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IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
Molecular Breeding for Development of
Biofortified Maize Hybrids in India
Firoz Hossain
Maize Programme Leader
ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
Malnutrition: Global status
• 2 billion people are malnourished worldwide.
• 815 million people are undernourished worldwide.
• Children (<5 yrs): 151 million stunted. while 51 million
wasted, and 17 million severely wasted.
• Malnutrition contributes to loss in 11% GDP in Asia and
Africa.
Source: Global Nutrition Report-2017
UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group - Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates-2018
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Stunting WastingOver-weight
Fe, Zn & Vitamin-A deficiency
Source: www.harvestplus.org
Anemia in infants and children
Vitamin A deficiency in pre-school children
Severity of Zn deficiency
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Loss in GDP due to malnutrition
Source: www.harvestplus.org
$16
$1
$1 invested in proven nutrition programme offers
benefits worth $16 (IFPRI 2016)
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Source: IFPRI, 2016
• Global community committed to a new set of objectives in 2015
• 17 goals anchor the global development agenda till 2030.
• Core is to eliminate extreme poverty, hunger, and malnutrition.
• 12 of the 17 goal-indicators related to nutrition
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Maize – As a source of livelihood
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Regions Area Production Productivity
World 187 mha 1060 mt 5.67 t/ha
Asia 63 mha 324mt 5.14 t/ha
India 9.5 mha 24.3 mt 2.45 t/ha
 Important source of food and
nutritional security in the developing
world, especially in Africa and Latin
America.
 Maize together with rice and wheat
provides at least 30% of the food
calories to more than 4.5 billion people
in 94 developing countries.
 By 2050, the demand for maize in the
developing world will be doubled.
FAOSTAT 2016
Utilization of maize in India
Journey of maize biofortification in IndiaJourney of maize biofortification in IndiaDivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
1957
1997
2001
2005
2007
2010
2017
1971
1998
2004
2006
2008
2013
AICRP-Maize
Hard o2
Composite (1):
Shakti-1
First QPM
Hybrid (1):
Shaktiman-1
QPM
Hybrid (1):
HQPM-1
QPM
Hybrid (1):
HQPM-5
QPM
Hybrid (1):
HQPM-4
Soft o2
Composites (3):
Shakti
Rattan
Protina
1998
AMBIONET
QPM hybrid (1):
Shaktiman-2
QPM
Hybrids (2):
Shaktiman-3,
Shaktiman-4
QPM
Hybrid (1):
HQPM-7
MAS-QPM
Hybrid (1):
Vivek QPM-9
QPM hybrids (2):
Pratap QPM-1,
Shaktiman-5
MAS-ProA
Hybrid (1):
Pusa VQ9 Imp
MAS-QPM
hybrids (3):
Pusa HM4 Imp
Pusa HM8 Imp
Pusa HM9 Imp
99hybrids : 84 normal, 14 QPM, 1 ProA
94 conventionally bred, 5 MAS-bred
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
• Identified for release
for commercial
cultivation in zone I &
IV; notified in 2008
from CVRC
• Released for
commercial
cultivation by the
State Varietal Release
Committee of
Uttarakhand in 2007
30% lysine
40% tryptophan
First MAS-based hybrid released in 2008
QPM hybrid released in 2017
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Pusa HM4 Improved: MAS-based hybrid
North Western Plain Zone
(NHZ):
Punjab, Haryana, Delhi,
Uttarakhand (Plain), UP
(Western region)
Characters AQH4
% tryptophan 0.91
% lysine 3.62
Avg. grain yield
(kg/ha)
6419
Potential yield (kg/ha) 8568
Duration (75% dry
husk)
87
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Peninsular Zone (PZ):
Maharashtra, Karnataka,
AP, Telangana &TN
Characters AQH8
% tryptophan 1.06
% lysine 4.18
Avg. grain yield
(kg/ha)
6258
Potential yield (kg/ha) 9261
Duration (75% dry
husk)
95
QPM hybrid released in 2017
Pusa HM8 Improved: MAS-based hybrid
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
North Eastern Plain Zone
(NEPZ):
Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha,
UP (Eastern region), West
Bengal
Characters AQH9
% tryptophan 0.68
% lysine 2.97
Avg. grain yield
(kg/ha)
5201
Potential yield (kg/ha) 7408
Duration (75% dry
husk)
89
QPM hybrid released in 2017
Pusa HM9 Improved: MAS-based hybrid
Grain yield in QPM and NormalGrain yield in QPM and Normal
hybridshybrids
