scurvy phenylketonuria infantile scurvy functions of vitamin c fuel demand quaternary structure of hemoglobin favors its func constituent amino acids of triple stranded helix s mechanism of cation exchange in ion exchange chrom metabolism of thiamine activation of thiamine to thiamine phosphate structure and chemistry of thiamine deficiency manifestations of vitamin b complex coenzyme forms and functions of vitamin b complex functions of kidney functions of zinc disposal of ammonia obesity purification of dna-protein biotinylated probes in pcr diagnostic applification of fish western blotting southern blotting northern blotting in situ hybridization biotinylated probe signal amplification by biotin-avidin complex i technological applications of biotin antagonist causes and symptoms of biotin deficiency multiple carboxylase deficiency biotindase deficiency deficiency manifestations of biotin mechanism of biotin-dependent carboxylation metabolism of biotin structure of biotin potential adverse effects of megadose of vitamin c toxicity of scurvy therapeutic use of vitamin c hemosiderin accumulation in scurvy diagnosis of scurvy clinical manifestions of infantile scurvy internal hemorrhage in scrvy hemorrhagic tendency in scurvy radiological features of scurvy clinical manifestations of scurvy symptoms of scurvy causes of scurvy therapeutic use of scurvy hypoxia inducible factor anti-oxidant activity of vitamin c vitamin c interpretative microscopic urinalysis biochemical tests for detection of urinary sulpha urinary cholesterol crystals morner’s test for detection of urinary tyrosine cr urinary tyrosine and leucine crystals urinary cystine crystals calcium oxalate renal crystals management of uric acid renal stones substances present in renal stones formation of urinary calculi predisposing factors for renal stones formation characteristic of urinary calculi clinical significance of urinary crystals unorganized deposits in urine renal calculi and renal conditions broad classification of urinary sediments clinical importance of microscopic examination of procedure for the microscopic examination of urine precautions for the microscopic examination of the microscopic examination of urine myoglobinuria hematuria and hemoglobinuria porphyria porphyrins and porphobilinogen tests for urinary bile pigments bile salts in urine salicylates in urine ketonuria glycosuria reducing substances in urine signs and symptoms of amino aciduria amino aciduria micro albuminuria bence jones proteins urinary protein creatinine ratio tamma horsefall protein proteinuria sources of urinary protein urinalysis for abnormal constituents urinary ethereal sulfate urinary amylase urinary phosphate excretion urinary calcium excretion urinary chloride acid-base balance ammonia in urine chemical examination of urine physical examination of urine preservative for urine analysis specimen collection for urinalysis urinalysis for normal organic constituent urinalysis for normal inorganic constituent urinary acid load test osmolality in response to response to adh urine dilution test urineconcentration test tests for assessment of tubular functions early symptoms of kidney failure para amino hippuric acid diodrast tests determining renal blood flow cystatin c azotemia diagnostic importance of serum uric acid classification of kidney function tests biochemical kidney function tests with their clini nutrigenomics drug and nutrient interactions nutrification nutritional status and clinical practice nutraceuticals and their therapeutic use nutraceuticals therapeutic diets safety aspects of enteral nutrition cautious use of tpn indication for total parenteral nutrition routes for nutritional support total parenteral nutrition(tpn) fungal micro-organisms as food toxicants pathogenic bacterial organisms as food toxicants micro-organisms as food contaminants toxic effects of chemicals as food contaminants toxic effects of metals as food contaminants naturally occurring food toxicants food toxins and additives food toxicants dietary advice in diseases special diet in diseases dietary advice in inborn errors of metabolism management of wilson's diease management of cirrhosis management of zinc deficiency management of iodine deficiency management of anaemia nutritional anaemia management of acid base imbalance management of potassium imbalance management of sodium imbalance management of water imbalance oral hypoglycaemic agents for diabetes type 2 dietary management of diabetes type 1 nutritional management of clinical disorders harris benedict equation for