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How STIs Influence
the Development of
Pelvic Inflammatory
Disease?
Wuhan Dr.Lee’s TCM Clinic
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection
affecting the female pelvic organs, including the
uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and surrounding
structures. PID can manifest as acute or chronic, with
varying degrees of severity. If untreated, PID can lead
to serious complications such as infertility, chronic
pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diseases
primarily spread through sexual contact. Common
STIs include gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV, genital herpes,
and human papillomavirus (HPV). These infections
can impact the reproductive system and other body
systems, posing significant health threats. Many
STIs are asymptomatic in the initial stages, making
detection difficult, delaying treatment, and
increasing transmission risk.
PID's occurrence is linked to various factors, with
sexual transmission being a primary pathway.
Studies indicate that approximately 75% of PID
cases are related to sexual activity, particularly due
to having multiple sexual partners, early sexual
activity, and not using contraceptives.
The most common pathogens causing PID are the
bacteria responsible for gonorrhea and Chlamydia
trachomatis infections. These STIs can ascend the
female reproductive tract to the pelvis, initiating
inflammatory responses.
Symptoms of STI-related PID include lower abdominal
pain, fever, tenderness in the affected areas,
peritoneal irritation, leukocytosis, and elevated
erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In chronic cases,
symptoms may be milder, manifesting as lower
abdominal discomfort or back pain. During acute
episodes, the pain can be severe, sometimes leading
to misdiagnoses such as acute appendicitis or ectopic
pregnancy.
Antibiotic Treatment: The primary treatment for PID
is antibiotics. Physicians select appropriate
antibiotic combinations based on the likely
pathogens. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse
until symptoms fully resolve and follow-up tests
confirm the infection is cured.
Treatment of Sexual Partners: If PID is caused by an
STI, the patient's sexual partners need to undergo
examination and treatment to prevent recurrence of
the infection.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Treatment:
Patients may opt for TCM treatments like the herbal
formula Fuyan Pill, which promotes blood circulation,
alleviates pain, and aids in the absorption and
resolution of inflammation in the pelvic region.
1. Maintain Hygiene: Both partners should prioritize
genital hygiene during sexual activity. While female
genital hygiene is crucial, male genital hygiene
should not be overlooked. Men should clean their
genital area thoroughly, using mild soap and
retracting the foreskin for a complete cleanse
before intercourse.
2. Regular Gynecological Examinations: Some
infections, such as HPV, can initially present without
obvious symptoms—up to 50% of HPV infections in
the cervix do not show significant symptoms early on.
Similarly, HIV can remain asymptomatic during its
incubation period while still being transmissible.
Annual gynecological exams, including Pap smears,
help detect infections and precancerous changes early.
3. Eliminate Infection Pathways: Keep the perineal
area clean and dry by washing the external
genitalia with clean water nightly. Use a personal
basin for washing, and avoid using hands to clean
the inside of the vagina. Do not use hot water or
soap for washing the external genitalia. Practice
effective contraception to minimize the need for
abortions, which can cause trauma. Ensure surgical
procedures are conducted under strict sterile
conditions to prevent pathogen introduction.
4. Practice Safe Sex: Avoid sexual intercourse during
menstruation, after abortions, and following
gynecological procedures such as intrauterine device
(IUD) insertion or removal. Vaginal bleeding during
these times increases infection risk. Avoid swimming,
bathing, or using saunas during these periods, and
change sanitary pads frequently to prevent bacterial
infections.
5. Increase Physical Activity: Regular exercise
enhances overall body resistance and maintains
good physical condition, effectively preventing the
decline in immune defenses that can lead to
infections.
If you have questions about your condition and
treatment, contact our experts. Most questions are
answered in 24 hours.
wuhandrli@gmail.com
herbalistlee@yahoo.com
wuhandrlee@hotmail.com

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How STIs Influence the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.pptx

  • 1. How STIs Influence the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease? Wuhan Dr.Lee’s TCM Clinic
  • 2. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection affecting the female pelvic organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and surrounding structures. PID can manifest as acute or chronic, with varying degrees of severity. If untreated, PID can lead to serious complications such as infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy.
  • 3. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diseases primarily spread through sexual contact. Common STIs include gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus (HPV). These infections can impact the reproductive system and other body systems, posing significant health threats. Many STIs are asymptomatic in the initial stages, making detection difficult, delaying treatment, and increasing transmission risk.
  • 4. PID's occurrence is linked to various factors, with sexual transmission being a primary pathway. Studies indicate that approximately 75% of PID cases are related to sexual activity, particularly due to having multiple sexual partners, early sexual activity, and not using contraceptives.
  • 5. The most common pathogens causing PID are the bacteria responsible for gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis infections. These STIs can ascend the female reproductive tract to the pelvis, initiating inflammatory responses.
  • 6. Symptoms of STI-related PID include lower abdominal pain, fever, tenderness in the affected areas, peritoneal irritation, leukocytosis, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In chronic cases, symptoms may be milder, manifesting as lower abdominal discomfort or back pain. During acute episodes, the pain can be severe, sometimes leading to misdiagnoses such as acute appendicitis or ectopic pregnancy.
  • 7. Antibiotic Treatment: The primary treatment for PID is antibiotics. Physicians select appropriate antibiotic combinations based on the likely pathogens. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse until symptoms fully resolve and follow-up tests confirm the infection is cured.
  • 8. Treatment of Sexual Partners: If PID is caused by an STI, the patient's sexual partners need to undergo examination and treatment to prevent recurrence of the infection. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Treatment: Patients may opt for TCM treatments like the herbal formula Fuyan Pill, which promotes blood circulation, alleviates pain, and aids in the absorption and resolution of inflammation in the pelvic region.
  • 9. 1. Maintain Hygiene: Both partners should prioritize genital hygiene during sexual activity. While female genital hygiene is crucial, male genital hygiene should not be overlooked. Men should clean their genital area thoroughly, using mild soap and retracting the foreskin for a complete cleanse before intercourse.
  • 10. 2. Regular Gynecological Examinations: Some infections, such as HPV, can initially present without obvious symptoms—up to 50% of HPV infections in the cervix do not show significant symptoms early on. Similarly, HIV can remain asymptomatic during its incubation period while still being transmissible. Annual gynecological exams, including Pap smears, help detect infections and precancerous changes early.
  • 11. 3. Eliminate Infection Pathways: Keep the perineal area clean and dry by washing the external genitalia with clean water nightly. Use a personal basin for washing, and avoid using hands to clean the inside of the vagina. Do not use hot water or soap for washing the external genitalia. Practice effective contraception to minimize the need for abortions, which can cause trauma. Ensure surgical procedures are conducted under strict sterile conditions to prevent pathogen introduction.
  • 12. 4. Practice Safe Sex: Avoid sexual intercourse during menstruation, after abortions, and following gynecological procedures such as intrauterine device (IUD) insertion or removal. Vaginal bleeding during these times increases infection risk. Avoid swimming, bathing, or using saunas during these periods, and change sanitary pads frequently to prevent bacterial infections.
  • 13. 5. Increase Physical Activity: Regular exercise enhances overall body resistance and maintains good physical condition, effectively preventing the decline in immune defenses that can lead to infections.
  • 14. If you have questions about your condition and treatment, contact our experts. Most questions are answered in 24 hours. wuhandrli@gmail.com herbalistlee@yahoo.com wuhandrlee@hotmail.com