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
AICRP-2016
New mutant:New mutant: opaque16opaque16
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
• A recessive mutant
• Located on chromosome 8
• Gene is not cloned
• Not available in Indian
germplasm
Dr. Wenpeng Yang, GAAS, China
4F1:
CIMMYT inbred x Chinese inbred
Development of novelDevelopment of novel o16o16o16o16 inbredsinbreds
Normal o16o16 F2 populationsx
CML533 x o16o16
umc1149
CML533 x o16o16
umc1149
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
S. No. Pedigree Genotype
% Lysine in sample % Tryptophan in sample
Range Mean Range Mean
1. CML533 ×
QCL3024
o16o16 0.111-0.376 0.269 0.027-0.117 0.074
Wild type 0.097-0.197 0.134 0.034-0.055 0.044
2. CML537 ×
QCL3024
o16o16 0.128-0.317 0.223 0.032-0.108 0.069
Wild type 0.107-0.124 0.117 0.010-0.045 0.026
o16o16 o16o16 o16o16 o16o16
Effects ofEffects of opaque16opaque16
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
o2o2-soft Normal o2o2-modified (QPM)
o2o2/o16o16 o16o16 o16o16
Normal o2o2-soft o2o2-modified (QPM) o16o16 o2o2/o16o16
S. No Hybrid Parentage Area of adaptation
1. HQPM-1 HKI193-1 × HKI163 Across country
2. HQPM-4 HKI193-2 × HKI161 Across country
3. HQPM-5 HKI163 × HKI161 Across country
4. HQPM-7 HKI193-1 × HKI161 Karnataka, AP, Telengana, TN & Maharashtra
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
opaque16
opaque16
Lysine: Avg. 50% increaseTryptophan: Avg. 87% increase
0.06
0.25
PyramidingPyramiding opaque2opaque2 andand opaque16opaque16
o2
o2
o2
o2
o2
o2
o2
o2
o2+o16
o2+o16
o2+o16
o2+o16
o2+o16
o2+o16
o2+o16
o2+o16
White QPM hybrids with o2 +o16
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
S. No Hybrid Parentage Area of adaptation
1. HM-5 HKI1344 × HKI1348-6-2 Haryana
2. HM-12 HKI1344 × HKI1378 North Eastern Plain Zone
Donor (o2 + o16) HKI1344 HKI1378 HKI1348-6-2
BC2F2-derived progenies with o2 + o16 are now developed
Variation of carotenoidsVariation of carotenoids
Indian inbreds
CIMMYT-HarvestPlus inbreds
• Indian inbreds are low in β-carotene
• Kernel colour: positively correlated with
lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin
• Not correlated with β-carotene
• Thus kernel colour can not be used as a
criterion for selection of high β-carotene
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Provitamin-AProvitamin-A
enrichment:enrichment:crtRB1crtRB1
Carotenoid biosynthesis pathway
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
S.
No.
Hybrid Maturity
group
Area of
adaptatio
n
Yield
potential
1. Vivek QPM 9 Extra early NHZ, PZ 55 q/ha
2. Vivek Hybrid 27 Extra early
NEPZ, PZ
55 q/ha
3. HM 4 Medium NWPZ 68 q/ha
4. HM 8 Medium PZ 68 q/ha
ProA at harvest
Release of first proA hybrid in
2017
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Pusa Vivek QPM9 Improved: MAS-derived proA maize
Characters APQH9
Provitamin-A (µg/g) 8.15
% tryptophan in protein 0.74
% lysine in protein 2.67
Avg. grain yield-NHZ
(kg/ha)
5588
Potential yield-NHZ (kg/ha) 7968
Avg. grain yield-PZ (kg/ha) 5916
Potential yield-PZ (kg/ha) 9368
Duration (75% dry husk) NHZ: 93
PZ: 83
• Northern Hill Zone (NHZ): J&K, HP, Uttarakhand (Hills) & NEH states
• Peninsular Zone (PZ): Maharashtra, Karnataka, AP, Telengana &TN
Pyramiding ofPyramiding of lcyElcyE andand crtRB1crtRB1 inin
QPM hybridsQPM hybrids
Phytoene synthase
Lycopene cyclase
Carotenoid biosynthesis pathway
S.
No.
Hybrid Parental inbreds Adaptation
1. HQPM-1 HKI193-1 x HKI163 Across the country
2. HQPM-4 HKI193-2 x HKI161 Across the country
3. HQPM-5 HKI163 x HKI161 Across the country
4. HQPM-7 HKI193-1 x HKI161
AP, TN, Telengana,
Karnataka, Maharashtra
QPM hybrids targeted for provitamin-A enrichment
x
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
HQPM-1 HQPM-1-ProA
Provitamin-A: 2.3 ppm Provitamin-A: 9.95 ppm
Three proA version are in National Testing
ICAR-MaizeBiofortificationNetwork
Newly derived proA rich Indian maize germplasm
• ProA among the elite inbreds: 1.2-2.2 ppm,
• New crtRB1-based progenies: mean proA: 15.9 ppm, range: 9.4-21.5 ppm
M F2 individuals
F2 populations (>100 individuals): 10 elite inbreds x HP704-22 (crtRB1 favourable)
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Enrichment of vitamin EEnrichment of vitamin E
• Maize kernel is rich in total tocopherol, γ-tocopherol: ~80%; α-tocopherol: ~20%.