calorie requirement nutritional daily requirements in elderly objectives of nutrition in elderly food exchange system steps to identify calorie requirement sequence in prescription of diet basis of balanced diet balanced diet factors affecting recommended dietary allowance recommended daily dietary allowance prescription of diet manifestations of toxicity of micro minerals deficiency manifestations of micro minerals nutritional importance of micro minerals deficiency manifestations of macro minerals nutritional importance of macro minerals dietary sources of macro minerals dietary sources of micro minerals nutritional importance of vitamin b complex deficiency manifestations of fat soluble vitamins functions of fat soluble vitamins dietary sources of ascorbic acid dietary sources of vitamin b complex nutritional importance of vitamins and minerals cachexia comparison of marasmus and kwashiorkor principles of management of pem clinical manifestation of marasmus clinical manifestations of kwashiorkor protein energy malnutrition limiting amino acids chemical score of dietary protein protein efficiency ratio of dietary proteins net protein utilisation of dietary protein biological value of dietary protein assessment of nutritional values of proteins factors affecting nitrogen balance nitrogen balance nutritional importance of proteins sleep and obesity inflammation in obesity non esterified fatty acids and obesity retinol binding protein and obesity resistin and obesity tumor necrosis factor alpha and obesity omentin functions of adiponectin adiponectin and obesity gherlin and obesity neuropeptide y and obesity functions of leptin leptin as a control mechanism of obesity adipose tissue talks to brain through factors obesity and health risk metabolic syndrome and obesity secondary causes of obesity primary causes of obesity body mass index recommended daily dietary intake of fat cholesterol content of blood items cholesterol and heart diseases nutritional importance of cholesterol trans fatty acids omega fatty acids deficiency manifestation of essential fatty acids functions of essential fatty acids dietary sources of essential fatty acids essential fatty acids nutritional sources of fatty acids nutritional importance of fatty acids functions of phospholipids functions of triglycerides nutritional functions of lipids nutritional importance of lipids nutritional aspects of lipids significance of bmr factors affecting bmr indirect calorimetry normal values of bmr procedure for measurement of bmr preparation of subject for measurement of bmr basal functions energy requirements of a normal person basal metabolic rate diet for patients with diabetes mellitus nutritional importance of glycemic index glycemic index high fructose corn syrup adverse effects of dietary fibres importance of dietary fibres activity of dietary fibres in git biochemical nature of dietary fibres sources of dietary fibres in nutrtiiion carbohydrates for vegetarians and non vegetarian sucrose as a source of energy starch as a source of energy carbohydrate content of dietary sources sources of carbohydrates nutritional importance of carbohydrates energy requirement for a medical student calculation of energy requirement during moderate energy requirement during physical activity physical activity physical activity of human body and nutrition significance of specific dynamic action mechanism of specific dynamic action specific dynamic action of mixed diet specific dynamic action of carbohydrates specific dynamic action of lipids specific dynamic action of proteins thermogenic effect of food specific dynamic action and nutrition energy requirement of normal person energy source in main storage tissue total heat production energy compounds preferred by organs clinical significance of respiratory quotient method of determination of respiratory quotient rq respiratory quotient of nutrients combining stem cells and gene therapy gene transfer by plasmid liposome vectors gene therapy biochemical tests measuring tubular functions tubular functions of kidney glomerular dysfunctions of kidney common biochemical tests to assess kidney function normal daily excretion of solutes normal composition of urine calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rat estimated glomerular filtration rate egfr conditions associated with decreased glomerular fi glomerular filtration rate gfr tests for measuring glomerular filtration factors affecting glomerular filtration glomerular filtration endocrine functions of the kidney the formation of urine various ways of