in the one carbon metabolism  THF acts as an acceptor or donor of one carbon units (formyl, methyl etc.) in reactions involving amino acid & nucleotide metabolism  The one carbon units bind with THF at position N5 or N10 or on both N5 &N10 of pteroyl structure
  • 14.  Amino acid metabolism is important for transfer or exchange of one carbon units  The following one carbon fragments are involved in biological reactions  Methyl (-CH3)  Hydroxymethyl (-CH2OH)  Methylene (=CH2)  Methenyl (-CH=)  Formyl (-CH=O)  Formimino (-CH=NH)
  • 15.  THF is a versatile coenzyme actively participates in one carbon metabolism  Transfer of methyl groups from S- adenosylmethionine  B12 is also involved  The one carbon units covalently binds with THF at position N5 or N10 or on both N5 &N10 of pteroyl structure of folate
  • 16.  Many compounds particularly amino acids act as donors of one carbon units  The formate is released from glycine & tryptophan metabolism combines with THF to form N10 – formyl THF  Histidine contributes formimino fragment to produce N5 – formimino THF  Serine is converted to glycine, N5,N10 methylene THF is formed  This is most common entry of 1C units into one carbon pool
  • 17.  Choline contributes to the formation of N5 methyl THF  Different derivatives of THF carrying one carbon units are interconvertible, & this is metabolically significant for the continuity of one carbon pool Utilization of one carbon units  Utilized for synthesis of wide variety of compounds
  • 18.  These includes  Purines  Formylmithionine tRNA (initiation of protein synthesis)  Glycine  Pyrimidine nucleotide etc Role of methionine & vitamin B12  Methyl group is an important one carbon unit  Methionine is active donor of methyl groups in transmethylation reactions
  • 19.  After the release of methyl group, methionine is converted to homocysteine  For regeneration of methionine, homocysteine & N5-methyl THF are required & this reaction is dependent on Vitamin B12  The one carbon pool, under the control of THF, is linked with methionine metabolism through Vitamin B12
  • 20. Glycine Tryptophan Formate N10-Formyl THF Purine (C2) Histidine FIGLU N5-FormiminoTHF N5,N10-Methenyl THF Serine N5,N10-Methylene THF Choline Betaine N5 Methyl THF B12 Methionine S-Adenosyl Methionine Homocysteine CH3- Transmethylation Formylmethionine Purines (C8) Serine Thymidylate Major sources Major Products THF THF THF THF One Carbon Metabolism
  • 21.  Rich sources are green leafy vegetables such as spinach, cauliflower  Poor sources are liver, kidney, milk, fruits
  • 22. Men -100 µg/day Women -100 µg/day Pregnancy -400 µg/day Lactation -150 µg/day
  • 23.  Dietary deficiency is the most common cause of folic acid  Dietary deficiencies are caused by  Inadequate intake seen in alcoholics  Overcooking of food resulting in loss of folic acid activity  Impaired absorption due to small intestinal diseases,  Drugs interfere with folic acid absorption- sulfamethaxazole
  • 24.  Increased demand of folic acid seen in pregnancy  Hemolytic anemia  Hence folic acid preparations are prescribed in pregnancy &hemolytic anemia  Other causes  Loss of folic acid seen in patients undergoing dialysis  Impaired synthesis of active form seen in patients receiving folic acid antagonists such as methotrexate
  • 25.  Megaloblastic anemia characterized by hyperchromic macrocytic anemia (due to maturation bloked)  Magaloblastic changes are seen in bone marrow & mucosa  Patients look pale  Glossitis
  • 26.  Peripheral smear shows macrocytic hyperchromic anemia  Hypersegmentation of neutrophils is common
  • 27.  Bone marrow shows megaloblastic changes characterized by abnormally large size of erythroid cells with cytoplasmic maturation but impaired nuclear maturation due to defective DNA synthesis  Defective red cell production
  • 28.  Low plasma folic acid levels (<3ng/ml)  Low red cell folic acid levels (<150 ng/ml)  Normal plasma Vitamin B12 levels  Increased plasma LDH levels
  • 29.  FIGLU excretion test:-  Folic acid deficiency is associated with increased excretion of formiminoglutamate (FIGLU) in urine  Due to impaired conversion of FIGLU to glutamate in a reaction requiring FH4 Histidine FIGLU Formimino FH4 Histidine Glutamate FH4 FIGLU Formimino FH4 Glutamate FH4 Urine Folic acid deficiency
  • 30.  Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy helps to prevent neural tube defects  Mainly involved in brain & spinal cord  Science, folic acid involved in nucleic acid & amino acid metabolism  Deficiency results in impaired & aberrant neural development
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.  Homocysteine is a risk factor for CHD  Folic acid is required for conversion of homocysteine to methionine  Deficiency is associated with increased plasma levels of Homocysteine  Folic acid suplementation decreases plasma homocysteine levels  Homocysteine levels are also increased in Vitamin B12 & Pyridoxine deficiency
  • 35.
  • 36.  Aminopterin & Amethopterin (methotrexate)  Aminopterin & Amethopterin (methotrexate) competitevely inhibit the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase in humans  It impaires the formation of active form of tetrahydrofolate from dihydrofolate  Significance:-  During the conversion of deoxyuridylate to deoxythymidylate, dihydrofalate is formed, utilizes N5,10 methylene FH4
  • 37.  Deoxythymidylate is required for DNA synthesis  Folic acid antagonists will block DNA synthesis & inhibit cell division  Clinical uses:-  Aminopterin & Amethopterin (methotrexate) inhibit DNA synthesis in cancer cells  Used in treatment of cancer  Particularly leukemia & choriocarcinoma
  • 38.  It is a folic acid antagonist & it inhibits the bacterial dihydrofolate reductase  Thus impairs the deoxythymidylate synthesis leading to decreased synthesis of DNA  It is mainly used in bacterial infections
  • 39.
  • 40.  Harper’s Biochemistry 25th Edition.  Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry by Tietz.  Text Book of Medical Biochemistry-A R Aroor.  Text Book of Biochemistry-DM Vasudevan  Text Book of Biochemistry-MN Chatterjea  Text Book of Biochemistry-Dr.U.Satyanarana