• α-tocopherol possesses higher vitamin E activity.
• In humans, it quenches free radicals and protects PUFA from damage.
• It protects from cardiovascular-, Alzheimer's-, neurological- and age related- disorders.
• 20% people possess suboptimal α-tocopherol – requires urgent attention.
• Favourable VTE4 allele can increase α-tocopherol by 3.2 fold
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
S.
N.
Hybrid Parental inbreds Adaptation Genes targeted
1. HQPM-1-PV HKI193-1 x HKI163 Across the country o2+crtRB1+lcyE+VTE4
2. HQPM-4-PV HKI193-2 x HKI161 Across the country o2+crtRB1+lcyE+VTE4
3. HQPM-5-PV HKI163 x HKI161 Across the country o2+crtRB1+lcyE+VTE4
4. HQPM-7-PV HKI193-1 x HKI161 AP, TN, Kar, Tel, MH o2+crtRB1+lcyE+VTE4
HKI161-VTE HKI163-VTE
Triple-biofortified maize hybridsTriple-biofortified maize hybrids
[QPM+Provitamin-A+vitamin-E][QPM+Provitamin-A+vitamin-E]
Kernel -Fe and -ZnKernel -Fe and -Zn
Kernel –Fe and –Zn:
Governed by polygenes
Effect of environment is too high
30 ppm Fe
5% bioavailability
3.0 ppm
30 ppm Fe +
lpa1/ lpa2 10% bioavailability
3.0 ppm
Direct approach
Indirect approach
lpa1 & lpa2 contains 50-60%
reduced phytic acid
 Reduced phytic acid (lpa) - enhances the bioavailability of -Fe and -Zn
 Increase in Lysine and ProA - enhances the bioavailability of -Fe and -Zn
60 ppm Fe
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Baseline
Target
Phytate biosynthesisPhytate biosynthesis
 lpa mutants in maize: lpa1, lpa2-1, lpa2-2, lpa3, lpa241
 Mutants viz. lpa1 and lpa2-1 used in our programme
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Introgression of lpa allele
S. No. Hybrid Parentage
Maturity
group
Area of adaptation
GY
(t/ha)
1 HQPM-1-PV HKI193-1-PV × HKI163-PV Late NWPZ, NEPZ, CWZ, PZ 6.2
2 HQPM-4-PV HKI193-2-PV × HKI161-PV Late NWPZ, NEPZ, CWZ, PZ 6.0
3 HQPM-5-PV HKI163-PV × HKI161-PV Late NWPZ, NEPZ, CWZ, PZ 5.8
4 HQPM-7-PV HKI193-1-PV × HKI161-PV Late PZ 7.2
5 AQH4 HKI1105Q × HKI323Q Medium NWPZ 6.8
6 AQH8 HKI1105Q × HKI161 Medium PZ 6.8
7 AQH9 HKI1105Q × HKI1128Q Medium NEPZ 6.0
8 AQH10 HKI-193-2 x HKI-1128Q Medium NWPZ, PZ, CWZ 7.2
9 AQH11 HKI1128Q x HKI163 Late NWPZ, NEPZ, CWZ, PZ 5.5
• High phytate causes deficiency in P, Ca, Fe and Zn
• Phosphate is supplemented in the diet - adds to cost
• Phytase is used in diet which is costly - adds to cost
Feed specific maize hybrids!
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Pusa Super Sweet Corn-1 (sh2sh2) [2018]
• Northern Hill Zone (NHZ)
• North Western Plain
Zone (NWPZ)
• North Eastern Plain Zone
(NEPZ)
• Peninsular Zone (PZ)
Characters ASKH-4
% avg. brix 15.9
Avg. green cob yield
(t/ha)
13.0
Avg. dehusked cob
yield (t/ha)
9.3
Potential dehusked
cob yield (t/ha)
10.2
Fodder yield (t/ha) 16.2
Avg. maturity (DAS) 77.6
Biofortification of sweet cornBiofortification of sweet corn
Sweet corn hybrids in AternaSweet corn hybrids in AternaDivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Dehusked cob
yield:
ASKH-1: 10.8 t/ha
ASKH-2: 9.8 t/ha
ASKH-4: 10.2 t/ha
Sweetness in
Kernel:
20-22% brix
ASKH-1 & ASKH-
4 evaluated in
NIVT & AVT-I
ASKH-1
ASKH-4
ASKH-2 ASKH-2
ASKH-1
&
ASKH-4:
AVT-II
(K-2017)
Sweet Corn + ProA + QPMSweet Corn + ProA + QPMDivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
S.
No.