glomerular filtration structure and functions of kidney functions of components of nephron of kidney nephron as the functional unit of kidney capping at 5’end of primary transcript post transcriptional modifications of inactive pri post transcriptional modifications of heterogenous post transcriptional modification of eukaryotic rr comparison of post transcriptional modifications o ribozymes in eukaryotes mechanism of intrinsic termination of transcriptio process of elongation of transcription in eukaryot formation of preinitiation complex pic transcription factors tf of in eukaryotes role of silencer of transcription in eukaryotes dysregulation of myc gene and leukemia dysregulation of myc gene and burkitt lymphoma cancer and enhancers of transcription in eukaryote silent features of enhancers of transcription in e locations of enhancer sequences components of rna polymerase ii promoter upstream regulatory element ure in eukaryotes silent features of eukaryotic promoter region comparison of eukaryotic rna polymerases used in t autonomously replicating sequence types and functions of eukaryotic dna polymerases eukaryotic dna replication role of tus ter in termination of dna replication termination of dna replication in prokaryotes proofreading function of dna polymerases nick translation mechanism of action of ligase in dna replication functions of dna ligase elongation of dna replication in prokaryotes initiation of dna replication in prokaryotes dna polymerases in e. coli primosome the primer functions and mechanism of action of topoisomerase functions of single binding proteins ssb in dna re functions of helicases in dna replication proteins involved in initiation of dna replication functions of deoxy-ribonucleic acids the central dogma of molecular biology recent trends in study of higher level of protein use of a peptide map in determining a mutation in finger printing method ingham's technique ordering peptide fragments by establishing overlap advantages of edman's reagent over sanger’s reagen 4 dinitro benzene fdnb and edman’s reagent pheny comparison of sanger’s reagent 1-fluoro-2 schematic representation of edman’s degradation pr edman’s degradation method for determination of am determination of primary structure of each peptide side specific hydrolysis of polypeptide chain usi detection of n-terminal amino acid of a polypeptid schematic representation for identification of c-t identification of n -terminal and c-terminal amino acid and alkali hydrolysis of polypeptide chains f solubilizing agents for proteins dansyl chloride in determination of the number of steps for determining the primary structure of pro determination of structure of proteins role of chaperones in protein folding diseases associated with amyloidosis due to protei protein misfolding in amyloidosis oxphos oxidative phosphorylation diseases a model for the formation of infectious prions prion diseases due to protein misfolding schematic diagram of fibrin clot formation from fi structure –function relationship of fibrinogen comparison of primary structure of collagen and el desmosine connective tissue proteins clinical applications of degradation of collagen s protein structure-function relationship of menke’s structure function relationship of c–peptide and i amino acid substitution in primary structure of hu protein structure-function relationship in myoglob quaternary structure of enzyme carbonic anhydrase disordered region of enzyme and its importance structure-function relationship of clinically impo clinical manifestations of ehlers-danlos syndrome types of ehlers danlos syndrome abnormalities associated with collagen synthesis genetic aspects of collagen synthesis collagen and calcific aortic valve stenosis cavs functions of collagen structural modification of collagen during its syn biosynthesis of collagen skin collagen containing tissue covalent cross-links in collagen fibers forces stabilizing triple helical secondary struct tropocollagen molecule arrangement of tropocollagen molecules in collagen collagen molecules in collagen fibers structure of collagen type 1 types of collagen arrangements of collagen fibers in cartilage of bo triple stranded helix structure of collagen biochemical and clinical aspects of collagen domains of globular proteins immunoglobulins and p alteration of keratin structure in hair waving biochemical aspects of hair curling waving  and -conformation of keratin in hair waving hair styling dressing importance of disulphide bonds of keratin structur tertiary structure of proteins protein motifs super secondary structures of proteins disordered region and its importance parallel and anti-parallel beta- pleated sheet comparison of alpha-helix and beta-pleated sheet characteristics of beta-pleated sheet right and left-handed alpha-helix characteristics of alpha-helix characteristics of primary structure of proteins four levels of protein structure electrophoresis apparatus schematic diagram of horizontal strip electrophore schematic diagram for separation of proteins using comparison of types of supporting media of zone el classification of electrophoresis based on the mod components of high performance liquid chromatograp principle and instrumentation high performance liq principle and technique of affinity chromatography schematic diagram for steps of separation of prote comparison of anion and cation exchanger resins us principle of thin layer chromatography technique f two dimensional chromatography for separation of p ascending and descending paper chromatography for classification chromatography for separation of pr maker enzymes to check purity of subcellular fract separation of subcellular organelles protein facti schematic diagram of gel filtration schematic diagram for full saturation and half sat properties of proteins used for their separation applications for separation of proteins purified successive stages complete hydrolytic decompositio functions of globular proteins diagrammatic representation of fibrous and globula classification of proteins aspartame synthetic peptide applications of artificially synthesized peptides gastrin and secretin functions of angiotensin vasopressin adh nonapeptide maintains osmotic pres function of oxytocin in induction of labor bradykinin and kallikrein biologically important enkephalins and endorphin trh and tsh as biologically important tripeptides role of glutathione in prevention of alzheimer's d functions of glutathione camosine and anserine biologically important peptides properties of proteins chemistry of proteins with their clinical applicat clinical features and management for aminoaciduria separation of amino acids using paper electrophore gel filtration for amino acid determination chemical properties of amino acids acid-base behavior of amino acids non-standard amino acids used as drugs non-standard amino acids biologically important amino acid derivatives role of amino acids formation of biogenic amines i functions of amino acids selenocysteine classification of amino acids chemistry of amino acids with their clinical appli function of fad linked xanthine oxidase in degrada management of primary hyperoxaluria oxaluria and urolithiasis in primary hyperoxaluria function fad dependent glycine transaminase in per biochemical characteristics of primary hyperoxalur glycine metabolism in primary hyperoxaluria function of fad linked monoamine oxidase (mao) in clinical features of carcinoid syndrome fad linked monoamine oxidase in degradation of dop clinical features of pheochromocytoma excretory products formed from metabolic degradati metabolism of catecholamines function of fad dependent monoamine oxidase (mao) neuroendocrine function of fad linked mao in catab function of fad as a prooxidant in beta oxidation coenzyme role of fad in alpha keto acid dehydrogen enzymes dependent on coenzyme fmn and fad metabolism of riboflavin in pregnancy and lactatio regulation of metabolic interconversion of ribofla riboflavin vitamin b2 flavoproteins and their clin microcytic impaired function of alpha ketoglutarate dehydrog impaired function of pyruvate dehydrogenase comple coenzyme role of thiamine pyrophosphate recommended dietary allowance (rda)of thiamine dietary sources of thiamine properties of thiamine sulphur containing vitamins specific deficiency manifestations of vitamin b co generalized deficiency manifestations of vitamin b conditions associated with increased of dietary re recommended daily allowance (rda) of b complex vit aleurone layer of cereals as dietary source of b dietary sources of b complex vitamins properties of b complex vitamins thiamine and biochemical aspects of beriberi biochemical changes in thiamine deficiency infantile beriberi dry beriberi wet beriberi gastrointestinal manifestations in thiamine defici neurological manifestations in thiamine deficiency cardiac failure in thiamine deficiency thiamine deficiency and alpha keto acid dehydrogen thiamine deficiency and transketolases in hexose m thiamine deficiency and alpha ketoglutarate dehydr thiamine deficiency and biochemical changes in pyr recommended dietary allowance of thiamine (vitami deficiency manifestation of vitamin b complex biochemical manifestations of vitamin b complex de thiamine and beriberi biochemical findings for diagnosis of siadh arterial natriuretic factor in sodium and water h biochemical findings in sodium depletion enzyme multiplied immunoassay emit immunohistochemistry verses immuno-fluorescence direct and indirect immunostaining immunohistochemical staining of human endometrium immunocytochemistry direct and indirect immunofluorescence immunofluorescence in elisa the results can be read visually pregna applications of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay advantages of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay signal amplification by biotin avidin complex in e competitive elisa single antibody method double antibody technique to detect antigen sandwi indirect technique to detect antibody types of elisa color complex formation in elisa polystyrene multi well titer plates for elisa enzymes of elisa technique of elisa principle of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay hypochlorhydria hyperchlorhydria achlorhydria management of cystic fibrosis diagnosis of cystic fibrosis clinical consequences of cystic fibrosis pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis cystic fibrosis comparison of hyperchloremia and hypochloremia disorders of chloride metabolism absorption and excretion of chloride chloride shift in pulmonary capillaries chloride shift in systemic capillaries secretion of chloride by parietal cells chloride in activation of pepsinogen functions of chloride as hcl role of chloride in gastric acid chloride ion and anion gap chloride metabolism functions of chloride water balance in the body water output through feces water output from lungs water output through skin hormonal regulation of excretion of urine water output from the human body antidiuretic hormone thirst center regulation of water content in the human body endogenous water sources exogenous sources of water to the human body in ba comparison of ecf and icf daily water transfer in human body weight contribution by water in the human tissue splanchnic and central compartments related with sources of water to the human body in balanced sta trans vascular fluids distribution of water in a human body functions of water management of hyperkalemia based on ecg changes management of hyperkalemia based on its severity management of hyperkalemia ecg changes in hyperkalemia clinical symptoms of hyperkalemia causes of hyperkalemia interventions for hypokalemia based on serum pot management of hypokalemia ecg changes in hypokalemia clinical symptoms of hypokalemia causes of hypokalemia disorders of potassium metabolism role of kidney in homoeostasis of potassium potassium ions transport across the cell membrane role of gastrointestinal tract in homoeostasis of homoeostasis of potassium by transcellular movemen homoeostasis of potassium metabolism of potassium functions of potassium (k⁺ ) in human body dietary sources of potassium invitro function of vitamin e recommended dietary allowance of vitamin e -tocopherol to pufa ratio retrolental fibroplasia (rlf) causes of vitamin e deficiency chemistry of vitamin e absorption transport storage of vitamin e vitamin e and its clinical applications free radicals target polyunsaturated fatty acid tocopherol content of fat and fat products biochemical functions of vitamin e related with metabolism of vitamin e symptoms of vitamin e deficiency biochemical functions of vitamin e related to se reference intervals of vitamin e catabolism of vitamin e dietary sources of vitamin e biochemical functions of vitamin e tissue with high oxygen consumption and vitamin e properties of vitamin e osteocalcin and vitamin k metabolism absorption and transport of vitamin k vitamin k dependent carboxylation of the precursor comparison of types of vitamin k deficiency of vitamin k factors of blood coagulation dependent on vitamin hemorrhagic disease of newborns and deficiency of functions of vitamin k vitamin k and its clinical applications chemistry of vitamin k vitamin k dependent carboxylase organ dependent on calcium binding protein and vi clinical manifestation of deficiency of vitamin k morawitz theory of blood coagulation properties of vitamin k mechanism of action of vitamin k and warfarin in dietary sources of vitamin k for vegetarians and fetal warfarin syndrome causes and consequences of deficiency of vitamin k vitamin k cycle in carboxylation reactions mechanism of action of vitamin d and a steroid dietary requirement of