Hybrid Parental inbreds Adaptation Genes targeted
3. HQPM-1 HKI193-1 x HKI163 Across the country sh2+o2+crtRB1+lcyE
4. HQPM-4 HKI193-2 x HKI161 Across the country sh2+o2+crtRB1+lcyE
5. HQPM-5 HKI163 x HKI161 Across the country sh2+o2+crtRB1+lcyE
6. HQPM-7 HKI193-1 x HKI161
AP, TN, Telangana,
Karnataka, Maharashtra
sh2+o2+crtRB1+lcyE
HKI161* HKI163* HKI193-1* HKI193-2*
*BC2F1 cobs:
Homozygous for =
o2+crtRB1+lcyE
sh2sh2 sh2sh2 sh2sh2 sh2sh2
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
543bp
296bp
491bp
373bp
Sweet Corn + ProA + VitESweet Corn + ProA + VitE
crtRB1
VTE4
Biofortified maize hybrids at IARIBiofortified maize hybrids at IARI
S. N. Traits Gene combination
1. QPM opaque2
2. QPM-High AA opaque2 + opaque16
3. ProA crtRB1
4. ProA + QPM opaque2 + crtRB1/lcyE
6. ProA + QPM + VitaminE opaque2 + crtRB1 + lcyE + VTE4
7. ProA /QPM + low phytate opaque2 /crtRB1 + lpa1/lpa2
8. Fe and Zn lpa1/lpa2
9. Sweet corn + ProA + VitaminE shrunken2 + crtRB1 + VTE4
10. Sweet corn + ProA + QPM shrunken2 + crtRB1 + opaque2
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
35 hybrids with one or multiple trait combination available
ICAR-MaizeBiofortificationNetwork
Effects of QPM on ‘Vanaraja’
 Diet  3 week   6 week   9 week
BWG FCR   BWG FCR   BWG FCR
Diet 1 Yellow Maize 205.3 2.023   529.7 2.181ab   909.2 2.361
Diet 2 Vivek Hyb 9 213.0 1.979   586.9 2.202a   956.1 2.404
Diet 3 Pusa VQ9 Improved 210.6 1.980   583.4 2.034c   972.4 2.339
Diet 4 Vivek QPM 9 186.6 2.182   584.8 2.131bc   960.7 2.357
Diet 5 White Maize  191.4 2.096   563.6 2.177ab   962.0 2.252
N 7 7   7 7   7 7
1 2 3 4 5
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
BWG
FCR
500
550
600
650
Diets
BWGFCR (FI/BWG)
1: DPR Maize, 2: Vivek Hyb9, 3: APQH9, 4: Vivek QPM 9, 5: White maize
Effect of feeding different source of maize on
performance in Vanaraja birds during 6 weeks of age
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
QPM Normal
QPM
+
ProA
Normal Normal
VH9 PVQ9I VQ9
Vanaraja
ICAR-MaizeBiofortificationNetwork Effects of biofortified maize on poultryDivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Díaz-Gómez et
al. 2015
Moreno et al. 2016
Bioavailability of proA using in vitro model
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Consumption of 200 g of proA hybrids per day:
•Pusa-PV-16-3: 52% RDA
•Pusa-APQH8: 64% RDA
in adult Indian men after adjusting for cooking losses and conversion
factors.
•Human trial using QPM + ProA maize to be undertaken in 2018-19 by
National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad: Grains of ‘Pusa Vivek
QPM9 Improved’ have been generated in isolation
Biofortification Network-India
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
1. CRP-Biofortification in Maize
for Nutritional Security (5):
IIMR, IARI, VPKAS, HAU &
TNAU
2. CRP on Molecular Breeding
(3): IARI, VPKAS & IIMR
3. DBT-Biofortification Network
(3): IARI, PAU & TNAU
4. Other institution: JNKVV,
ICAR-RC-NEH, HPKV &
PJATSAU/ANGRAU
5. Poultry research: DPR
6. Human nutrition: NIN
India’s National Nutrition Strategy-2017
• Launched on September 5, 2017 by NITI
Aayog
• Four proximate determinants of nutrition:
Nutritional 
Security
Health 
service
Food
Drinking 
water & 
sanitation
Income & 
livelihoods
The Nutrition Strategy framework
envisages a Malnutrition Free India
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
Development + Awareness + Policy = Successful Implementation
Acknowledgements
• ICAR
• Director, IARI, New Delhi
• Director, IIMR, Ludhiana
• Dr. BM Prasanna
• Dr. Sain Dass
• IIMR-Winter Nursery
• CCS-HAU, Uchani Centre
• VPKAS, Almora
• AICRP-Maize Centres
• ICAR-CRP
• DBT & DST, Govt. of India
• CIMMYT-HarvestPlus
• USDA & GAAS
• Drs. Vignesh & Rajkumar
• Collaborators
• Students & Research Fellows
DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI

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Molecular Breeding for Development of Biofortified Maize Hybrids in India

  • 1. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute Molecular Breeding for Development of Biofortified Maize Hybrids in India Firoz Hossain Maize Programme Leader ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
  • 2. Malnutrition: Global status • 2 billion people are malnourished worldwide. • 815 million people are undernourished worldwide. • Children (<5 yrs): 151 million stunted. while 51 million wasted, and 17 million severely wasted. • Malnutrition contributes to loss in 11% GDP in Asia and Africa. Source: Global Nutrition Report-2017 UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group - Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates-2018 DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Stunting WastingOver-weight
  • 3. Fe, Zn & Vitamin-A deficiency Source: www.harvestplus.org Anemia in infants and children Vitamin A deficiency in pre-school children Severity of Zn deficiency DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
  • 4. Loss in GDP due to malnutrition Source: www.harvestplus.org $16 $1 $1 invested in proven nutrition programme offers benefits worth $16 (IFPRI 2016) DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
  • 5. Source: IFPRI, 2016 • Global community committed to a new set of objectives in 2015 • 17 goals anchor the global development agenda till 2030. • Core is to eliminate extreme poverty, hunger, and malnutrition. • 12 of the 17 goal-indicators related to nutrition Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
  • 6. Maize – As a source of livelihood DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Regions Area Production Productivity World 187 mha 1060 mt 5.67 t/ha Asia 63 mha 324mt 5.14 t/ha India 9.5 mha 24.3 mt 2.45 t/ha  Important source of food and nutritional security in the developing world, especially in Africa and Latin America.  Maize together with rice and wheat provides at least 30% of the food calories to more than 4.5 billion people in 94 developing countries.  By 2050, the demand for maize in the developing world will be doubled. FAOSTAT 2016 Utilization of maize in India
  • 7. Journey of maize biofortification in IndiaJourney of maize biofortification in IndiaDivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI 1957 1997 2001 2005 2007 2010 2017 1971 1998 2004 2006 2008 2013 AICRP-Maize Hard o2 Composite (1): Shakti-1 First QPM Hybrid (1): Shaktiman-1 QPM Hybrid (1): HQPM-1 QPM Hybrid (1): HQPM-5 QPM Hybrid (1): HQPM-4 Soft o2 Composites (3): Shakti Rattan Protina 1998 AMBIONET QPM hybrid (1): Shaktiman-2 QPM Hybrids (2): Shaktiman-3, Shaktiman-4 QPM Hybrid (1): HQPM-7 MAS-QPM Hybrid (1): Vivek QPM-9 QPM hybrids (2): Pratap QPM-1, Shaktiman-5 MAS-ProA Hybrid (1): Pusa VQ9 Imp MAS-QPM hybrids (3): Pusa HM4 Imp Pusa HM8 Imp Pusa HM9 Imp 99hybrids : 84 normal, 14 QPM, 1 ProA 94 conventionally bred, 5 MAS-bred
  • 8. DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI • Identified for release for commercial cultivation in zone I & IV; notified in 2008 from CVRC • Released for commercial cultivation by the State Varietal Release Committee of Uttarakhand in 2007 30% lysine 40% tryptophan First MAS-based hybrid released in 2008
  • 9. QPM hybrid released in 2017 DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Pusa HM4 Improved: MAS-based hybrid North Western Plain Zone (NHZ): Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand (Plain), UP (Western region) Characters AQH4 % tryptophan 0.91 % lysine 3.62 Avg. grain yield (kg/ha) 6419 Potential yield (kg/ha) 8568 Duration (75% dry husk) 87
  • 10. DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Peninsular Zone (PZ): Maharashtra, Karnataka, AP, Telangana &TN Characters AQH8 % tryptophan 1.06 % lysine 4.18 Avg. grain yield (kg/ha) 6258 Potential yield (kg/ha) 9261 Duration (75% dry husk) 95 QPM hybrid released in 2017 Pusa HM8 Improved: MAS-based hybrid
  • 11. DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI North Eastern Plain Zone (NEPZ): Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, UP (Eastern region), West Bengal Characters AQH9 % tryptophan 0.68 % lysine 2.97 Avg. grain yield (kg/ha) 5201 Potential yield (kg/ha) 7408 Duration (75% dry husk) 89 QPM hybrid released in 2017 Pusa HM9 Improved: MAS-based hybrid