vitamin d target organs of vitamin d –bone intestine and absorption & transport of vitamin d molecular mechanism of vitamin d3 characteristics of 25 hydroxylase and 1 hydroxyla similarities between vitamin d and a steroid hormo dietary sources of vitamin d metabolism and effects of vitamin d activation of vitamin d animal and plant by uv lig action of vitamin d in target organ – intestin comparison between calcitriol and calcitonin 24 25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol synthesis of vitamin d biochemical changes induced by vitamin d during action of vitamin d in target organ bone osteobl synthesis of calcium binding protein by vitamin d comparison of 25 hydroxylase and 1 hydroxylase essential structural characteristics of provitamin vitamin d and its clinical applications xeropthalmia dietary sources of vitamin a for vegetarian and no night blindness nyctalopia classification of vitamins vitamin a and its clinical applications biochemical changes in cone cells for color vision recommended daily allowance of vitamin a wald’ s visual cycle absorption storage transport of vitamin a visual cascade involving bleaching of rhodopsin b- complex vitamins biosynthesis of vitamin a (retinol) from beta caro keratomalacia deficiency manifestations of vitamin a dietary sources of vitamin a chemistry of vitamin a retinoids visual cascade involving cyclic guanosine monophos properties of vitamin a role of vitamin a in color vision selenosis functions of selenium keshan disease selenium absorption and excretion selenium as an anti -oxidant serum selenium levels function of selenocysteine dietary sources of selenium wilson's syndrome management of copper toxicity copper metabolism symptoms copper toxicity role of atpase in copper metabolism menkes disease hemochrombtosis role of copper in iron metabolism excretion of iron triad associated with iron toxicity dietary sources of iron dietary requirement of iron iron toxicity absorption and transport of iron occurrence of iron in human body conservation of iron in human body hemosiderosis diagnosis of hemosiderosis biochemical functions of iron control of iron homeostasis by hepcidin homeostasis of phosphorous daily dietary requirement of phosphorus different forms of phosphorous in human body acidosis and phosphorous metabolism functions of phosphorous zinc as an antioxidant zinc and rna polymerase zinc and insulin storage comparison of zinc toxicity and deficiency causes and symptoms of zinc deficiency dietary sources of zinc symptoms of zinc toxicity normal serum zinc levels chaperon proteins and zinc symptoms of magnesium deficiency magnesium metabolism magnesium rich food daily dietary requirement of magnesium hypomagnesemia causes of magnesium deficiency functions of magnesium daily dietary requirement of calcium i pth tetany vitamin d role of calcium in insulin secretion factors regulating blood calcium levels osteoporosis functions of calcium calcium homoestasis absorption of calcium hypercalcemia factors affecting calcium absorption heme synthesis thalasemmia porphyria' differential diagnosis of jaundice classification of jaundice anemia heme degradation sickle cell anaemia isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase enzymes indicated in heart diseases clinical significance of enzymes comparison of isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase physio-chemical properties of isoenzymes properties and diagnostic uses of enzymes enzymes indicated in kidney diseases enzymes indicated in bone diseases enzyme units enzymology clinical significance of enzymes & isoe enzymes indicated in muscle diseases comparison between functional plasma enzymes and therapeutic uses of enzymes principle and clinical significance of alanine tra principle and clinical significance of aspartate t factors affecting enzyme estimations enzymes indicated in prostrate diseases conditions associated with significant elevation i techniques for estimation of enzymes enzymes indicated liver diseases irreversible inhibition inhibition of neurotransmission at synaptic juncti neurotransmission at synaptic junction by neurotra dfp – inhibits serine proteases di isopropyl fluorophosphate(dfp ) competitive and non-competitive enzyme inhibition allosteric regulation allosteric inhibitor alloste irreversible inhibition of enzymes with sh group - malathione – insecticide irreversible enzyme inhibition types of enzyme inhibition reversible enzyme inhibition cyanide iodoacetamide allosteric regulation change of three dimensional fluoride bal –british anti levisite- antidote for heavy m classification of enzyme inhibition enzymology :types of enzyme inhibition & therapeut irreversible inhibition of acetyl choline esterase absolute specificity of enzymes substrate structural features active site of chymotrypsin positioning site catalytic site active site specificity of fumarase & aspartase enzymology enzyme specificity-types & applications mapping of enzyme active site enzyme structural features applications of enzyme specificity lock & key hypothesis of enzyme specificity hydrolysis of peptide bonds by chymotrypsin rigid & geometrical specificity types of enzyme specificity broad specificity of trypsin broad specificity of enzymes michaelis menten equation enzymology factors affecting enzyme activity& kine optimum temperature for most body enzymes rate enhancement by enzymes factors affecting enzyme activity p h factors affecting enzyme activity concentration of factors affecting enzyme activity presence of oxi enzyme kinetics feed back inhibition energy diagram for chemical reaction line weavers burk equation-double reciprocal graph energy diagram of chemical reaction factors affecting enzyme activity temperature quotient 10 q10 clinical applications of enzyme concentration as a activation energy for catalyzed & unanalyzed reac importance of michaelis menten equation inborn errors of metabolism list of factors affecting enzyme activity isomerases transferases serum glutamate pyruvate transaminas definition of enzyme transferases serum glutamate oxaloacetate transam history of enzymes oxido-reductases enzymology: properties & classification ligases naming of enzyme six classes of enzymes invertase classification of enzymes ( iub ) lyases aldolases intracellular enzymes nonfunctional plasma enzym hydrolases properties of enzymes synthesis of arginosuccinate in urea cycle synthesis of citrulline in urea cycle types of carbomoyl phosphate synthtase -cps i & cp renal failure uremia characteristics of urea synthesis ureotelic cleavage of arginosuccinate in urea cycle urea end of protein metabolism metabolism of urea in renal failure aspartate & fumarate link urea cycle & tca cycle formation & clinical significance of urea ammonitelic synthesis of carbomoyl phosphate in urea cycle by sites of synthesis of intermediates of urea cycle sources of atoms of urea molecule carbomoyl phosphate synthtase -cps i of urea cycle uricotelic formation of urea from arginine in urea cycle sources and fate of blood urea nitrogen(bun ) role of glycine in synthesis of cysteine glycine metabolism arginine glycine & methionine (sam) involved syn role of thf in glycine metabolism and ammonia syn clinical significance creatine & creatinine functions of glycine in detoxification by conjuga functions of glycine in synthesis of glutathione functions of glycine in biosynthesis of creatine degradation of glycine to ammonia &co2 functions of glycine in formation of purine ring functions of glycine in collagen synthesis functions of glycine synthesis of glycine from glyoxalate synthesis of glycine from serine role of glycine biosynthesis of molecules metabolic disorders of glycine glycine links many metabolic pathways & biomolecul synthesis of glycine from threonine functions of glycine in synthesis of heme degradation of glycine chemical reaction involved in determination of sap iodine number of butter adulterated with groundnut toad skin disease---phrynoderma-deficiency of pufa the analysis of reichert –meissl number soybean oil & lard definition & significance saponification number iodine number of different fat/oils indicating de degree of unsaturation predict size of /chain length of constituent fatt comparison of saponification number of palm oil & biological value –energy yield of fat comparison of iodine number & saponification numbe average molecular size of constituent fatty acids content of unsaturated fatty acids biochemical tests for purity of fats & oils significance of characterization of fats &oils to check adulteration content of volatile fatty acids of butter definition & significance reichert –meissl numb definition & significance iodine number comparison of synthesis of glutamate & glutamine inter relation of alpha –ketoglutarate(α kga ) synthesis of gaba from glutamate /glutamine transport of amino group :glucose & alanine cycle glutamate & glutamine glutamine linking of aspartate glutamine & asparagine aspartate & asparagine :linking of tca with urea c aspartate links tca cycle with urea cycle aspartate as source of nitrogen atom in urea molec formation and fate of glutamate & glutamine