  • 12. Grain yield in QPM and NormalGrain yield in QPM and Normal hybridshybrids DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI AICRP-2016
  • 13. New mutant:New mutant: opaque16opaque16 DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI • A recessive mutant • Located on chromosome 8 • Gene is not cloned • Not available in Indian germplasm Dr. Wenpeng Yang, GAAS, China 4F1: CIMMYT inbred x Chinese inbred
  • 14. Development of novelDevelopment of novel o16o16o16o16 inbredsinbreds Normal o16o16 F2 populationsx CML533 x o16o16 umc1149 CML533 x o16o16 umc1149 DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI S. No. Pedigree Genotype % Lysine in sample % Tryptophan in sample Range Mean Range Mean 1. CML533 × QCL3024 o16o16 0.111-0.376 0.269 0.027-0.117 0.074 Wild type 0.097-0.197 0.134 0.034-0.055 0.044 2. CML537 × QCL3024 o16o16 0.128-0.317 0.223 0.032-0.108 0.069 Wild type 0.107-0.124 0.117 0.010-0.045 0.026 o16o16 o16o16 o16o16 o16o16
  • 15. Effects ofEffects of opaque16opaque16 DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI o2o2-soft Normal o2o2-modified (QPM) o2o2/o16o16 o16o16 o16o16 Normal o2o2-soft o2o2-modified (QPM) o16o16 o2o2/o16o16
  • 16. S. No Hybrid Parentage Area of adaptation 1. HQPM-1 HKI193-1 × HKI163 Across country 2. HQPM-4 HKI193-2 × HKI161 Across country 3. HQPM-5 HKI163 × HKI161 Across country 4. HQPM-7 HKI193-1 × HKI161 Karnataka, AP, Telengana, TN & Maharashtra DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI opaque16 opaque16 Lysine: Avg. 50% increaseTryptophan: Avg. 87% increase 0.06 0.25 PyramidingPyramiding opaque2opaque2 andand opaque16opaque16 o2 o2 o2 o2 o2 o2 o2 o2 o2+o16 o2+o16 o2+o16 o2+o16 o2+o16 o2+o16 o2+o16 o2+o16
  • 17. White QPM hybrids with o2 +o16 DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI S. No Hybrid Parentage Area of adaptation 1. HM-5 HKI1344 × HKI1348-6-2 Haryana 2. HM-12 HKI1344 × HKI1378 North Eastern Plain Zone Donor (o2 + o16) HKI1344 HKI1378 HKI1348-6-2 BC2F2-derived progenies with o2 + o16 are now developed
  • 18. Variation of carotenoidsVariation of carotenoids Indian inbreds CIMMYT-HarvestPlus inbreds • Indian inbreds are low in β-carotene • Kernel colour: positively correlated with lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin • Not correlated with β-carotene • Thus kernel colour can not be used as a criterion for selection of high β-carotene DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
  • 19. Provitamin-AProvitamin-A enrichment:enrichment:crtRB1crtRB1 Carotenoid biosynthesis pathway DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI S. No. Hybrid Maturity group Area of adaptatio n Yield potential 1. Vivek QPM 9 Extra early NHZ, PZ 55 q/ha 2. Vivek Hybrid 27 Extra early NEPZ, PZ 55 q/ha 3. HM 4 Medium NWPZ 68 q/ha 4. HM 8 Medium PZ 68 q/ha ProA at harvest
  • 20. Release of first proA hybrid in 2017 DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Pusa Vivek QPM9 Improved: MAS-derived proA maize Characters APQH9 Provitamin-A (µg/g) 8.15 % tryptophan in protein 0.74 % lysine in protein 2.67 Avg. grain yield-NHZ (kg/ha) 5588 Potential yield-NHZ (kg/ha) 7968 Avg. grain yield-PZ (kg/ha) 5916 Potential yield-PZ (kg/ha) 9368 Duration (75% dry husk) NHZ: 93 PZ: 83 • Northern Hill Zone (NHZ): J&K, HP, Uttarakhand (Hills) & NEH states • Peninsular Zone (PZ): Maharashtra, Karnataka, AP, Telengana &TN
  • 21. Pyramiding ofPyramiding of lcyElcyE andand crtRB1crtRB1 inin QPM hybridsQPM hybrids Phytoene synthase Lycopene cyclase Carotenoid biosynthesis pathway S. No. Hybrid Parental inbreds Adaptation 1. HQPM-1 HKI193-1 x HKI163 Across the country 2. HQPM-4 HKI193-2 x HKI161 Across the country 3. HQPM-5 HKI163 x HKI161 Across the country 4. HQPM-7 HKI193-1 x HKI161 AP, TN, Telengana, Karnataka, Maharashtra QPM hybrids targeted for provitamin-A enrichment x DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI HQPM-1 HQPM-1-ProA Provitamin-A: 2.3 ppm Provitamin-A: 9.95 ppm Three proA version are in National Testing