aspartate & asparagine oaa -linking of carbohydrate metabolism with prote functions of aspartate & asparagine transamination-aspartate & glutamate entry of glutamate into tca cycle via alpha –k metabolism of glutamate malate –aspartate shuttle role of glutamine & aspartate in synthesis of pyr fate of amino acids in human body diagnosis of phenylketonuria-guthrie test diagnosis of phenylketonuria phenylketonuria-& chromosome 12 phenylketonuria & mental retardation homogentisate oxidase & phenylketonuria biochemical classification of phenylketonuria phenylketonuria- urinary excretion of metabolites phenyl alanine & growth of e.coli phenylketonuria-defective hormone synthesis symptoms of phenylketonuria phenylketonuria & serotonin biochemical tests for phenylketonuria phenylketonuria- mousy odor of urine phenylketonuria & central nervous system hypopigmentation causes of phenylalanine 1. genetic mutation of ph metabolism of phenyl alanine & tyrosine phenylketonuria-defective melanin synthesis inheritance of phenylketonuria site & purpose of oxidative deamination definition of deamination glutamate dehydrogenase significance of ast:alt ratio non- oxidative deamination histidine transdeamination role of transamination in amino acid metabolism regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) entry points of amino acids in tca cycle role of pyridoxal phosphate in transamination reactions catalyzed by sgot and sgpt definition & clinical significance of transaminati transamination & deamination non- oxidative deamination by de sulphhydratases oxidative deamination by glutamate dehydrogenase ( overview of glutamate &glutamine metabolism oxidative deamination of amino acid oxidases (l-am mechanism of transamination non- oxidative deamination fate of carbon skeletons of amino acids sources of ammonia formation of ammonia types of hyperammonemmia & defective enzyme a comp transport & storage of ammonia metabolism of ammonia symptoms of hyperammonemia causes of hyperammonemia toxicity of ammonia functions of ammonia comparison of cardiac markers serum lactate dehydrogenase (ldh ) atherosclerosis the modifiable risk factors of ca iso enzymes of creatinine phosphokinase (cpk)prec cardiac profile tests :c reactive protein ( crp ) cardiac troponin i &t coronary emboli of various nature from diffirent s homocystein as a cardiac marker cardiac troponins coronary atheroma comparison between cardiac troponin i & troponin t cardiac biomarker :iso-enzymes of lactate dehydrog non-modifiable risk factors of cardiac diseases serum creatinine phosphor kinase (cpk ) serum apartate amino transferase (ast ) classification of cardiac profile tests precipitation factors of ihd –ischaemic heart di clinical manifestation causes of homocysteinuria myoglobin (mb ) sources and utilization of cholesterol bds transport of cholesterol utilization of cholesterol excretion of cholesterol (only one way ) site of cholestrol biosynthesis cholesterol metabolism biosynthesis of cholesterol –reactions involved utilization of cholesterol for synthesis of vita utilization of cholesterol -synthesis of steroid h cholesterol lowering drugs limiting enzymes: hmg coa reductase . clinical sig lcat ( lecithin –cholesterol acyl tranferase) regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis importance of anion gap in detection of metabolic hco³⁻ reabsorption and nh ₃ production pco₂ ratio involved imidazole group histidine of hemoglobin biochemical mechanisms of acid-base balance an glutaminase and glycine oxidase in ammonia mechanism in kidney concentration of k⁺ in icf (intracellular fluid) front line defense l- amino acid oxidase importance of glutaminase role renal mechanism during acidosis and alkalosis ratio comparison of buffering action of hemoglobin verse second line defense (kidney) and dilution factor i urinary anion gap as indicator of effective renal ammonia mechanism phosphate mechanism advantages and disadvantages of bicarbonate bu basic concepts of buffers & their types molecular mechanismv metabolism of xenobiotic (detoxification) by oxid definition of detoxification hydrolysis& conjugation characteristics of cytochrome p450& its mode of a detoxification of endogenous & exogenous toxic su reduction chemistry of carbohydrates digestion & absorption of carbohydrates phospholipid chemistry & lipid storage diseases ethanol metabolism metar atherosclerosis triglycerol metabolism cancer biochemistry ketosis & management fructose metabolism galactose metabolism blood glucose regulation
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