  • 22. ICAR-MaizeBiofortificationNetwork Newly derived proA rich Indian maize germplasm • ProA among the elite inbreds: 1.2-2.2 ppm, • New crtRB1-based progenies: mean proA: 15.9 ppm, range: 9.4-21.5 ppm M F2 individuals F2 populations (>100 individuals): 10 elite inbreds x HP704-22 (crtRB1 favourable) DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
  • 23. DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Enrichment of vitamin EEnrichment of vitamin E • Maize kernel is rich in total tocopherol, γ-tocopherol: ~80%; α-tocopherol: ~20%. • α-tocopherol possesses higher vitamin E activity. • In humans, it quenches free radicals and protects PUFA from damage. • It protects from cardiovascular-, Alzheimer's-, neurological- and age related- disorders. • 20% people possess suboptimal α-tocopherol – requires urgent attention. • Favourable VTE4 allele can increase α-tocopherol by 3.2 fold
  • 24. DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI S. N. Hybrid Parental inbreds Adaptation Genes targeted 1. HQPM-1-PV HKI193-1 x HKI163 Across the country o2+crtRB1+lcyE+VTE4 2. HQPM-4-PV HKI193-2 x HKI161 Across the country o2+crtRB1+lcyE+VTE4 3. HQPM-5-PV HKI163 x HKI161 Across the country o2+crtRB1+lcyE+VTE4 4. HQPM-7-PV HKI193-1 x HKI161 AP, TN, Kar, Tel, MH o2+crtRB1+lcyE+VTE4 HKI161-VTE HKI163-VTE Triple-biofortified maize hybridsTriple-biofortified maize hybrids [QPM+Provitamin-A+vitamin-E][QPM+Provitamin-A+vitamin-E]
  • 25. Kernel -Fe and -ZnKernel -Fe and -Zn Kernel –Fe and –Zn: Governed by polygenes Effect of environment is too high 30 ppm Fe 5% bioavailability 3.0 ppm 30 ppm Fe + lpa1/ lpa2 10% bioavailability 3.0 ppm Direct approach Indirect approach lpa1 & lpa2 contains 50-60% reduced phytic acid  Reduced phytic acid (lpa) - enhances the bioavailability of -Fe and -Zn  Increase in Lysine and ProA - enhances the bioavailability of -Fe and -Zn 60 ppm Fe DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Baseline Target
  • 26. Phytate biosynthesisPhytate biosynthesis  lpa mutants in maize: lpa1, lpa2-1, lpa2-2, lpa3, lpa241  Mutants viz. lpa1 and lpa2-1 used in our programme DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
  • 27. Introgression of lpa allele S. No. Hybrid Parentage Maturity group Area of adaptation GY (t/ha) 1 HQPM-1-PV HKI193-1-PV × HKI163-PV Late NWPZ, NEPZ, CWZ, PZ 6.2 2 HQPM-4-PV HKI193-2-PV × HKI161-PV Late NWPZ, NEPZ, CWZ, PZ 6.0 3 HQPM-5-PV HKI163-PV × HKI161-PV Late NWPZ, NEPZ, CWZ, PZ 5.8 4 HQPM-7-PV HKI193-1-PV × HKI161-PV Late PZ 7.2 5 AQH4 HKI1105Q × HKI323Q Medium NWPZ 6.8 6 AQH8 HKI1105Q × HKI161 Medium PZ 6.8 7 AQH9 HKI1105Q × HKI1128Q Medium NEPZ 6.0 8 AQH10 HKI-193-2 x HKI-1128Q Medium NWPZ, PZ, CWZ 7.2 9 AQH11 HKI1128Q x HKI163 Late NWPZ, NEPZ, CWZ, PZ 5.5 • High phytate causes deficiency in P, Ca, Fe and Zn • Phosphate is supplemented in the diet - adds to cost • Phytase is used in diet which is costly - adds to cost Feed specific maize hybrids! DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI
  • 28. DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Pusa Super Sweet Corn-1 (sh2sh2) [2018] • Northern Hill Zone (NHZ) • North Western Plain Zone (NWPZ) • North Eastern Plain Zone (NEPZ) • Peninsular Zone (PZ) Characters ASKH-4 % avg. brix 15.9 Avg. green cob yield (t/ha) 13.0 Avg. dehusked cob yield (t/ha) 9.3 Potential dehusked cob yield (t/ha) 10.2 Fodder yield (t/ha) 16.2 Avg. maturity (DAS) 77.6 Biofortification of sweet cornBiofortification of sweet corn
  • 29. Sweet corn hybrids in AternaSweet corn hybrids in AternaDivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Dehusked cob yield: ASKH-1: 10.8 t/ha ASKH-2: 9.8 t/ha ASKH-4: 10.2 t/ha Sweetness in Kernel: 20-22% brix ASKH-1 & ASKH- 4 evaluated in NIVT & AVT-I ASKH-1 ASKH-4 ASKH-2 ASKH-2 ASKH-1 & ASKH-4: AVT-II (K-2017)
  • 30. Sweet Corn + ProA + QPMSweet Corn + ProA + QPMDivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI S. No. Hybrid Parental inbreds Adaptation Genes targeted 3. HQPM-1 HKI193-1 x HKI163 Across the country sh2+o2+crtRB1+lcyE 4. HQPM-4 HKI193-2 x HKI161 Across the country sh2+o2+crtRB1+lcyE 5. HQPM-5 HKI163 x HKI161 Across the country sh2+o2+crtRB1+lcyE 6. HQPM-7 HKI193-1 x HKI161 AP, TN, Telangana, Karnataka, Maharashtra sh2+o2+crtRB1+lcyE HKI161* HKI163* HKI193-1* HKI193-2* *BC2F1 cobs: Homozygous for = o2+crtRB1+lcyE sh2sh2 sh2sh2 sh2sh2 sh2sh2
  • 31. DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI 543bp 296bp 491bp 373bp Sweet Corn + ProA + VitESweet Corn + ProA + VitE crtRB1 VTE4
  • 32. Biofortified maize hybrids at IARIBiofortified maize hybrids at IARI S. N. Traits Gene combination 1. QPM opaque2 2. QPM-High AA opaque2 + opaque16 3. ProA crtRB1 4. ProA + QPM opaque2 + crtRB1/lcyE 6. ProA + QPM + VitaminE opaque2 + crtRB1 + lcyE + VTE4 7. ProA /QPM + low phytate opaque2 /crtRB1 + lpa1/lpa2 8. Fe and Zn lpa1/lpa2 9. Sweet corn + ProA + VitaminE shrunken2 + crtRB1 + VTE4 10. Sweet corn + ProA + QPM shrunken2 + crtRB1 + opaque2 DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI 35 hybrids with one or multiple trait combination available
  • 33. ICAR-MaizeBiofortificationNetwork Effects of QPM on ‘Vanaraja’  Diet  3 week   6 week   9 week BWG FCR   BWG FCR   BWG FCR Diet 1 Yellow Maize 205.3 2.023   529.7 2.181ab   909.2 2.361 Diet 2 Vivek Hyb 9 213.0 1.979   586.9 2.202a   956.1 2.404 Diet 3 Pusa VQ9 Improved 210.6 1.980   583.4 2.034c   972.4 2.339 Diet 4 Vivek QPM 9 186.6 2.182   584.8 2.131bc   960.7 2.357 Diet 5 White Maize  191.4 2.096   563.6 2.177ab   962.0 2.252 N 7 7   7 7   7 7 1 2 3 4 5 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 BWG FCR 500 550 600 650 Diets BWGFCR (FI/BWG) 1: DPR Maize, 2: Vivek Hyb9, 3: APQH9, 4: Vivek QPM 9, 5: White maize Effect of feeding different source of maize on performance in Vanaraja birds during 6 weeks of age DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI QPM Normal QPM + ProA Normal Normal VH9 PVQ9I VQ9 Vanaraja
  • 34. ICAR-MaizeBiofortificationNetwork Effects of biofortified maize on poultryDivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Díaz-Gómez et al. 2015 Moreno et al. 2016
  • 35. Bioavailability of proA using in vitro model DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Consumption of 200 g of proA hybrids per day: •Pusa-PV-16-3: 52% RDA •Pusa-APQH8: 64% RDA in adult Indian men after adjusting for cooking losses and conversion factors. •Human trial using QPM + ProA maize to be undertaken in 2018-19 by National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad: Grains of ‘Pusa Vivek QPM9 Improved’ have been generated in isolation
  • 36. Biofortification Network-India DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI 1. CRP-Biofortification in Maize for Nutritional Security (5): IIMR, IARI, VPKAS, HAU & TNAU 2. CRP on Molecular Breeding (3): IARI, VPKAS & IIMR 3. DBT-Biofortification Network (3): IARI, PAU & TNAU 4. Other institution: JNKVV, ICAR-RC-NEH, HPKV & PJATSAU/ANGRAU 5. Poultry research: DPR 6. Human nutrition: NIN
  • 37. India’s National Nutrition Strategy-2017 • Launched on September 5, 2017 by NITI Aayog • Four proximate determinants of nutrition: Nutritional  Security Health  service Food Drinking  water &  sanitation Income &  livelihoods The Nutrition Strategy framework envisages a Malnutrition Free India DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI Development + Awareness + Policy = Successful Implementation
  • 38. Acknowledgements • ICAR • Director, IARI, New Delhi • Director, IIMR, Ludhiana • Dr. BM Prasanna • Dr. Sain Dass • IIMR-Winter Nursery • CCS-HAU, Uchani Centre • VPKAS, Almora • AICRP-Maize Centres • ICAR-CRP • DBT & DST, Govt. of India • CIMMYT-HarvestPlus • USDA & GAAS • Drs. Vignesh & Rajkumar • Collaborators • Students & Research Fellows DivisionofGenetics,ICAR-IARI

Editor's Notes

  1. These trait combinations are being used for biofortification in maize in India. The works are financially supported by ICAR, DBT and DST. We received donor gemplasm from CIMMYT, HarvestPlus and USDA.